Prospective comparison of convergence insufficiency and normal binocular children on CIRS symptom surveys. Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group.

Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton 92831, USA.
Optometry and Vision Science (Impact Factor: 1.6). 04/1999; 76(4):221-8.
Source: PubMed


To test the validity-related evidence of a child and a parent symptom survey developed by the Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group.
A case comparison method was used to measure differences in symptoms between 14 school-aged children (ages 8 to 13 years) with Convergence Insufficiency (CI) and 14 children with normal binocular vision (NBV).
A pooled t-test indicated that CI children and their parents scored higher than the NBV children and their parents on the child's survey (p<0.001) and parent's survey (p<0.001), respectively. CI children also scored significantly higher (p<0.03) on the Conners' Rating Scale for Parents.
The results suggest that the CIRS symptom survey is a valid instrument for differentiating CI children from those with normal binocular vision. Additionally, children in this age group were able to respond to a broad range of symptom questions associated with CI.

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    • "Scores on the CISS range from 0 to 60. Two measures of accommodation, Donder's push-up and accommodative facility for the right eye, were also included in the evaluation because of the high association between CI and accommodative anomalies (Borsting, Rouse, Deland, et al., 2003; Rouse et al., 1999; Scheiman & Wick, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated behavioral and emotional characteristics of children with convergence insufficiency (CI), before and after treatment with office-based vergence accommodative therapy (OBVAT). Method: Parents of 44 children ages 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI completed the Conners 3 ADHD Index and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) before and after OBVAT. Pre-treatment scores were compared with normative data and post-treatment scores were compared with baseline using the Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results: Following OBVAT, CI children showed a significant mean improvement (p < .0001, effect size of 0.58) on the Conners 3 ADHD Index with the largest changes occurring in the 23 children who scored the highest at baseline. On the CBCL, anxious/depressed, somatic, and internalizing problems improved significantly (p < .001, effect sizes of -0.36, -1.15, and -0.67, respectively). Conclusion: In an open trial, attention and internalizing problems improved significantly following treatment for CI. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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    • "One of the most significant findings was the high proportion of children with reading difficulties who demonstrated convergence insufficiency (CI) (18.2%) [10]. This is a common binocular vision disorder that frequently underpins a wide range of asthenopic symptoms in both adults and children [11-13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates two different treatment options for convergence insufficiency CI for a group of children with reading difficulties referred by educational institutes to a specialist eye clinic in Vienna. One hundred and thirty four subjects (aged 7-14 years) with reading difficulties were referred from an educational institute in Vienna, Austria for visual assessment. Each child was given either 8Δ base-in reading spectacles (n=51) or computerised home vision therapy (HTS) (n=51). Thirty two participants refused all treatment offered (clinical control group). A full visual assessment including reading speed and accuracy were conducted pre- and post-treatment. Factorial analyses demonstrated statistically significant changes between results obtained for visits 1 and 2 for total reading time, reading error score, amplitude of accommodation and binocular accommodative facility (within subjects effects) (p<0.05). Significant differences were also demonstrated between treatment groups for total reading time, reading error score and binocular accommodative facility (between subjects effects) (p<0.05). Reading difficulties with no apparent intellectual or psychological foundation may be due to a binocular vision anomaly such as convergence insufficiency. Both the HTS and prismatic correction are highly effective treatment options for convergence insufficiency. Prismatic correction can be considered an effective alternative to HTS.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · BMC Ophthalmology
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