Article

Sexual Mixing Patterns in the Spread of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections

Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 07/1999; 89(6):825-33. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.89.6.825
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study sought to define, among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees, (1) patterns of sex partner selection, (2) relative risks for gonococcal or chlamydial infection associated with each mixing pattern, and (3) selected links and potential and actual bridge populations.
Mixing matrices were computed based on characteristics of the study participants and their partners. Risk of infection was determined in study participants with various types of partners, and odds ratios were used to estimate relative risk of infection for discordant vs concordant partnerships.
Partnerships discordant in terms of race/ethnicity, age, education, and number of partners were associated with significant risk for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection. In low-prevalence subpopulations, within-subpopulation mixing was associated with chlamydial infection, and direct links with high-prevalence subpopulations were associated with gonorrhea.
Mixing patterns influence the risk of specific infections, and they should be included in risk assessments for individuals and in the design of screening, health education, and partner notification strategies for populations.

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Available from: Roy M Anderson, Jan 15, 2016
    • "The connections between individuals (with these connections being influenced by the aforementioned variables) may be described by such general terms as 'mixing patterns' or 'contact networks' (Ward et al., 2014). Thus, in the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual mixing patterns are significant (Adimora & Schoenbach, 2005; Aral et al., 1999; Garnett & Anderson, 1993, 1994; Gupta, Anderson, & May, 1989; Jennings, Glass, Parham, Adler, & Ellen, 2004; Kyung-Hee, Operario, Gregorich, & Lei, 2003), while, in that of pandemic influenza, child–child and child–adult mixing patterns are significant (Fedson, 2005; Ferguson, Fraser, Donnelly, Ghani, & Anderson, 2004; Pham Ngoc et al., 2006; Poland, Jacobson, & Targonski, 2007; Rahamat-Langendoen, van Vliet, & Suijkerbuijk, 2006; Schenzle, 1984; Ungchusak et al., 2005), or more broadly rates of mixing within and between age cohorts may be an important variable. It is a feature of most epidemiological systems that such patterns are notoriously difficult to measure. "
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    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Global Public Health
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    • "The connections between individuals (with these connections being influenced by the aforementioned variables) may be described by such general terms as 'mixing patterns' or 'contact networks' (Ward et al., 2014). Thus, in the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual mixing patterns are significant (Adimora & Schoenbach, 2005; Aral et al., 1999; Garnett & Anderson, 1993, 1994; Gupta, Anderson, & May, 1989; Jennings, Glass, Parham, Adler, & Ellen, 2004; Kyung-Hee, Operario, Gregorich, & Lei, 2003), while, in that of pandemic influenza, child–child and child–adult mixing patterns are significant (Fedson, 2005; Ferguson, Fraser, Donnelly, Ghani, & Anderson, 2004; Pham Ngoc et al., 2006; Poland, Jacobson, & Targonski, 2007; Rahamat-Langendoen, van Vliet, & Suijkerbuijk, 2006; Schenzle, 1984; Ungchusak et al., 2005), or more broadly rates of mixing within and between age cohorts may be an important variable. It is a feature of most epidemiological systems that such patterns are notoriously difficult to measure. "
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    • "STI transmission is determined by numbers and characteristics of sexual partnerships. Risk increases with increasing partner numbers, but is also related to partner’s STI risk and protected or unprotected sex (Anderson, May, Boily, Garnett, & Rowley, 1991; Aral, 2000; Aral et al., 1999; Fenton et al., 2001; Garnett et al., 1996). STI transmission risk varies according to whether partnerships are formed between people from similar (“assortative”) or different (“disassortative”) prevalence and sexual activity groups (Garnett et al., 1996). "
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