Article

Achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex in a newborn infant

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hamilton Health Sciences Corporation, Ontario, Canada.
American Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 3.23). 07/1999; 84(5):396-400.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of an 8-month-old girl with achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex. The diagnosis was suggested antenatally when obstetrical ultrasonography at 27 weeks of gestation showed short limbs, small chest, and macrocephaly. The father has achondroplasia due to the common G1138A (G380R) mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, while the mother has hypochondroplasia due to the C1620G (N450K) mutation in the FGFR3 gene. Neither had had genetic counseling or molecular testing prior to the pregnancy. Antenatal ultrasound study at 29 weeks of gestation showed a large head, very short limbs, and a small chest; the findings were more severe than in achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia alone. The patient was born by cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation and had rhizomelic shortness of limbs with excess skin creases, large head, and small chest, diagnostic of achondroplasia. Radiographs showed shortness of the long bones and flaring of the metaphyses. She had mild hypoplasia of lungs. Molecular testing showed both the G1138A and the C1620G mutations in FGFR3, confirming the diagnosis of achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex. At 8 months, she has disproportionate shortness of the long bones and a large head with frontal bossing and a depressed nasal bridge. Her chest remains small, and she is on home oxygen at times of respiratory stress. She has a large gibbus. She is delayed in her motor development and has significant head lag. To our knowledge, there is only one previously published report of achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex.

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    ABSTRACT: We report on a male newborn infant, a compound carrier of heterozygous mutations in the FGFR3 gene causing achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The mother has achondroplasia and carries the common G1138 (G380R) mutation in the FGFR3 gene; the father has hypochondroplasia due to the C1620A (N540K) mutation in the same gene. The fetus was found to carry both mutations diagnosed prenatally by amniocentesis at 17.6 weeks of gestation, following maternal serum screening which showed an increased risk for Down syndrome (1:337). Detailed fetal ultrasound studies showed a large head, short limbs, and a small chest at 22 weeks of gestation. The changes were more severe than those of either achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia. The patient was born by cesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and had rhizomelic shortness of the upper and lower limbs with excess skin folds, large head, enlarged fontanelles, frontal bossing, lumbar gibbus, trident position of the fingers, and a narrow chest with a horizontal line of demarcation at the narrowest area of the chest. Skeletal radiographs showed shortness of the long bones and flare of metaphyses. He had respiratory difficulties and was treated with nasal prongs. Seizures developed on day 2 of life and recurred on day 9 and responded to treatment with phenobarbital. Brain computed tomographic scan showed possible grey matter heterotopia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cortical dysplasia. To our knowledge, there are only two previously published cases of compound heterozygous achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by DNA mutation analysis of the FGFR3 gene in both cases. Am. J. Med. Genet. 84:401–405, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on a male newborn infant, a compound carrier of heterozygous mutations in the FGFR3 gene causing achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The mother has achondroplasia and carries the common G1138 (G380R) mutation in the FGFR3 gene; the father has hypochondroplasia due to the C1620A (N540K) mutation in the same gene. The fetus was found to carry both mutations diagnosed prenatally by amniocentesis at 17.6 weeks of gestation, following maternal serum screening which showed an increased risk for Down syndrome (1:337). Detailed fetal ultrasound studies showed a large head, short limbs, and a small chest at 22 weeks of gestation. The changes were more severe than those of either achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia. The patient was born by cesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and had rhizomelic shortness of the upper and lower limbs with excess skin folds, large head, enlarged fontanelles, frontal bossing, lumbar gibbus, trident position of the fingers, and a narrow chest with a horizontal line of demarcation at the narrowest area of the chest. Skeletal radiographs showed shortness of the long bones and flare of metaphyses. He had respiratory difficulties and was treated with nasal prongs. Seizures developed on day 2 of life and recurred on day 9 and responded to treatment with phenobarbital. Brain computed tomographic scan showed possible grey matter heterotopia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cortical dysplasia. To our knowledge, there are only two previously published cases of compound heterozygous achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by DNA mutation analysis of the FGFR3 gene in both cases.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR 3). Prenatal diagnosis of HCH based exclusively on the sonographic measurements of the fetal skeleton is difficult and has not been reported. We describe a newborn infant with HCH who was born to a mother with achondroplasia (ACH) and a father with HCH. Serial sonographic measurements were recorded from 16 weeks of gestation. All measurements remained normal up to 22 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, the long bones began to appear shorter than expected for gestational age, while the head measurements (biparietal diameter and head circumference) remained normal. The measurements were sufficiently different to distinguish from findings in normal and achondroplastic fetuses. Our findings suggest that it is possible to distinguish the normal fetus from a fetus affected with HCH and to distinguish HCH and ACH from each other based on the sonographic measurements alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of longitudinal sonographic measurements of HCH in the second and third trimesters.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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