Role of the Ets transcription factors in the regulation of the vascular-specific Tie2 gene

New England Baptist Bone and Joint Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 06/1999; 84(10):1177-85. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.84.10.1177
Source: PubMed


The Tie2 gene encodes a vascular endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for normal vascular development and is also upregulated during angiogenesis. The regulatory regions of the Tie2 gene that are required for endothelium-specific gene expression in vivo have been identified. However, the transcription factors required for Tie2 gene expression remain largely unknown. We have identified highly conserved binding sites for Ets transcription factors in the Tie2 promoter. Mutations in 2 particular binding sites lead to a 50% reduction in the endothelium-specific activity of the promoter. We have compared the ability of several members of the Ets family to transactivate the Tie2 promoter. Our results demonstrate that 1 of 3 distinct isoforms of the novel Ets transcription factor NERF, NERF2, is expressed in endothelial cells and can strongly transactivate the regulatory regions of the Tie2 gene in comparison to other Ets factors, which have little or no effect. NERF2 can bind to the Tie2 promoter Ets sites in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. These studies support a role for Ets factors in the regulation of vascular-specific gene expression and suggest that the novel Ets factor NERF2 may be a critical transcription factor in specifying the expression of the Tie2 gene in vascular endothelial cells.

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    • "For example, co-injection of isolated TEMs with glioma tumor cells increased vascular area over those glioma cells injected with Tie2 receptor negative monocytes [23]. On endothelial cells, the expression of the Tie2 receptor is dynamic, increasing during hypoxia through binding of its ligand, ANG2, resulting in stimulation of transcription factors Gata3 and Ets-1 [46], [47]. Our current study demonstrates that CSF1 treatment induces increased pro-angiogenic activity on both human and mouse monocytes when the Tie2 receptor is expressed and that the Tie2 receptor is responsible for this activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1) in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor expression.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "They express most specifically several markers which define their identity. The mechanisms regulating expression of many such markers have been analyzed, such as the VEGF receptor genes flk-1 [1], [2] and flt-1 [3], [4], the junction molecule VE-cadherin [5], [6] or the receptors robo-4 [7], [8], tie-1 [9], [10], and tie-2 [11], [12]. In most cases, specific gene expression is regulated by a set of discrete binding sites for ETS and GATA factors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels arise from existing ones by the budding out of endothelial cell capillaries from the luminal side of blood vessels. Blood vessel formation is essential for organ development during embryogenesis and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing and tumor development. The VE-statin/egfl7 gene is specifically expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic development and in the adult. We studied here the regulatory mechanisms that control this tissue-specific expression. RT-qPCR analyses showed that the specificity of expression of VE-statin/egfl7 in endothelial cells is not shared with its closest neighbor genes notch1 and agpat2 on the mouse chromosome 2. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis of histone modifications at the VE-statin/egfl7 locus showed that the chromatin is specifically opened in endothelial cells, but not in fibroblasts at the transcription start sites. A 13 kb genomic fragment of promoter was cloned and analyzed by gene reporter assays which showed that two conserved regions are important for the specific expression of VE-statin/egfl7 in endothelial cells; a -8409/-7563 enhancer and the -252/+38 region encompassing the exon-1b transcription start site. The latter contains essential GATA and ETS-binding sites, as assessed by linker-scanning analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. An analysis of expression of the ETS and GATA transcription factors showed that Erg, Fli-1 and GATA-2 are the most highly expressed factors in endothelial cells. Erg and GATA-2 directly control the expression of the endogenous VE-statin/egfl7 while Fli-1 probably exerts an indirect control, as assessed by RNA interference and chromatin immunoprecipitation. This first detailed analysis of the mechanisms that govern the expression of the VE-statin/egfl7 gene in endothelial cells pinpoints the specific importance of ETS and GATA factors in the specific regulation of genes in this cell lineage.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The ALK1 specific presence at the endothelial cell surface is tightly involved in the regulation of the TGF-β signalling pathway in balance with other type I TGF-β receptors [35]. The endothelial specific expression may be explained by the presence within the proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 of consensus motifs for transcription factors (Ets, NFκB, Sp1 and KLFs) also shared by other endothelial specific genes such as ENG, PECAM1 (Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1), VEGFR2 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2), CDH5 (Cadherin 5), eNOS/NOS-3, or TIE2 (Tyrosine kinase with Immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2) [30,31,45-49]. In addition, the involvement of distal regulatory regions in the human ACVRL1, such as the one described in mouse that confers arterial endothelium-specificity, can not be excluded [50]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor type I, mainly expressed in endothelial cells that plays a pivotal role in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Mutations in the ALK1 gene (ACVRL1) give rise to Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a dominant autosomal vascular dysplasia caused by a haploinsufficiency mechanism. In spite of its patho-physiological relevance, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Here, we have studied the different origins of ACVRL1 transcription, we have analyzed in silico its 5'-proximal promoter sequence and we have characterized the role of Sp1 in the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. We have performed a 5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'RACE) of ACVRL1 transcripts, finding two new transcriptional origins, upstream of the one previously described, that give rise to a new exon undiscovered to date. The 5'-proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 (-1,035/+210) was analyzed in silico, finding that it lacks TATA/CAAT boxes, but contains a remarkably high number of GC-rich Sp1 consensus sites. In cells lacking Sp1, ACVRL1 promoter reporters did not present any significant transcriptional activity, whereas increasing concentrations of Sp1 triggered a dose-dependent stimulation of its transcription. Moreover, silencing Sp1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a marked decrease of ACVRL1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated multiple Sp1 binding sites along the proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 in endothelial cells. Furthermore, demethylation of CpG islands, led to an increase in ACVRL1 transcription, whereas in vitro hypermethylation resulted in the abolishment of Sp1-dependent transcriptional activation of ACVRL1. Our results describe two new transcriptional start sites in ACVRL1 gene, and indicate that Sp1 is a key regulator of ACVRL1 transcription, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the expression of ACVRL1 gene. Moreover, our data show that the methylation status of CpG islands markedly modulates the Sp1 regulation of ACVRL1 gene transcriptional activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · BMC Molecular Biology
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