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Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in rats

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Abstract

Aqueous extracts of Sambucus nigra and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and hydroalcohol extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus and Hieracium pilosella were tested for their diuretic activities in rats; pharmacological evaluation revealed that they led to an increase in urine flow. Urinary sodium excretion in rats was increased with O. stamineus and S. nigra.

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... Orthosiphon tea is used to remove uric acid stones from the kidney; this tea is known for its diuretic action, and is also useful in treating diabetes and hypertension [6][7][8]. Moreover, it is considered a reputable remedy for urinary disorders, abdominal pain, edema, gout, tonsillitis, rheumatism, and menstrual disorders [9,10]. The German Pharmacopoeia DAB 9 and Commission E of the Federal Health Authority (BGA) have already documented that the plant can be consumed by humans [6,11]. ...
... Moreover, it is considered a reputable remedy for urinary disorders, abdominal pain, edema, gout, tonsillitis, rheumatism, and menstrual disorders [9,10]. The German Pharmacopoeia DAB 9 and Commission E of the Federal Health Authority (BGA) have already documented that the plant can be consumed by humans [6,11]. ...
... Accumulating evidence clearly suggests that the leaves of O. stamineus exhibit dynamic pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and vasodialative [9,12,13]. Interestingly, Yam et al. [14] hypothesized that the hepatoprotective effect of O. stamineus is probably due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Subsequently, Maheswari et al. [15] showed that the methanol extract of O. stamineus leaves exhibited hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats. ...
Article
Orthosiphon aristatus is a traditional folk medicine extensively used in Southeast Asia because of its various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, antitumor, and hypoglycemic activities. Orthosiphon extracts have been found to be cytotoxic to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, which is attributed to their phytochemical content. However, the mechanism of action underlying the cytotoxic effects remains unclear. Hence, the present study investigated the effect of Sinensetin purified from O. aristatus on HCC in vitro. Sinensetin was isolated from O. aristatus leaves and the chemical structure was confirmed by ultra violet (UV)-vis, infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed that 24-h treatment with the purified compound markedly inhibited the survival of HepG2 cells, with IC50 of 39.93 ± 1.10 μg/mL. HepG2 cells treated with the IC50 of Sinensetin showed characteristic morphological changes, as determined by PI and AO/Etbr dual staining, including DNA fragmentation, thus confirming the apoptosis induction. Sinensetin induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and the data were substantiated by flow cytometry. Furthermore, Sinensetin modulated key signaling molecules; anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL was down-regulated, whereas the expressions of tumor suppressors TRAIL and PTEN were up-regulated. We conclude that Sinensetin can be effective against HCC.
... Currently, it has a wide diffusion as a dietary supplement for slimming as well in Europe and South America (Bilia et al., 2007;Hurrell and Puentes, 2013). Preparations of this plant are legally sold under different marketing formats all over the world: for instance, herbal tea for oral use, both in solid or liquid dosages, hydroalcohol extract, tinctures, hard and powdered herbs e.g. in capsules (Beaux et al., 1999;Bilia et al., 2007;Hurrell and Puentes, 2013;Becker et al., 2017;http://www.ema.europa.eu/). According to the therapeutic properties of P. officinarum, a wide array of ailments is treated with this species in traditional medicine. ...
... The number of studies investigating the diuretic activity was restricted to three reports. An in vivo study by Beaux et al. (1999) investigated the diuretic effect of an ethanolic extract of P. officinarum aerial parts after the intra-peritoneal administration of two doses (50 and 200 mg/kg animal) in rats during the following 2-24 h. The negative controls were treated with hypotonic saline solution, while positive controls received hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg). ...
... However, the number of studies is still low and they present some gaps in order to conclude that diuretic activity is well proven. Research on the diuretic capacity of P. officinarum performed by Beaux et al. (1999) related it to the ability of increasing the urine flux. This property seems to be the reason why this species has been also traditionally used to successfully treat different ailments and/or inflammations of the urinary system including prostate and renal ones (Efremov and Shreter, 1996;Redžić, 2007;Popović et al., 2014), to treat obesity, to slim (Hurrell and Puentes, 2013;Becker et al., 2017;de Freitas and de Almeida, 2017) and to resorb ascetic effusions of cardiac origin (Guarino et al., 2008). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Species of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella have been used in folk medicine for centuries in many parts of the world. The most wiedly used species is P. officinarum Vaill., included in the British and French Pharmacopoeias and sold as part of different commercial products. Aim of the study This review critically appraises the state-of-art of ethnopharmacology, specialised metabolites, bioactivities, and toxicity of members of Hieracium and Pilosella. Thus, gaps in scientific knowledge can be identified, also focusing on the development of products with pharmacological applications. Materials and methods Literature data of Hieracium and Pilosella species were mainly retrieved using different electronic databases such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, SciFinder, and PubMed. Other electronic resources included worldwide databases on ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry as well as government reports. Additionally, ancient texts and local information such as PhD and MSc theses, and books were consulted. Results A comprehensive analysis of the above mentioned sources revealed that only 34 out of the about 850 described species within the genera Hieracium and Pilosella have been reported in the context of traditional medicinal and ethnobotanical knowledge. The most often mentioned species is P. officinarum which has been widely used due to its diuretic effects. Other popular uses of Hieracium and Pilosella species include the treatment of skin, gastric, and intestinal diseases as well as respiratory and vascular ailments. Moreover, taxa of the two genera have been used as antiobiotics, antiseptics, antidiabetics, tonics, antiepileptics, antiphlogistics, emetics, wound healing drugs, astringents, haemostatics, and detoxificants. Finally, uses as a wild vegetable, fodder, plant for hunting and for charming rituals have also been mentioned. Phytochemical research revealed a richness in phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Moreover, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, terpenoids, and phytosterols were found in Hieracium and Pilosella. Experimental research conducted to support traditional uses mainly include in vitro tests, while assays based on in vivo models (including humans) are rather limited. Also, the vast majority of the studies did not identify the compounds responsible for the detected bioactivities. These established bioactivities include antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimycotic, antiviral, cytotoxic and antiproliferative, diuretic, gastroprotective, antiepileptic, hypotensive, anti-obesity, arthropodicidal, and skin rejuvenating activities. Finally, limited toxicity studies have been conducted on members of Hieracium and Pilosella. Conclusion Taxa belonging to Hieracium and Pilosella have been confirmed to exert diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects, which is in line with their long traditional use. Moreover, the above mentioned fields of application hint to the most promising routes for the development of new marketable products. Nonetheless, additional data from an in-depth research on bio-active specialised metabolites such as sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, and coumarines, their bioactivities and toxicity, and their biosynthesis are still warranted.
... Multiple studies have demonstrated the antiinflammatory effects of S. nigra (Mascolo et al., 1987;Timoshenko and Cherenkevich, 1995;Yesilada et al., 1997;Haas et al., 1999;Barak et al., 2001;Bobek et al., 2001;Barak et al., 2002;Harokopakis et al., 2006;Thole et al., 2006;Ulbricht et al., 2014). It appears to act as a diuretic (Beaux et al., 1999), and to lower blood pressure (Chrubasik et al., 2008;Hasani-Ranjbar et al., 2009). It may have potential in the reduction of certain genotoxin levels (Cheng et al., 2007) and shows promise in the inhibition of certain cancers (Emig et al., 1995;Thole et al., 2006). ...
... Symptoms of S. nigra misuse are typically limited to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (Lust, 1974;Ulbricht et al., 2014); these issues are all easily avoided by using a properly processed commercial S. nigra extract, syrup, or combination therapy. In theory, high-dose or longterm S. nigra flower use could pose a risk of excessive diuresis (Beaux et al., 1999). In the treatment of acute viral infection, however, neither high-dose nor longterm prescription would typically be recommended. ...
