Occupational cancer among women: Research status and methodologic consideration

ArticleinAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine 36(1):6-17 · July 1999with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199907)36:1<6::AID-AJIM2>3.0.CO;2-F · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Occupational causes of cancer have not been well-evaluated among women. An increase in the number of women in the work force in jobs with potentially hazardous exposures during the past few decades raises the question as to whether there is a need to enhance our efforts in this area. The inability to evaluate occupational causes of female gynecologic tumors in studies of men, plus the potential for variation in outcome responses between men and women because of gender-based exposure and susceptibility differences, underscore the need for investigations specifically focused on women. Investigations of occupational exposures and cancer risk among women may require design considerations that differ somewhat from studies of men. Issues to consider include the impact of studying outcomes with high survival (e.g., breast cancer), gender-specific exposure patterns and toxicokinetic processing of some chemicals, special limitations in the use of the general population as the referent, and the need to control for established risk factors for gynecologic tumors.
    • "This could be because of smaller numbers of women in the study, but may also indicate that including sufficient numbers of women for analysis was not a high priority in the study design. As discussed above methodological adjustments may need to be made when studying women, such as: increasing the sample sizes due to lower exposure rates, utilizing gender-specific exposure assessment techniques, and considering sex-and gender-specific confounders [Blair et al., 1999; Kennedy and Koehoorn, 2003; Arbuckle, 2006]. This analysis suggests there have been considerable improvements in the inclusion of women in articles assessing occupational cancer over the past two decades. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the early 1990s, researchers have been concerned with the low rate at which women are included in epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer. A previous evaluation determined that one-third of articles published between 1970 and 1990 included women. To assess whether there has been an improvement in recent years, papers on occupational cancer between 1991 and 2009 were reviewed in fifteen journals. The proportion of articles that included men remained stable around 90%, while the proportion of articles that included women increased substantially, from 39% in 1991-1995 to 62% in 2006-2009. Articles that assessed risk among men only or men and women presented a higher number of risk estimates and were more likely to evaluate dose-response relationships than studies including women. Despite advances in the inclusion of women in studies of occupational cancer, disparities remain in the number of studies of occupational cancer and depth of analysis in studies that included women. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:276-281, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • "However, women have thinner skin in many areas of the body, a smaller volume of total body water, and a higher percentage of body fat, which can allow easier penetration, absorption, and storage of chemicals [Silvaggio and Mattison, 1992]. According to some authors, the pattern of risk could also be associated with duration of work, age, calendar time of initial employment, timing, level, and period of exposures [Wang et al., 1990, Blair et al., 1999. Altogether, this scenario of continuous exposure to several risk factors for decades of activity in the dentistry practice may create conditions that are favorable for carcinogenesis [Simning and van Wijngaarden, 2007]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Previous studies have variably shown excess risks of elected cancers among dentists.Methods National Brazilian mortality data were used to obtain mortality patterns among dentists between 1996 and 2004. Cancer mortality odds ratios (MORs) and cancer proportional mortality ratios for all cancer sites were calculated, using the general population and physicians and lawyers as comparison groups.ResultsFemale dentists from both age strata showed higher risks for breast, colon-rectum, lung, brain, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Compared to physicians and lawyers, higher MOR estimates were observed for brain cancer among female dentists 20–49 yr. Among male dentists, higher cancer mortality was found for colon-rectum, pancreas, lung, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Higher risk estimates for liver, prostate, bladder, brain, multiple myeloma and leukemia were observed among 50–79 yr old male dentists.DiscussionIf confirmed, these results indicate the need for limiting occupational exposures among dentists in addition to establishing screening programs to achieve early detection of selected malignant tumors. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
    • "Whilst this restriction enabled us to use individual occupation as a surrogate measure for socio-economic class for both sexes, it also implied that the cohort had a higher proportion of men, since only half of the female population in the selected age-groups was occupied, in contrast with Swedish men, who were active in almost all cases [37]. Within their respective populations, working females, who differ from home workers in many lifestylerelated factors [40] , could constitute a more homogeneous subgroup than do working men. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class) and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008
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