A Urine Metabolic Ratio of Dextromethorphan and 3-Methoxymorphinan as a Probe for CYP3A Activity and Prediction of Cyclosporine Clearance in Healthy Volunteers
Dextromethorphan (DM) is metabolized in the body to dextrophan (DT) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A4, respectively, and cyclosporine (CsA) is a known substrate of CYP3A4. We attempted to determine if the urine metabolic ratio of DM:3-MM at various time intervals during 24 hours is predictive of CsA clearance in 11 healthy volunteers. Each subject took DM 30 mg orally, and serial urine samples were collected at 0-4, 4, and 4-24, and 0-24 hours. Subjects then were randomly assigned to receive either oral microemulsion CsA 5 mg/kg or intravenous CsA 1.5 mg/kg in a crossover fashion in a two-sequence pharmacokinetic study with a wash-out period of at least 7 days. A total of 17 blood samples were collected from each subject in the CsA pharmacokinetic study over 24 hours. Urinary DM, DT, and 3-MM were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector, and blood CsA concentrations were analyzed by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. All subjects were extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 as determined by metabolic ratios of DM:DT (mean+/-SD 0.0255+/-0.048). There was no correlation between CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (p=0.38). The metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM in any urine samples during the 24-hour collection period did not predict CsA pharmacokinetics, although the 0-24 hour sample had an unexpected positive correlation with CsA clearance (r2 = 0.38, p<0.0001). The correlation was similar for metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM with intravenous CsA clearance (r2 = 0.5, p<0.0001). Metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM based on 24-hour cumulative urine collection did not appear to have clinical utility in predicting CYP3A activity measured by CsA clearance.
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