... As S. nigra stimulates cellular glucose uptake and promotes insulin secretion by beta cells, its use would need to be closely monitored alongside other medications in diabetic patients (Gray et al., 2000;Christensen et al., 2009;Christensen et al., 2010;Bhattacharya et al., 2013). Patients on blood pressurelowering medications, diuretics, laxatives, or XO inhibitors would likewise need to be monitored closely with S. nigra usage, as constituents of the plant have the potential to act synergistically with these medications (Beaux et al., 1999;Chrubasik et al., 2008;Hasani-Ranjbar et al., 2009;Picon et al., 2010;Ulbricht et al., 2014). S. nigra has also been implicated as a potential causative agent for gastrointestinal distress or upset and related disorders (Tsui et al., 2001;Grbic et al., 2011;Ulbricht et al., 2014), and possibly dysmenorrhea, migraines, and dorsal muscular pain (Grbic et al., 2011;Ulbricht et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) has a long ethnobotanical history across many disparate cultures as a treatment for viral infection and is currently one of the most-used medicinal plants worldwide. Until recently, however, substantial scientific research concerning its antiviral properties has been lacking. Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements. While the extent of black elder's antiviral effects are not well known, antiviral and antimicrobial properties have been demonstrated in these extracts, and the safety of black elder is reflected by the United States Food and Drug Administration approval as generally recognized as safe. A deficit of studies comparing these S. nigra products and standard antiviral medications makes informed and detailed recommendations for use of S. nigra extracts in medical applications currently impractical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Its health benefits are provided by the compounds comprised in its valuable composition. Recently, the composition of the secondary metabolites in BL has been intensively investigated [24][25][26]. In addition to the aforementioned arbutin, the chemical profile of BL is characterized by the presence of gallic acid, ursolic acid, tannic acid, p-coumaric acid, galloylarbutin, gallotannins, quercetin, kaempferol, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, corilagin, picein, hyperoside, and many other compounds [4,24]. ...
... In addition to the aforementioned arbutin, the chemical profile of BL is characterized by the presence of gallic acid, ursolic acid, tannic acid, p-coumaric acid, galloylarbutin, gallotannins, quercetin, kaempferol, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, corilagin, picein, hyperoside, and many other compounds [4,24]. Uvae ursi folium extracts are remedies for several diseases, e.g., diuresis [25,26], and have been used as skin-whitening factors and antioxidant agents in food packaging [27][28][29]. The main component arbutin is a skin depigmenting agent with antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties [30]. ...
Article
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The bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. has a long history of ethnopharmacological use. This species has been used in folk medicine for centuries as a rich source of raw material abundant in secondary metabolites and is important for medicinal and pharmacological purposes. The plant is a source of herbal material—Uvae ursi folium, which is highly valued and sought by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The studied bearberry leaves can be classified as a suitable herbal material for use in pharmacy; therefore, the investigated populations can be a potentially valuable source of plant material for cultivation and can be used in in vitro cultures and in biotechnological processes. The objective of this study was to characterize the variability of the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of water and ethanol bearberry extracts from raw material collected from different natural populations. In each of the twelve A. uva-ursi sites, three leaf samples were collected and analyzed. The water extracts from bearberry leaves were characterized by similar concentration of arbutin (77.64–105.56 mg g−1) and a significantly higher concentration of hydroquinone (6.96–13.08 mg g−1) and corilagin (0.83–2.12 mg g−1) in comparison with the ethanol extracts −77.21–103.38 mg g−1, 10.55–16.72 mg g−1, 0.20–1.54 mg g−1, respectively. The concentration of other metabolites in the water extracts was significantly lower in comparison with the ethanol extracts. In the case of the water extracts, a significant effect of not only total phenolic compounds, but also hydroquinone on the antioxidant parameters, was observed, which indicates the solvent-related activity of these metabolites. Therefore, it is suggested that special attention should be paid to the concentration of not only arbutin, but also hydroquinone in Uvae ursi folium. The latter metabolite serving a very important function as an active bearberry ingredient should be controlled not only in alcoholic extracts but also in water extracts, since bearberry leaves are applied as infusions and decoctions. The results presented in this paper can contribute to appropriate selection of plant material for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, with special emphasis on the antioxidant activity of different types of extracts.
... Elderflower aqueous extracts also led to diuresis in rats observed from 2-24 hours [158]. Likewise, the intragastric administration of an elderflower infusion (20 mL.kg -1 body weight), or of an extract rich in potassium-and flavonoid of the elderflower extract had a diuretic effect in rats [37]. ...
... So far, only a few studies about the interaction of elderberry or flower's (or their extracts) with drugs have been reported, namely with antidiabetic, analgesic, hypnotic, diuretic and immune-active drugs [6,18,37,185]. The ability of Sambucus flower aqueous polar extracts (phenolic-type extract) to potentiate diuresis in in vivo animal models [37,158], may result in hypokalemia, especially in the case of excessive or prolonged use of any elderflower derived formulation, including tea. Moreover, elderberry and elderflower decoctions administered orally (2 mL.kg -1 ) to rats caused a reduction of the sleep induction time of pentobarbitone and increased sleeping time when compared with rats administered only with pentobarbitone [185]. ...
... Bearberry leaves extracts have shown beneficial effects on diuresis and electrolyte composition of urine (excretion of K + and Na + ) on mice, after administration of 5% water extract of bearberry leaves [56]. The beneficial effects on diuresis of a bearberry extract were also exposed by Beaux et al. [57]. ...
... Anti-microbial activity [46,47] Antioxidant Hepato-protective and neuroprotective effect [45,[47][48][49] Prevention of cataractogenesis [49] Bear berry leaves Antiproliferative Inhibition of human carcinoma cell lines [55] Beneficial effect on diuresis and electrolyte composition [56,57] Anti-microbial activity [58,59] ...
Article
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Some species of the Ericaceae family have been intensively studied because of the beneficial health impact, known since ancient times, of their chemical components. Since most studies focus on the effects of fruit consumption, this review aims to highlight the phenolic components present in the leaves. For this purpose, five species from Ericaceae family (bilberry—Vaccinium myrtillus L., lingonberry—V. vitis-idaea L., bog bilberry—V. uliginosum L., blueberry—V. corymbosum L. and bearberry—Arctostapylos uva-ursi L.) were considered, four of which can be found in spontaneous flora. The chemical composition of the leaves revealed three major phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, quercetin and arbutin. The health promoting functions of these compounds, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that could have preventive effects for cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and obesity, have been exemplified by both in vitro and in vivo studies in this review. Furthermore, the importance of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the phenolic compounds have been summarized. The findings highlight the fact that leaves of some Ericaceae species deserve increased attention and should be studied more profoundly for their biological activities, especially those from spontaneous flora.
... C.Y.Wu (Orthosiphon stamineus) (CS) is widely cultivated in tropical regions and the Pacific regions such as China, India, Malaysia, and Australia. It is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine to treat nephritis, lithangiuria, and cystitis [7,8]. Based on the plenty researches we found CS contains various bioactive components such as flavonoids, diterpenes, and phenols [9] to exhibit the anti-inflammatory [10], analgesic [11], lipid peroxidation inhibiting [12], and free radical scavenging [13] activities, which are in agreement with mainstream therapies of containment of the progress of senescence [14]. ...
... SPF values 0. 9 3.92 ± 0.01 1. 8 7.90 ± 0.02 3. 6 16.21 ± 0.03 The SPF value in CS-H group was 2.05-fold to CS-M and 4.14fold to CS-L group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Clerodendranthus spicatus (Thunb.) C.Y.Wu (CS) is commonly used to treat kidney diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for its prominent anti-inflammatory effect and nourishing function to kidneys. In this study, aqueous extract of CS was assessed for its protective effect on UV-induced skin damage of mice. The chemical compositions of CS aqueous extract were determined by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, in which 10 components were identified. During the experimental period, CS (0.9, 1.8, and 3.6 g/mL) was externally applied to shaved dorsal skins of mice prior to UV irradiation, daily for ten weeks. The results presented that CS (3.6 g/mL) apparently improved photodamaged skin appearance such as erythema, edema, and coarseness. The abnormal epidermal thickening was significantly reduced, and the dermal structures became more complete. The underlying protective mechanisms were associated with improving antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), downregulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-6, TNF- α , COX-2, and PGE 2 ) expressions, recovering collagen density, and reducing matrix metalloproteinases productions. Sun protection factor of CS (3.6 g/mL) was 16.21±0.03 . Our findings for the first time demonstrated that CS had therapeutic effect on the photoaged skin. The results indicated that CS is a potential agent for photoprotective cosmetics.
... Likewise, Beaux et al 18 proven that the diuretic impact of this plant extract helps to prevent the development of the kidney stone via the boost in urine flow which diminish static urine retention in the kidneys and urine bladder. ...
... According to Beaux et al 18 , the rats that had been fed with the Orthosiphon stamineus extract and Sambucus nigra showed increasing sodium excretion in the urine. Hypertension is correlated with high level of salt intake. ...
Article
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Used in several countries to Southeast Asia (particularly in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar) as traditional medicine, Orthosiphon stamineus, which belongs to lamiaceae family, has been extensively studied due to its wide range of medicinal properties. Generally, Orthosiphon stamineus is consumed as an herbal tea. It is believed that Orthosiphon stamineus leaves have diuretic properties and has been used to remove stones from the kidneys. It is also widely applied to cure rheumatism, fever, hepatitis, gallstones, eruptive, hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy and eruptive as well as promoting health and well-being. Moreover, Orthosiphon stamineus is rich in the active chemical compounds such as stereos, oleanolic acid, polyphenols, flavonoids and terpenoids. Polyphenol, which is the most dominant compound in Orthosiphon stamineus leaves, prevents the formation of lipid peroxidation products in the biological system, and has a considerable role in reducing oxidative stress. Furthermore, high amount of flavonoids such as eupatorin (EUP), sinensetin (SEN), rosmarinic acid (RA) and quercetin (Q) was also detected in different tissues of this plant. In this review we attempt to summarize the medical properties of Orthosiphon stamineus with its oxidative compounds.
