BRCA1 is a cell cycle-regulated nuclear protein that is phosphorylated mainly on serine and to a lesser extent on threonine residues. Changes in phosphorylation occur in response to cell cycle progression and DNA damage. Specifically, BRCA1 undergoes hyperphosphorylation during late G
and S phases of the cell cycle. Here we report that BRCA1 is phosphorylated in vivo at serine 1497 (S1497), which is part of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus site. S1497 can be phosphorylated in vitro by CDK2-cyclin A or E. BRCA1 coimmunoprecipitates with an endogenous serine-threonine protein kinase activity that phosphorylates S1497 in vitro. This cellular kinase activity is sensitive to transfection of a dominant negative form of CDK2 as well as the application of the CDK inhibitors p21 and butyrolactone I but not p16. Furthermore, BRCA1 coimmunoprecipitates with CDK2 and cyclin A. These results suggest that the endogenous kinase activity is composed of CDK2-cyclin complexes, at least in part, concordant with the G
/S-specific increase in BRCA1 phosphorylation.
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"Cyclin E1 has the highest affinity for CDK2, its main binding partner in actively cycling cells (72–74), and CDK1 (CDC2) (75). Both CDK2 and CDK1 directly phosphorylate BRCA1 (76, 77) (Figure 2A). Furthermore, a functional link between CDK1 and BRCA1 has been established in lung cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Frontiers in Oncology
"The sixteen biologically characterized phosphorylation sites for BRCA1 (Table S1 in File S1) studied are involved in functions including intracellular localization , , transcription regulation , and cell cycle regulation , . Phosphorylation of BRCA2, on the other hand, is pertinent in regulating of BRCA2-mediated DNA recombination repair , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for a large proportion of breast-ovarian cancer families. Protein-truncating mutations have been effectively used in the clinical management of familial breast cancer due to their deleterious impact on protein function. However, the majority of missense variants identified throughout the genes continue to pose an obstacle for predictive informative testing due to low frequency and lack of information on how they affect BRCA1/2 function. Phosphorylation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 play an important role in their function as regulators of DNA repair, transcription and cell cycle in response to DNA damage but whether missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are able to disrupt this important process is not known. Here we employed a novel approach using NetworKIN which predicts in vivo kinase-substrate relationship, and evolutionary conservation algorithms SIFT, PolyPhen and Align-GVGD. We evaluated whether 191 BRCA1 and 43 BRCA2 VUS from the Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC) database can functionally alter the consensus phosphorylation motifs and abolish kinase recognition and binding to sites known to be phosphorylated in vivo. Our results show that 13.09% (25/191) BRCA1 and 13.95% (6/43) BRCA2 VUS altered the phosphorylation of BRCA1 and BRCA2. We highlight six BRCA1 (K309T, S632N, S1143F, Q1144H, Q1281P, S1542C) and three BRCA2 (S196I, T207A, P3292L) VUS as potentially clinically significant. These occurred rarely (n<2 in BIC), mutated evolutionarily conserved residues and abolished kinase binding to motifs established in the literature involved in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, transcription or response to DNA damage. Additionally in vivo phosphorylation sites identified via through-put methods are also affected by VUS and are attractive targets for studying their biological and functional significance. We propose that rare VUS affecting phosphorylation may be a novel and important mechanism for which BRCA1 and BRCA2 functions are disrupted in breast cancer.
"As a genetic factor, the breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1) is known to be responsible for half of all inherited cases (Nathanson et al., 2001). The function of BRCA1 has been reported to be involved in tumor suppression (Deng and Brodie, 2000), DNA repair (Scully et al., 1997), cell cycle checkpoint control (Ruffner et al., 1999), and ubiquitination (Jensen et al., 1998). In addition, we have demonstrated that BRCA1 plays a crucial role in cellular † CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Department of Oncology and Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington DC, Tel, 1-202-687-5267; Fax, 1-202-687-2847; firstname.lastname@example.org. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although BRCA1 is the most prevalent genetic factor in breast cancer, the pathologic mechanism of tumorigenesis caused by its deficiency has not been elucidated. We have previously demonstrated that BRCA1 can modulate responses to xenobiotic stress by regulating expression of genes involved in metabolic activation, detoxification and antioxidant reactions. In this study, we examined whether BRCA1 deficiency is more vulnerable to xenobiotic stress by employing an in vitro cell model system. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), used as a xenobiotic insult, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in breast epithelial cells. Accumulation of ROS upon B[a]P exposure was significantly augmented by abrogation of BRCA1 compared to the control. Overexpression of Nrf2 in BRCA1 deficient cells reduced elevated ROS to the control levels. Bioactive food components such as sulforaphane (SFN) and resveratrol (RSV) significantly reduced B[a]P-induced ROS accumulation regardless of BRCA1 presence. In addition, these bioactive food components increased Nrf2 levels and Nrf2 transcriptional activity, which led to attenuation of B[a]P-induced DNA damages. Likewise, incubation with bioactive food components reduced B[a]P-mediated DNA damage in BRCA1 deficient cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the lack of BRCA1 renders cells more susceptible to ROS-induced DNA damage, which may eventually result in tumorigenesis, and that administration of Nrf2-activating bioactive food components can reduce those risks.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Toxicology Letters