Nakagawa, R. et al. Maternal body burden of organochlorine pesticides and dioxins. J AOAC Int.82: 716-724

Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, Division of Hygienic Chemistry, Japan.
Journal of AOAC International (Impact Factor: 1.12). 05/1999; 82(3):716-24.
Source: PubMed


To investigate the body burden of organochlorine pesticides and dioxins in Japanese women, 125 milk samples were collected from 41 mothers in 1994, 42 in 1995, and 42 in 1996. Of the 125 samples, 82 were from primipara mothers (first delivery) and 43 were from multipara mothers (second or later delivery). By using capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were detected as the major chlorine pesticides in human milk. Average levels of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were 475 and 368 ng/g lipid, respectively, in primipara breast milk, 314 and 259 ng/g lipid in multipara breast milk, and 420 and 330 ng/g lipid in total breast milk. Dieldrin, heptachor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans-chlordane, and cis-chlordane were detected at lower average levels of 3, 4, 34, 41, and 5 ng/g lipid, respectively. By using high-resolution gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, dioxins were detected in all samples. Average levels of total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), total polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), total PCDD + PCDF, total coplanar polychlorinatedbiphenyl (CoPCB), and total dioxin were 10.0, 7.8, 17.7, 9.9, and 27.5 TEQ (toxic equivalent) pg/g lipid, respectively, in primipara breast milk; 7.0, 5.8, 12.8, 7.3, and 20.1 TEQ pg/g lipid in multipara breast milk; and 8.9, 7.1, 16.1, 8.9, and 25.0 TEQ pg/g lipid in total breast milk. In primipara breast milk, significant correlations were found among levels of beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE, total PCDD-TEQ, total PCDF-TEQ, total CoPCB-TEQ, and total TEQ except for less correlation between p,p'-DDE and total PCDF-TEQ. Levels of these analytes also significantly increased depending on mother's age, except for total Co-PCB-TEQ. For the correlation with food habit, the only positive correlation was between total PCDF-TEQs and fish intake.

  • Source
    • "The mean toxic equivalent levels thus measured (EROD-TEQ), which ranged from 58.1 to 96.5 pg/g of milk fat in Hong Kong mothers, were twice as high in Guangzhou mothers (98.8–202.1 pg/g fat). These were much lower in countries such as Sweden (9.6–35 pg/g fat) (Glynn et al., 2001), Japan (9.9–48.5 pg/g fat) (Nakagawa et al., 1999), and Spain (5.9–17.1 pg/g fat) (Schuhmacher et al., 1999). Studies on dioxins, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides have also been carried out in media other than human milk, both in Hong Kong (Chui et al., 1991; Liu and Kueh, 2005; Sin et al., 2002) and in the Pearl River Delta (Fang, 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dioxins are a family of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed under the Stockholm Convention, and include PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs. These toxic chemicals are carcinogenic, widely dispersed, and have long half-lives. They have contaminated the food web and, being fat-soluble, accumulate in adipose tissues and milk in the human body. To assess human exposure, we collected breast milk samples from 137 first-time mothers recruited from around Hong Kong. Samples were analysed by HRGC-HRMS in four pools, according to the subject's age and length of residency. Exposure was related to age, duration of stay, and possibly diet. Generally, older mothers, and mothers with a longer stay in Hong Kong, had higher levels of dioxins in their milk. This pattern was clearest for the PCBs, although deviations were observed for some of the PCDD/Fs. Mean concentrations, measured per gram of lipid weight in terms of WHO toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs), were 7.48pg/g for PCDD/Fs and 3.79pg/g for PCBs, giving a total of 11.27pg/g for PCDD/Fs and PCBs combined. Compared to an earlier Hong Kong study we conducted in 2002, the mean WHO-TEQ values in our latest findings were about 9% lower overall for PCDD/Fs and 19% lower for PCBs, with the mean total WHO-TEQ for PCDD/Fs and PCBs being around 13% lower in this study. This indicates a general declining trend in the levels of POPs in Hong Kong. However, our levels were still high when compared to those in some other Asian-Pacific countries. More stringent policies on reducing and eliminating POPs should help to lower these. Continued surveillance for POPs in human milk, as well as in common foodstuffs, will provide us with important information on human exposures that will be necessary for tracking our progress, and making future health risk assessments.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Science of The Total Environment
  • Source
    • "Humans are only to a small extent capable of metabolising POPs. However, through the lactation process women can lower their body burden by transfer to the offspring (Skaare and Polder, 1990; Vaz et al., 1993; Nakagawa et al., 1999). The transfer of the persistent contaminants to the suckling new-born is a matter of great concern because of possible toxic effects caused by the chemicals. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of HCB, alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH, 3 chlordanes (CHLs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and 30 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 140 human milk samples from Kargopol (n=19), Severodvinsk (n=50), Arkhangelsk (n=51) and Naryan-Mar (n=20). Pooled samples were used for determination of three toxaphenes (chlorobornanes, CHBs). The concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE in Russian human milk were 2, 10 and 3 times higher than corresponding levels in Norway, respectively, while concentrations of sum-PCBs and sum-TEQs (toxic equivalent quantities) of the mono-ortho substituted PCBs were in the same range as corresponding levels in Norway. The PCB-156 contributed most to the sum-TEQs. Highest mean concentrations of HCB (129 microg/kg milk fat) and sum-PCBs (458 microg/kg milk fat) were detected in Naryan-Mar, while highest mean concentrations of sum-HCHs (408 microg/kg milk fat), sum-CHLs (48 microg/kg milk fat), sum-DDTs (1392 microg/kg milk fat) and sum-toxaphenes (13 microg/kg milk fat) were detected in Arkhangelsk. An eastward geographic trend of increasing ratios of alpha/beta-HCH, gamma/beta-HCH, p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and PCB-180/28 was observed. In all areas the levels of sum-HCHs decreased with parity (number of children born). Considerable variation in levels of the analysed organochlorines (OCs) was found in all the studied areas. Breast milk from mothers nursing their second or third child (multiparas) in Naryan-Mar showed a significant different PCB profile compared to mothers giving birth to their first child (primiparas) from the same area and to primi- and multiparas in the other areas. Both p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT showed a significant, but weak, negative correlation with the infants birth weight.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Science of The Total Environment
  • Source
    • "The present study found organochlorine pesticides in human milk at higher concentrations than the TEQ limit proposed by the WHO, consistent with the findings of other researchers [9] [21]. The discrepancy between the limits imposed on organochlorine pesticides and those on TCDD/Fs must be corrected. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of Poniente Hospital in El Ejido, Almería. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed. The cleaning of the sample before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used silica Sep-Pak. Among other pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and its metabolites, lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan were identified. The presence of these products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The identification and quantification of these organochlorine molecules is important because they have estrogenic effects.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2001 · Early Human Development
Show more