... Moreover, the obtained results might be ascribed to the high content of flavonoids from these two species, as revealed by LC-MS findings. Additionally, several publications indicate that flavonoids-rich extracts are wellknown herbal diuretic agents having the ability to modulate different physiological processes associated with diuresis [37][38][39]. ...
... Moreover, the obtained results might be ascribed to the high content of flavonoids from these two species, as revealed by LC-MS findings. Additionally, several publications indicate that flavonoids-rich extracts are well-known herbal diuretic agents having the ability to modulate different physiological processes associated with diuresis [37][38][39]. ...
Article
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Romanian traditional medicine describes the use of aerial parts of Fumaria species to treat hepatobiliary diseases as well as diuretic agents. The present study aims to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and diuretic effects of several Fumaria species. LC/MS analysis revealed that Fumaria species contain phenolic acids and high amounts of flavonoids with rutin and isoquercitrin as main compounds. Concerning antioxidant capacity, the most significant results were obtained for F. capreolata and F. vailantii. Both species showed a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and a high amount of flavonoids. Furthermore, the extracts of F. officinalis and F. schleicheri produced a strong increase in urinary volumetric excretion of saline-loaded rats, 24 h after the oral administration of a single dose of 250 mg/kg bw. Moreover, both extracts of F. officinalis and F. schleicheri increased the urinary excretion of Na⁺ and K⁺. Results from the present study offer a new perspective concerning the chemical composition and bioactivities of traditionally used fumitory species.
... The consumption of elder helps in the prevention and therapy for a number of diseases, such as diabetes (Bhattacharya et al., 2013), diuretic and laxative activity (Beaux et al., 1999;Picon et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Introduction: All plant parts of elderberry (leaves, berries, inflorescences, roots, shoots, bark) have a long history of use in herbal remedy or lots of culinary uses, widespread in almost every continent of the world (1). Pro-health properties indicated a role of elderberry products intake in the prevention of cancer and diabetes. Aims: This paper presents an overview of the evaluation of biochemical compounds (sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, antioxidative activity, flavonoids, flavor and volatile compounds), found in flowers, berries and leaves of Sambucus nigra L. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic profiling, spectrophotometric evaluation, DPPH antioxidant assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity. Results: The variability of concentration compounds are found by uniform maturity of each phenophase of elderberry, hence the need varieties improve the quantity and quality of its yield. Elderberry has food industry properties associated with the presence of increased nutritive and decreased caloric value at fruits best correlated with the content of sugars and organic acids of flower, organic acids as a important metabolic pathway of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates. Several studies have confirmed that Sambucus nigra L. is a valuable raw material with many nutrients and bioactive substances, being extraordinarily rich in antioxidants, and the leaves are remarked as easily available source of antioxidant preparations in different domains (food products, pharmaceutics, or cosmetics). Conclusion: A bush of Sambucus nigra L. in the garden is our true handy pharmacy, a food market like as functional ingredient, a spot of color with unmistakable smell.
... Orthosiphon stamienus is one of the promising plants for treatment of various diseases and disorders. O.stamineus was reported for in vitro antioxidant (4,5,6), treatment of renal stones and gout (7,8,9); anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (10), antimicrobial (11,12), hepatoprotective (13,14,15), hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. (16,17) In addition, it is rich in phenolic compounds. ...
Article
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Objective of the study: The present study aims to investigate in vivo antioxidant activity of Orthosiphon stamineus. Plant extracts were prepared using successive solvent extraction process using petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Methods: Type 2 diabetic rats were treated with extracts at the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg for 21 days and tested for changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes, catalase and peroxidase levels. Results: Significant increase in TBARS and conjugated dienes and reduction in catalase and peroxidase were observed. All the extracts could significantly decrease TBARS and conjugated dienes; significantly increase catalse and peroxidase levels. Dose dependent and potent antioxidant effect was observed with ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. The results of this study highlighted the antioxidant potential of O. stamineus and can be useful for protecting oxidative damage of pancreatic cells. Conclusion: The study highlighted that the mechanisms can prevent damage of other organs and is beneficial for prevention of diabetic associated complications.
... The fruit of Sambucus nigra, similarly to flowers, exhibits diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic properties, but apart from that it act as a laxative and detoxifier, hence elderberries are often a component of herbal mixtures used as a remedy for constipation or to help slimming. In addition, elder fruit demonstrates a moderate analgesic effect and can be used as an adjuvant painkiller against migraine, sciatica and neuralgic pains (Beaux, Fleurentin, & Mortier, 1999;Bown, 1995;Grieve, 1984;Ożarowski & Jaroniewski, 1987;Schmersahl, 1964). Not only elder flowers and berries are beneficial to health, but also bark, root, stem and leaves of Sambucus nigra have been used especially by the rural population as medicine or food. ...
Research
European black elderberry naturally occurs in most of Europe and has been introduced into various parts of the world for fruit and flower production. Elderberry is rich in nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fatty acids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins and essential oils. Elderberry also contains cyanogenic glycosides which are potentially toxic. Polyphenols, known for their free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, are the most important group of bioactive compounds present in elderberry in relatively high concentration. The high antioxidant activity of elderberry fruit and flowers is associated with their therapeutic properties. Elderberry has for a long time been used in folk medicine as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In recent years it was also found to have antibacterial, antiviral antidepressant and antitumour and hypoglycemic properties, and to reduce body fat and lipid concentration. Due to its health-promoting and sensory properties, elderberry is used primarily in food and pharmaceutical industry.
... The fruit of Sambucus nigra, similarly to flowers, exhibits diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic properties, but apart from that it act as a laxative and detoxifier, hence elderberries are often a component of herbal mixtures used as a remedy for constipation or to help slimming. In addition, elder fruit demonstrates a moderate analgesic effect and can be used as an adjuvant painkiller against migraine, sciatica and neuralgic pains (Beaux, Fleurentin, & Mortier, 1999;Bown, 1995;Grieve, 1984;Ożarowski & Jaroniewski, 1987;Schmersahl, 1964). Not only elder flowers and berries are beneficial to health, but also bark, root, stem and leaves of Sambucus nigra have been used especially by the rural population as medicine or food. ...
Article
Full-text available
European black elderberry naturally occurs in most of Europe and has been introduced into various parts of the world for fruit and flower production. Elderberry is rich in nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fatty acids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins and essential oils. Elderberry also contains cyanogenic glycosides which are potentially toxic. Polyphenols, known for their free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, are the most important group of bioactive compounds present in elderberry in relatively high concentration. The high antioxidant activity of elderberry fruit and flowers is associated with their therapeutic properties. Elderberry has for a long time been used in folk medicine as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In recent years it was also found to have antibacterial, antiviral antidepressant and antitumour and hypoglycemic properties, and to reduce body fat and lipid concentration. Due to its health-promoting and sensory properties, elderberry is used primarily in food and pharmaceutical industry.
... Elderflowers (Sambuci flos), the flowers of Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae), are widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of respiratory diseases, influenza, inflammation, as a diuretic and for relieving symptoms and conditions related to what we know in modern days as diabetes [3,4]. Chemical and pharmacological investigations have revealed that elderflowers contain a variety of natural products such as flavonoids, tannins, pectins, triterpenoids and phenolic acids, which possess diverse biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic effects [5][6][7][8]. ...
Article
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is manifested by progressive metabolic impairments in tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver, and these tissues become less responsive to insulin, leading to hyperglycemia. In the present study, stimulation of glucose and oleic acid uptake by elderflower extracts, constituents and metabolites were tested in vitro using the HepG2 hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line and human skeletal muscle cells. Among the crude extracts, the 96% EtOH extract showed the highest increase in glucose and oleic acid uptake in human skeletal muscle cells and HepG2-cells. The flavonoids and phenolic acids contained therein were potent stimulators of glucose and fatty acid uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Most of the phenolic constituents and several of the metabolites showed high antioxidant activity and showed considerably higher α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition than acarbose. Elderflower might therefore be valuable as a functional food against diabetes.
... Moreover, it has been scientifically proven that O. stamineus exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, antibacterial, and hepatoprotective activities 17, 18,19 . Literature survey reveals that the seven phenolic compounds namely Guanosine, Tetra o methyl scutellarein, Di alpha tocopherol, Squalene, Stigmasterol, N,n-diacetylurea, Glycerol were responsible for these above activities 20,21 . The aim of the present study is to assess the strength of interactions between these seven compounds and breast cancer target ER alpha, by calculating the minimum binding energy (kcal/mol) between them using insilico docking method. ...
Article
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Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death in women. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically important anticancer agents. Orthosiphon stamineus is one of the traditionally used medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae family, exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this work, the plant compounds were identified from the literature survey and its activity were validated against breast cancer target protein ER α through insilico docking method. Totally seven phenolic compounds were identified and Molecular docking studies were performed against the target protein. The compound structures were taken from PubChem database and the 3-dimensional structures of the proteins were obtained from PDB databank. Molecular docking study was performed and the result revealed that from the seven compounds, two compounds were found to have the best binding affinity greater than -7.5kcal/mol against ER α. Thus, this study concluded that these two compounds may act as good inhibitors and serve as an important lead compound against breast cancer target protein ER α.
... [2][3][4] The leaves of O. stamineus exhibit excellent pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antihypertensive, and vasodilatation. [5][6][7][8] Many pharmacopoeias such as French, Indonesian, Dutch, and Swiss have listed this plant for the treatment related to renal cleansing and function, and related disorders that include nephritis, cystitis, and urethritis. In Europe, people use the leaves of O. stamineus extract as a tonic for kidney and bladder stones, liver and gallbladder problems, and urinary tract infections. ...
Article
Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a valued medicinal plant in traditional folk medicine. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotection, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, cardioactive, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activies. This review is a comprehensive summary of the presently available chemical, pharmacological investigations as well as the traditional and therapeutic uses of this plant. Important and different experimental data have been addressed along with a review of all phytochemicals identified in this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, and essential oils. O. stamineus has wide traditional and pharmacological uses in various pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, it is an attractive subject for further experimental and clinical investigations.
... According to Khonkarn et al. [9], A. uva-ursi is recognized as a plant material rich in phenolic compounds. It has been shown that active substances from the leaves of this plant exhibit strong antibacterial [10], anti-inflammatory [11], antioxidant [12] and diuretic effects [13]. According to EMA [6], A. uva.ursi leaf extract (liquid extract 1:5, ethanol 70%) exhibited antimicrobial activity towards a variety of organisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexeneri. ...
Article
In this study, classical extraction (CE) and subcritical water extraction (SWE) of polyphenolic compounds from A. uva-ursi herbal dust (a by-product of a filter tea factory) were performed. The extraction yields obtained through the application of these two extraction techniques were comparable, but higher a concentration of polyphenolic compounds (total phenols (TP) from 7.3088 to 10.6441 g GAE/100 g, and total flavonoids (TF) from 1.0344 to 1.8638 g CE/100 g) were recovered using SWE during a significantly shorter extraction time. SWE, as the more appropriate extraction technique, was further optimized by simultaneous maximization of total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) yields and antioxidant activity. In order to optimize the SWE process, a Box-Behnken three level three variables experimental design was used. Temperature (T, 120–220 °C), extraction time (t, 10–30 min) and hydrochloride concentration (c, 0–1.5%) were independent variables. The experimentally obtained values were fitted to a second-order polynomial model. Multiple regression analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine model fitness and optimal conditions. The optimal SWE conditions were determined to be a temperature of 151.2 °C, an extraction time of 10 min and an addition of 1.5% HCl. The predicted values of targeted responses under these conditions were: 9.8431 g GAE/100 g, 1.7558 g CE/100 g, 5.02 μg/ml and 27.60 μg/ml for TP, TF, IC50 and EC50, respectively. Results suggested that A. uva-ursi herbal dust could potentially be utilized as raw material for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds, and that SWE instead of CE should be applied for this purpose.
... Neuro-pharmacological activities on mice treated with A. uva-ursi extract showed significant depressive action in comparison to the control group. This response may be contributed by arbutin, methyl arbutin, hydroquinone and galloyl derivative of arbutin or related compounds (Beaux et al., 1999). ...
... Also, elderflower extracts showed a natriuretic effect in rats and increased urine flow. These data show that elderflower can be regarded as a diuretic agent in both traditional medicine and conventional medicine (Beaux et al., 1999). Tea, containing a combination of Pimpinella anisum L. (fruits), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ...
... Diuretic activity: Diuretic activity of O. stamineus hydroalcohol extract from aerial parts was reported. At a dose of 50 mg kgG 1 , this extract showed similar effectivity with hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 10 mg kgG 1 (Beaux et al., 1999). ...
Article
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In the genus Orthosiphon (Lamiaceae), Orthosiphon aristatus, Orthosiphon pallidus, Orthosiphon thymiflorus, Orthosiphon stamineus are widely used in traditional medicine to prevent different diseases such as diabetes, kidney stone, edema, rheumatism, hepatitis, hypertensive and jaundice. A different variety of phytoconstituents has been isolated from the Orthosiphon species which include monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, saponins, organic acid and flavonoids compound. Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, analgesic and nephroprotective activities have been reported in the plant extract and phytoconstituents. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive report about the Orthosiphon genus based on its toxicity in order to identify its therapeutic potential and future prospects for betterment of research.
... Hieracium pilosella, 11 Urtica dioica, 12 and Taraxacum officinale 13 (13) have been shown to exert a diuretic effect, while Vaccinium macrocarpon 14 has been demonstrated to have antiseptic and anti-adhesion activity. As to Lespedeza spp, literature reports highlighted its ability to reduce azotemia in patients with renal failure of various types. ...
Article
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Urolithiasis accounts for 15% to 23% of cases of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), with struvite uroliths occurring more frequently, followed by calcium oxalate, ammonium urate, cystine, and xanthine calculi. In this clinical evaluation, we tested the efficacy of a commercially available nutraceutical diet in 33 cats affected by struvite uroliths. Results clearly indicated a significant urine color, turbidity, pH, RBC, WBC, weight and proteins decrease (***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05), and a significant decrease of struvite uroliths in all treated cats. The nutraceutical diet enriched by botanicals, such as, Hieracium pilosella, Urtica dioica, Lespedeza spp, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Taraxacum officinale formulated with DL-methionine, and a controlled addition of minerals and amino acids resulted particularly effective for struvite uroliths management. This work can pave the way for a new, safe, and long lasting natural approach to treat struvite uroliths.
... Elderberry flowers have diuretic, laxative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Used in infusions, they purportedly relieve allergy symptoms (Beaux et al., 1999;Mascolo et al., 1987;Uncini Manganelli et al., 2005). Berries are used to treat various disorders including colic, sinus congestion, constipation, diarrhea, sore throat, colds (Schapowal, 2007), and rheumatism (Novelli, 2003;Uncini Manganelli et al., 2005). ...
Article
This study contributes to the limited research on elderberry (Sambucus sp.) marketing and consumer preferences by eliciting consumers' familiarity with elderberry products and identifying and profiling market segments for elderberry products. Results of a survey, distributed online to a sample of U.S. consumers, show one-third of respondents to be familiar with elderberry. The most common elderberry products sampled and purchased were juice, jelly, and wine. The consumer sample was divided into current and potential consumer groups. Health conscious and less health-conscious consumer segments were identified within each group, composing four market segments in total. Current elderberry consumers (14% of respondents) are on average younger, more educated, and less price sensitive than potential consumers. They strongly prefer locally produced juices and elderberry juice to other types of juices. For this category of consumers, elderberry juice products can be positioned as novelty products that are perceived to be healthier and more expensive than other comparable products. Including a qualified health claim on the label would reinforce the health benefits of elderberry products and potentially increase less health-conscious consumers' likelihood to purchase them. Market segments comprised of those who have not tried elderberry yet are characterized as appreciating locally produced products but as having greater price sensitivity than current consumers. Elderberry juice products can be introduced to these segments as value healthy products [similar to cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)], emphasizing the health benefits and local origins while maintaining a lower price.
... Beneits provided by this herbal plant indeed attract much attention of researchers worldwide. Researchers revealed O. stamineus exhibits antioxidant, antibacterial as well as anti-inlammatory properties [7][8][9][10] . It is found to be rich of more than 20 phenolic compounds namely rosmarinic acid, 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxylavone, sinensetin and eupatorin. ...
Article
Background/Objectives: Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Labisia pumila are the three herbs listed in Malaysian National Key Economic Areas (NKEA). This study was conducted to determine the herbs extract yields and activities on antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Cold maceration and soxhlet were the extraction methods employed and water, ethanol and 50% ethanol (v/v) were chosen as solvents. Findings: The results showed 50% ethanol (v/v) was the best solvent for all three herbs in terms of extraction yield. For cold maceration, the extract yields were 14.3%, 17.4% and 7.6% for P. niruri, O. stamineus and L. pumila, respectively. Whilst for soxhlet method, the same trend was observed where 50% ethanol (v/v) gave the highest extract yield of 21.2%, 14.3% and 6.8% for P. niruri, O. stamineus and L. pumila, respectively. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also highest using 50% ethanol and soxhlet method for all herbs. Application/Improvements: This shows that the food-grade solvents at a certain concentration are suitable for the best extraction of selected herbs.
... Dimkov (79) indicates that decoction of S. ebulus has diuretic and diaphoretic properties. Also, Beaux et al., (80) report increased excretion of sodium in rats after administration of S. nigra ower extract. According to Walz and Chrubasik (81), S. nigra concentrate can be safely administered to patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis. ...
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Background This manuscript contains the results of Podkarpackie Voivodeship (Poland) ethnomedical studies on the treatment of urinary tract diseases using wild and cultivated plants. The study concerns plants mainly used for the supportive treatment of urinary tract infections, urolithiasis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this present study, we aim to collect and assess the ethnomedicinal potential of plants used in Podkarpackie Voivodeship (Poland) to treat urological diseases. Methods This article is based on interviews with fourteen recognized traditional healers (urban areas) and nine informants (rural areas) living in the south-eastern region of Poland - Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The survey took place between November 2019 and January 2021. For each plant mentioned in herbal remedies, polish name, part used, mode of preparation, and their properties, according to the healers and informants, were recorded. Results For the analysis, 123 species that belong to 43 families were selected. The most common families used to treat urinary diseases in Podkarpackie herbal medicine are the Compositae (18 species), Rosaceae and Apiaceae (11 species in each), Leguminosae (9 species), and Ericaceae (6 species). Of the species listed, Apium graveolens L., Arctium lappa L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Juniperus communis L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, Solidago virgaurea L., Urtica dioica L., and Viola tricolor L. were the most frequently mentioned. Most plants are used in multicomponent blends, which are given in the form of infusions or decoction. The described plants have mainly antiseptic, diuretic, spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusions The results of the research described in this paper indicate that herbal treatment of urinary tract diseases is still used in Poland in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship. It is mainly used by people who do not want to use allopathic medicine, especially antibiotics. They are both inhabitants of large cities and villages. The latter often because of the multi-generational tradition, prefer self-healing.
... [14] These compounds were known chemical inhibitors preventing the growth and aggregation of crystals. [15] In view of the above findings, we thought that there may be direct action of the O. stamineus to already formed stones as a chemolytic agent. [14] Our experimental study was carried out to assess the in vitro effects of O. stamineus (Misai Kucing) water extract as a potential chemolytic agents in urolithiasis. ...
Article
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Background: Orthosiphon stamineus was reported to have diuretic effects in experimental rats, and this leads to inhibition of kidney stones through the abundant levels of minerals and flavonoids in it. This study aimed to determine the in vitro effects of O. stamineus water extract as a potential chemolytic agent in urolithiasis. Materials and methods: In this prospective experiment, a total of 15 stone samples collected from patients who underwent stone extraction were used in each concentration (4 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml, and 1 mg/ml) of the O. stamineus extract and control solution. The effects of pH change in the chemolysis of the stones were assessed using the O. stamineus extract 4 mg/ml under pH 7 and 8. Results: The percentage weight reduction of calcium oxalate stone was highest in the 4 mg/ml concentration. O. stamineus extract 4 mg/ml showed a better effect in terms of chemolytic action on calcium oxalate stone than the potassium citrate solution (70% vs. 41%). Regarding the calcium oxalate stone, the percentage weight reduction has shown about 70% in the pH 5, 48% in pH 7, and <10% in pH 8. The percentage weight reduction of uric acid stone was determined as 47%, 11%, and 14% for pH 5, 7, and 8, respectively. The percentage weight reduction of combination stone was 40%, 60%, and 80% in the pH 5, pH 7, and pH 8, respectively. Data analysis showed that the percentage weight reduction of combination stone was significantly different between acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions (P = 0.027). Conclusions: In this in vitro study, we are able to show that O. stamineus water extract do have some dissolving capability of urinary stones.
... It should be noted that such changes were accompanied by a marked increase in diuresis in female Wistar rats. At the same time, it is important to understand that the bearberry extracts do not for practical purposes affect the excretion of electrolytes in the urine (there was a slight increase in the elimination of ionized sodium) (36). It is also and statistically significant differences were found versus the placebo group (23%) (38). ...
Article
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Although many plants have been known to man for centuries scientifically obtained data about their chemical content and pharmacological activity are often still lacking. Through the ages errors about plants used in different countries officially as medicinal plants have been introduced and when included in complex pharmaceutical formulations may become unsafe. One of these medicinal plants is the bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng. from the family Ericaceae). The leaves of this plant and in rare cases the stems are used for the treatment of urinary tract diseases. The aim of this review was to examine available data about main medicinal usage of the bearberry leaves as a source of biological active substances from different groups. Another important task is connected with unification of methods for quality control of bearberry leaves. The botanical classification of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng. and its subspecies also require further study. At present, all subspecies of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng. refer only to this species. Therefore analyzing the plant material quantitatively and qualitatively has been difficult.
... Elderflowers have reported use in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammations, joint pains, skin disorders, diuretic, colds, fever and other respiratory disturbances (Blumenthal, Goldberg, & Brinckmann, 2000;EMA, 2008;Weiss & Fintelmann, 2000). Pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunomodulation, antiinflammatory, antioxidative, effect on blood glucose and diuretic effect have been reported for elderflowers and have mainly been related to the flavonoid content (Beaux, Fleurentin, & Mortier, 1999;Bhattacharya et al., Abbreviations: AG-I, arabinogalactan type I; AG-II, arabinogalactan type II; AH, acid hydrolysis; Ara, arabinose; EH, ester hydrolysis; EtOH, ethanol; Gal, galactose; GalA, galacturonic acid; Glc, glucose; GlcA, glucuronic acid; KDO, 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; Man, mannose; Mw, molecular weight; RG-I, rhamnogalacturonan type I; RG-II, rhamnogalacturonan type II; Rha, rhamnose; XG, xylogalacturonan; Xyl, xylose. ...
Article
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Elderflowers have traditionally been used and are still used for its anti-inflammatory property. Traditionally elderflowers were used as remedies against cold, flu and diuretic. The aim of this study was to relate the structure of pectic-polysaccharides from elderflowers to immunomodulating properties. Purified fractions obtained by gelfiltration and ion exchange chromatography of 50% ethanol, 50°C water and 100°C water extracts exhibited strong complement fixating activity and macrophage stimulating activity. Reduced bioactivity was observed after removal of arabinose and 1,3,6-Gal linkages by weak acid hydrolysis. Enhanced bioactivity was observed after removal of estergroups by NaOH. Relating linkage analysis to the results of the bioactivity tests, led to the assumption that the branched moieties of the arabinogalactans linked to rhamnogalacturonan region, is important for the immunomodulating activity seen in elderflowers. No cytotoxity was observed.
... In recent decades, many studies have shown that bearberry leaf extracts have strong antibacterial activity against bacterial strains that cause urinary tract infections [34]. They are remedies for several diseases, including diuresis [35,36] and have antiproliferative effects against human carcinoma cell lines [37]. ...
Article
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The bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Spreng.) is a source of herbal material—bearberry leaf (Uvae ursi folium), which is highly valued and sought by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For many years, leaves of this plant have been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agent for various diseases of the urogenital tract. The bearberry has also been proposed as a natural antioxidant additive due to the high contents of phenolic compounds in its leaves. The study was focused on characterization of the basic phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of extracts derived from bearberry leaves collected from plants located at the southern border of the geographical range of the species in Europe. The investigated herbal material is characterized by a different chemical profile compared to the chemical profiles of bearberry found in other parts of the continent. Bearberry extracts from plants growing in two different habitat types—heathlands and pine forests showed a wide range of variation, especially in the concentration of hyperoside, corilagin, and methylartutin and the total flavonoid contents. In addition to arbutin, bearberry can be a valuable source of phenolic compounds, which are mainly responsible for the antioxidant properties of extracts. The high content of phenols and high values of antioxidant parameters indicate a high potential of bearberry leaves to be used as a powerful natural source of antioxidants in herbal preparations. Therefore, the A. uva-ursi populations can be a source of plant material for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.
... Diuretic activity: Diuretic activity of O. stamineus hydroalcohol extract from aerial parts was reported. At a dose of 50 mg kgG 1 , this extract showed similar effectivity with hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 10 mg kgG 1 (Beaux et al., 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the genus Orthosiphon (Lamiaceae), Orthosiphon aristatus, Orthosiphon pallidus, Orthosiphon thymiflorus, Orthosiphon stamineus are widely used in traditional medicine to prevent different diseases such as diabetes, kidney stone, edema, rheumatism, hepatitis, hypertensive and jaundice. A different variety of phytoconstituents has been isolated from the Orthosiphon species which include monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, saponins, organic acid and flavonoids compound. Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, analgesic and nephroprotective activities have been reported in the plant extract and phytoconstituents. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive report about the Orthosiphon genus based on its toxicity in order to identify its therapeutic potential and future prospects for betterment of research.
... Pancreatic cells treated with the elderflower extract showed a dosedependent stimulatory effect on insulin secretion [8]. Elderflower infusion also exerted a diuretic effect in experimental animal that was even superior to the one observed with theophylline (5 mg/kg body weight) [9,10]. ...
Article
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Sambucus nigra flowers (elderflower) have been widely used in traditional medicine for the relief of early symptoms of common cold. Its chemical composition mainly consists of polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and triterpenes. Although the antioxidant properties of polyphenols are well known, the aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant and protective potentials of Sambucus nigra flowers in the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line using different in vitro approaches. The antioxidant capacity is first evaluated by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) methods. Cell viability is assessed by the crystal violet method; furthermore, the intracellular ROS formation (DCFH-DA method) is determined, together with the effect on the cell antioxidant defenses: reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities (GPx, GR). On the other hand, mTORC1 hyperactivation and autophagy blockage have been associated with an increase in the formation of protein aggregates, this promoting the transference and expansion of neurodegenerative diseases. Then, the ability of Sambucus nigra flowers in the regulation of mTORC1 signaling activity and the reduction in oxidative stress through the activation of autophagy/mitophagy flux is also examined. In this regard, search for different molecules with a potential inhibitory effect on mTORC1 activation could have multiple positive effects either in the molecular pathogenic events and/or in the progression of several diseases including neurodegenerative ones.
... In many European countries, O. aristatus is consumed as a herbal tea to promote health due to its high antioxidant properties [8]. Japan uses O .aristatus as an essential ingredient in health teas [9][10][11]. ...
Article
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Objective: The research aimed to provide new information regarding the secondary metabolites content of purple and white-purple Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. callus, which can then be used as a basis for developing towards cell suspension and ultimately producing secondary metabolites using bioreactors. Methods: Callus induction of two varieties of O. aristatus were performed by inoculating sterile leaf explants grown on Murashige and Skoog basal media supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetis acid 0.4 ppm. The secondary metabolites were analysed and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution. Results: The results showed the growth of callus two varieties of O. aristatus in growth media MS with 2,4-D 0.4 ppm. Rosmarinic acid content in the acetone extract of the purple variety callus was 1.28% w/w, and the white-purple variety was 2.22% w/w. Conclusion: This study could form the basis for the development of rosmarinic acid production by In vitro culture modification.
... The consumption of elderberry helps to prevent and therapy for many diseases, like diabetes, obesity, immune system stimulation, antibacterial and antifungal activity, antitumor activity, diuretic and laxative activity, protection against UV radiation [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
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Objective: The goal of this study was paying attention on the chemical characterization of phytochemical compounds and their antioxidant activity of Sambucus nigra L. Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed by Sambucus nigra L fruit extract. Total Phenol and Flavonoids content of elderberry fruit extract also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Antibacterial activity was performed by disk diffusion method and Antioxidant capacity was investigated by DPPH assay, butylhydroxytoluene used as a standard. Results: The richest anthocyanin in elderberry fruits was cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside. The antioxidant capacity obtained for elderberry extract proved that elderberry shown highest antioxidant activity, being the richest anthocyanins. The antioxidant capacity of elderberry fruit methanolic extract was recorded 62.56±1.12 percentages of scavenging activity. We also investigated antibacterial activity against four species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. There E. coli was recorded 12.0 mm and Pseudomonas putida was recorded 0.34 mm zone of inhibition. Conclusion: The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nisgra fruit extract has very high antioxidant activity which makes it recommendable for food industry and dietary supplement.
... Orthosiphon aristatus is widely employed in traditional medicine as a diuretic (Beaux et al., 1999;Adam et al., 2009) and to treat hypertension Manshor et al., 2013), rheumatism, tonsillitis, gout, menstrual disorder and diabetes (Adam et al., 2009;Mohamed et al., 2012). The leaves of O. aristatus have been shown to exhibit excellent pharmacological activities such as antioxidant (Awale et al., 2003), antibacterial (Ho et al., 2014), hepatoprotective (Yam et al., 2007), anti-inflammatory (Hsu et al., 2010), cytotoxic (Yam et al., 2007), antihypertensive (Azizan et al., 2012) and gastroprotective (Yam et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Sinensetin, a plant-derived polymethoxylated flavonoid found in Orthosiphon aristatus var. aristatus and several citrus fruits, has been found to possess strong anticancer activities and a variety of other pharmacological benefits and promising potency in intended activities with minimal toxicity. This review aims to compile an up-to-date reports of published scientific information on sinensetin pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action and toxicity. The present findings about the compound are critically analyzed and its prospect as a lead molecule for drug discovery is highlighted. The databases employed for data collection are mainly through Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. In-vitro and in-vivo studies showed that sinensetin possessed strong anticancer activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, anti-dementia and vasorelaxant activities. The studies provided some insights on its several mechanisms of action in cancer and other disease states. However, more detail mechanistic studies are needed to understand its pharmacological effects. More in vivo studies in various animal models including toxicity, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and bioavailability studies are required to assess its efficacy and safety before submission to clinical studies. In this review, an insight on sinensetin pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action serves as a useful resource for a more thorough and comprehensive understanding of sinensetin as a potential lead candidate for drug discovery.
... [9, 10, 11, 12, and 13]. Phytochemical studies [14,15] and Pharmacological studies [16,17] of this plant have been conducted since many years. However, there are no reports of antidiabetic activity of O.stamineus in type 2 diabetic rats. ...
Article
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Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate ethanolic extract of Roots of Orhtosiphon stamineus for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In short-term study, STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats were administered with single administration of various doses of methanolic extract (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) and changes in blood glucose levels is evaluated. In long-term study, STZ induced type-2 diabetic rats were treated for four weeks with various doses of methanolic extract (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg). Blood glucose levels reduction was monitored at weekly intervals. At the end of the experiment, changes in insulin levels, Glucose-6-phosphatase, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen were evaluated. For both the studies glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) is used as standard drug for comparison. Results: Significant reduction in blood glucose levels (p<0.01) was observed with all the doses after 2 h of single dose administration and the effect was dose dependent. Significant reduction in blood glucose levels and dose dependent effect was observed in long-term study. Significant changes in insulin levels were not observed after four weeks of treatment with extract. O. stamineus has shown significant reduction in glucose-6-phosphatase and significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen levels. Conclusion: Results showed that O. stamineus extract possessed significant antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetic rats which is due to attenuation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen storage and reduced glucose-6-phosphatase which rationalizes its promising use for treatment of diabetes in future.
... Shepherd contains various organic acids, flavanol glycosides and anthocyanins [83,84]. The anthocyanins present in shepherd showed protective effects against influenza A and B virus and Helicobacter pylori infections [85][86][87], and work has been published about shepherd's antifungal, antitumour [88][89][90][91][92][93][94] and antimicrobial properties [95]. The main compounds responsible for shepherd's antimicrobial properties are polyphenols; extracts of shepherd possess antibacterial activity against E. coli and Pseudomonas pudita, however inhibition of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus was not established in the literature. ...
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This study aims to develop nutraceutical beverages containing food processing by-products in their formulation, and determine the opinion of consumers. This is done by testing whether they know that the main ingredients of the product are by-products, performing an overall acceptability test of the developed beverages, and evaluating the emotions induced by the newly developed beverages for consumers. The main ingredients used for the preparation of added-value beverages were fermented milk permeate (containing galactooligosaccharides), extruded and fermented wheat bran (WB) (containing ≥6.0 log10 CFU g−1 viable antimicrobial properties showing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains), and different fruit/berry by-products (FBB) (as a source of compounds showing antioxidant properties). The definition of the quantities of bioactive ingredients was based on the overall acceptability of the prepared beverages, as well as on emotions induced in consumers by the tested beverages. Functional properties of the developed beverages were proofed by the evaluation of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, as well as viable LAB count during storage. Desirable changes in extruded and fermented WB were obtained: Fermentation reduced sugar concentration and pH in samples with predominant lactic acid isomer L(+). In addition, the viable LAB count in the substrate was higher than 6.0 log10 CFU g−1, and no enterobacteria remained. By comparing the overall acceptability of the beverages enriched with WB, the highest overall acceptability was shown for the samples prepared with 10 g of the extruded and fermented WB (7.9 points). FBB showed desirable antimicrobial activity: Shepherd inhibited—2, sea buckthorn—3, blueberries—5, and raspberries—7 pathogens from the 10 tested. Comparing different beverage groups prepared with different types of FBB, in most cases (except sea buckthorn), by increasing FBB content the beverages overall acceptability was increased, and the highest score (on average, 9.5 points) was obtained for the samples prepared with 5.0 and 7.5 g of blueberries FBB. Moreover, a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.8525) was found between overall acceptability and emotion “happy” induced in consumers by the prepared beverages enriched with extruded and fermented WB and FBB. By comparing the samples prepared with the addition of WB with samples prepared with WB and FBB, it was observed that most FBB increased total phenolic compounds (TPC) content (on average, by 9.0%), except in the case of samples prepared with sea buckthorn. A very high positive correlation (r = 0.9919) was established between TPC and antioxidant activity. Finally, it can be stated that the newly developed nutraceutical beverages were acceptable for consumers, induced positive emotions, and possessed desirable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, while being prepared in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner.
... Traditionally, O. aristatus is used for alleviating kidney and urinary bladder-related diseases due to its diuretic activity [3,12,26]. This plant contains a high amount of Orthosiphonin glycosides and potassium, which could dissolve uric acid, phosphate, and oxalate from the body, thus prevent the formation of stones. ...
Article
Orthosiphon aristatus is a herbal and ornamental herb from Lamiaceae family that has long been used as a diuretic for alleviating uric acid disease, gallbladder and kidney stone. Conventional propagation of this plant by stem cutting method faces major challenges notably due to the defect in roots formation, while the demand for this plant is high. This research aimed to establish a protocol for optimal micropropagation of O. aristatus through indirect and direct organogenesis method. Calli induction on MS agar medium supplemented with 2,4-D 0.5 mg L-1 and kinetin 0.3 mg L-1 resulted in 4.32 ± 1.49 g fresh weight of calli. Regeneration of shoots was successfully achieved on MS with 2 mg L-1 BAP with 47 shoots from a single clump of calli. MS0 medium was found to be the best in inducing roots formation. Meanwhile, multiplication through direct organogenesis was optimally performed on MS supplemented with 2 mg L-1 BAP with 9.00 ± 4.42 new shoots produced in 8 weeks after cultured. In conclusion, optimal multiplication shoots of O. aristatus has been achieved through callus formation and direct organogenesis.
... Orthosiphon stamienus is one of the promising plants for treatment of various diseases and disorders. O.stamineus was reported for in vitro antioxidant (4,5,6), treatment of renal stones and gout (7,8,9); anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (10), antimicrobial (11,12), hepatoprotective (13,14,15), hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. (16,17) In addition, it is rich in phenolic compounds. ...
Article
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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease. Continued allopathic treatment with various antibiotics may cause side effects. It is also known that the bacteria causing infection can develop resistance to the existing antibiotics that have been prescribed, if the medication is used for a long time. These issues have led to a continuous exploration of different modes of treatment and alternate therapies. Herbs have a long history and proven to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections. This review article is about some commonly accepted herbs like Vaccinium macrocarpon [Cranberry], Hydrastis Canadensis [Goldenseal], Agathosma betulina [Buchu], Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [Bearberry], Echinaceae purpurea[Cone flower] and Equisetum arvense [Horse tail] that have been clinically proven for urinary tract infection cure as well as bladder infection treatment.
Article
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, asthma, and cancer. An appropriate diet and the active compounds contained in it can affect various stages of the inflammatory process and significantly affect the course of inflammatory diseases. Recent reports indicate that polyphenolic acids, vitamins, minerals, and other components of fruits may exhibit activity stimulating an anti-inflammatory response, which may be of importance in maintaining health and reducing the risk of disease. The article presents the latest data on the chemical composition of fruits and the health benefits arising from their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of fruits determines their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood.
Chapter
Hypertension, usually defined as persistent blood pressure (BP) at 140/90 mmHg or higher, affects about a quarter of the adult population in many countries and particularly in industrialized societies. Hypertension is a risk factor for most, if not all, cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, thoracic and abdominal aneurysms, heart failure, and stroke) and renal failure. Hypertension is also associated with cognitive dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, and loss of vision. The higher the pressure is, the greater is the risk of complications [1].
Chapter
It is commonly believed that a calorie is a calorie. Consequently, many believe that weight management is simply a problem of balancing caloric intake with energy expenditure. However, this is not always the case. Weight management involves a proper mix of dietary influences and exercise regimens. Many individuals who work out are trying to gain muscle weight to improve their physique, increase strength, enhance performance, or slow the aging process. While gaining weight is too easy for many of us, some athletes have difficulty gaining weight or maintaining it throughout a competitive season. Additionally, it is much harder to gain the right type of weight (i.e., muscle). Also, many athletes and recreationalists would like to lose fat weight safely and healthily. This leads many athletes to consume too many or too few calories based on their needs. Thus, weight management includes an understanding of key concepts, macronutrient composition, and nutritional supplements.
Chapter
In the 1990s we published Ethnoveterinary Medicine (EVM) research in veterinary journals for the first time. Many of the plants used were either considered weeds or were not considered at all. The lack of scientific research on the plants being published resulted in Dr. Duke’s Ethnobotanical database being utilised to fill in the scientific gaps. This chapter reports on the plants used for urinary and other problems in pets. Cushings /hyperadrenocorticism was treated with ginkgo leaf (Ginkgo biloba). Benign prostatic hyperplasia in dogs was treated with saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit. Aphanes arvensis, Hydrangea arborescens and Urtica dioica were used as kidney tonics. The understudied plants parsley-piert (Aphanes arvensis) and Hydrangea arborescens were evaluated using Dr. Duke’s ethnobotanical database.
Chapter
American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is a common fruiting shrub native to much of Eastern North America. While the fruit and flowers have been used for eons as food and medicine by both early and contemporary North Americans, its use is seeing a resurgence. This has resulted in a renewed interest in horticultural development and cultivation of elderberry, with numerous new products developed especially in the form of dietary supplements. Recent scientific research continues to underscore the health-benefitting attributes of both elderberry fruit and flowers, and is further fueling the development of a significant elderberry value chain from production, to processing, marketing, and consumption.
Thesis
In recent years, the scientific community has seen an increasing interest in the use of natural compounds in medicines, food supplements, cosmetics and dermatological products. An important example is Sambucus nigra L. whose flowers (elderflowers) and berries (elderberries) have been widely used in traditional medicine. The traditional use of elderflowers in the relief of early symptoms of common cold has been officially recognised by the European Union, where several products in the form of herbal tea, tincture or liquid extract, are available on the market. Elderberries have also been traditionally used in the form of herbal tea, syrup or juice. Nevertheless, no single herbal substance/herbal preparation is registered as medicine. In line with the need for comprehensive pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of S. nigra, namely its anti-inflammatory activity, one of the aims of this PhD thesis was to screen and characterize biological activities of S. nigra L. extracts obtained using different extraction methodologies. Then, to optimize the biological activity of the best extract (i.e. with high interest for therapeutic uses), different extract-loaded nanocarriers were prepared. Different materials were applied in this task such as polymeric and lipid-based materials. In this specific context, the purpose of using nanotechnology as strategy was to increase the stability of bioactive compounds and to modulate their release, creating a potential topical formulation. Due to the harvesting time of elderflowers and elderberries, in a first part of this PhD thesis, initial nanoencapsulation studies were performed using hyaluronic acid as model drug. Hyaluronic acid is commonly used through intraarticular administration for viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis and other inflammation disorders. Therefore, the first studies consisted of producing an characterising polymeric nanoparticles made of poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were prepared with and without hyaluronic acid. The inclusion of hyaluronic acid was achieved with an efficiency higher than 70%, but resulted in a marked particle size increase. Particles revealed an in vitro sustained release profile and in vitro cell compatibility, as well as a risk of haemolysis less than 1%, ensuring their safety. In vivo antiinflammatory studies showed a higher inhibition for hyaluronic acid-loaded PLGA particles when compared to hyaluronic acid suspension (78% versus 60%). Results were not so different from the positive control, clearly suggesting that this formulation may be a promising alternative to the current hyaluronic acid injectable dosage form. Having characterised the intended particulate carrier, different extraction methods were studied to obtain the S. nigra extracts from elderflowers and elderberries. For this purpose, fresh flowers, and fresh and dried berries were considered, resulting in eighteen S. nigra extracts. Several parameters were considered for selecting the extraction method, i.e. yield of extraction, type of solvent, flavonoid content and biological activity of the resultant extracts (antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, collagenase, elastase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition). The most promising extracts were characterized for in vitro and in vivo antiinflammatory activity and cytotoxicity (skin and monocytic cells). The most promising extracts were those obtained from fresh flowers using ultrasounds method with methanol. Specifically, these extracts showed results similar to positive controls, particularly the antioxidant activity (75 ± 2%), collagenase inhibition (94 ± 1%) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (97 ± 3%). Nevertheless, extracts of fresh flowers using ultrasounds/ethanol presented higher collagenase inhibition (88 ± 3%) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (102 ± 2%). Cytotoxicity testing confirmed their safety. The second aim of the present PhD thesis was to optimize the activity of the resultant methanolic extracts through encapsulation in different types of nanocarriers: polymeric nanoparticles based on PLGA and poly-Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) and lipid-based nanoparticles (ethosomes). The so obtained nanoparticulate formulations were analysed in terms of particle size and morphology, physicochemical stability over the time, extract encapsulation efficiency, release profile and biological activities (e.g., anti-inflammatory activity, collagenase inhibition, antioxidant activity). Small and well-defined polymeric nanoparticles and ethosomes were prepared. The highest encapsulation efficiency (76%) was found in PLGA nanoparticles. The same happened for the anti-inflammatory activity (60.7 ± 9.0%). On the other hand, ethosomes presented a very promising value of collagenase inhibition. At the end, this thesis validates and supports the scientific evidence of potential uses of S. nigra as a therapeutic agent, in the case of polymeric nanoparticles, or as cosmetic ingredient, in the case of ethosomes. However, further studies should be carried out, hopefully attracting interest from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Sambucus nigra L. is a plant of European origin and popularly known as elder, elderberry, black elder, European elder, European elderberry, and European black elderberry, being described in pharmacopoeia of several countries. Its flowers and berries have been used in folk medicine to treat feverish conditions, coughing, nasal congestion, and influenza besides its popular use as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic agent. Aim of the study: The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and the relaxant effect of the lyophilized aqueous extract obtained from S. nigra's flowers on in vivo and in vitro inflammation assays and on the isolated rat vascular and airway smooth muscle tissue. Material and methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation model in the subcutaneous tissue of male Swiss mice orally treated with S. nigra extract (30, 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg). Leukocyte influx and the secretion of chemical mediators were quantified in the inflamed exudate. Additionally, histological analysis of the pouches was performed. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL1 and NO production, and adhesion molecule expression (CD62L, CD49d and CD18, flow cytometry) were analyzed in vitro using oyster glycogen-recruited peritoneal neutrophils or macrophages (RAW 264.7) previously treated with the extract (1, 10 or 100 μg/mL). The resolution of inflammation was accessed by efferocytosis assay, and the antinociceptive activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Finally, the effect of the extract was evaluated in isolated rat aorta and trachea rings. Results: The oral treatment with S. nigra promoted reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as the decrease of TNF, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with S. nigra decreased NO2-, TNF, IL-1β and IL-6 and promoted increase of IL-10 in LPS-stimulated neutrophils. Similarly, the extract reduced the NO2-, TNF and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Rutin, the major constituent of S. nigra extract reduced NO2-, TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6 and promoted the increase of IL-10 in LPS-stimulated neutrophils supernatant. The extract also shed CD62L and CD18 expressions. The extract was able to increase the efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by increasing the IL-10 and decreasing the TNF levels. Additionally, the extract reduced the hypersensitivity induced by carrageenan and promoted a relaxant effect in isolated vascular and non-vascular rat tissue. Conclusions: S. nigra flowers extract presents anti-inflammatory effect by modulating macrophage and neutrophil functions including the production of inflammatory mediators and cell migration, by promoting efferocytosis and consequently the resolution of acute inflammation, besides exerting antinociceptive effects, scientifically proving its popular use as medicinal plant. Allied to the relaxant effect in both vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle tissue, S. nigra extract represents an important tool for the management of acute inflammation.
Article
Comparative phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of leaves and shoots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. and endemic of Transcaucasia and North Caucasia Arctostaphylos caucasica Lipsch. was carried out. Phenolic compounds in methanol extracts were investigated by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. Pharmacological investigation was carried out at the models of generation of superoxide, DPPH, hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals. The antityrosinase properties were evaluated in the reaction of tyrosinase inhibition using L -tyrosine as a substrate. Five new compounds were identified in the shoots and leaves of A. uva-ursi: 4,6-di-О-galloylglucose; 2,3-di-О-galloylglucose; 1,4,6-tri-О-galloylglucose; 1,2,4,6-tetra-О-galloylglucose; tetra-О-galloylhexose. Thirty-five phenolic compounds and two saponins were identified for the first time in A. caucasica. Water-alcohol extract (70% ethanol) from A. caucasica had the highest antiradical activity. Water extracts from both species had antityrosinase activity and possessed comparable efficiency (IC50 = 36.4 ± 1.2 µg/ml and IC50 = 35,5 ± 2 µg/ml, respectively).
Thesis
« La prescription abusive d’antibiotiques, dénoncée depuis des décennies par les tenants des médecines naturelles, est aujourd’hui reconnue par tous comme un problème majeur de santé publique. Les souches microbiennes deviennent de plus en plus résistantes, rendant inefficaces ces antibiotiques qui, par ailleurs, comportent des effets secondaires affaiblissant le système immunitaire. » (Dr. WILLEM JP 2012) Les infections urinaires représentent le second motif de prescription d’antibiotiques en France. La progression croissante des résistances nécessite une prise de conscience. Les bactéries incriminées migrent et se multiplient dans la vessie ce qui provoque une réaction inflammatoire chez l’hôte. Parfois cette colonisation peut provoquer des complications ou même des récidives. Le pharmacien d’officine a un rôle important car il peut rappeler à ses patients les règles d’hygiène à respecter afin de prévenir les colonisations. Les plantes sont également un moyen pour le pharmacien de conseiller ses patients et de lutter contre les infections urinaires. Certaines plantes possèdent des propriétés diurétiques et/ou bactériostatiques efficaces pour prévenir les colonisations. D’autres sont dotées d’une action antiseptique au niveau vésicale afin de lutter contre le développement bactérien. Et enfin, des plantes possèdent les propriétés naturelles anti-inflammatoires qui permettent de limiter la douleur et l’inflammation. La phytothérapie a été délaissée à tort pendant plusieurs décennies, cependant, aujourd’hui la population semble plus sensible et plus favorable à l’utilisation des médecines naturelles.
Article
Hydroalcohol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (D.C) root were tested for their diuretic activity in rats. Pharmacological evaluation revealed that they led to an increase in urine flow and urinary sodium excretion in rats. Dose effect relations were also assessed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Etude Pharmacologique des Proprie  te  s Diure  tiques D'Extraits D'Orthosiphon
  • D Beaux
Beaux, D. (1991). Etude Pharmacologique des Proprie  te  s Diure  tiques D'Extraits D'Orthosiphon, de Piloselle, de Sureau noir, de Fenouil doux et de Busserole chez le rat.
Diuretic action of hydroalcohol extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (D.C.) roots in rats Plantes Me  dicinales des Re  gions Tempe  re  es Me  dicaments a Á base de plantes Thesis Pharmacie
  • Thesis
  • University
  • France Metz
  • D Beaux
  • J Fleurentin
  • F Mortier
  • L Bezanger-Beauquesne
  • M Pinkas
  • M Torck
  • F Trotin
Thesis, University of Metz, France. Beaux, D., Fleurentin, J., and Mortier, F. (1997). Diuretic action of hydroalcohol extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (D.C.) roots in rats. Phytother. Res. 11, 320±322. Bezanger-Beauquesne, L., Pinkas, M., Torck, M., and Trotin, F. (1990). Plantes Me  dicinales des Re  gions Tempe  re  es. Edition Maloine, Paris. Bruneton, J. (1993). Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie, Plantes Me  dicinales. Technique et Documentation-Lavoisier, Paris. Bulletin Of®ciel (1990). Me  dicaments a Á base de plantes, Avis 90/22 bis, Ministe Á re des affaires Sociales et de la Solidarite Â, Paris. Burtin, P. (1983). Etude de l'Activite  Diure  tique de l'Ortho-siphon, Orthosiphon stamineus L. (Lamiace  es). Thesis Pharmacie, University of Nancy.
Le livre des Plantes Me  dicinales et Ve  ne  neuses de France t1: 447p, t2: 504 p, t3: 636p
  • P Fournier
Fournier, P. (1947±1948). Le livre des Plantes Me  dicinales et Ve  ne  neuses de France t1: 447p, t2: 504 p, t3: 636p. Ed Lechevalier P., Paris. Petkof, V., and Markovska, V. (1981). L'effet diure  tique de Sambucus ebulus L. (Caprifoliace  es). Plantes Me  di.