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Abstract

Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed.

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... Some studies report a rise in self-esteem during adolescence (Marsh, 1989;McCarthy & Hoge, 1982;Mullis et al., 1992;O'Malley & Bachman, 1983;Prawat, Jones, & Hampton, 1979;Roeser & Eccles, 1998), others report no change (Chubb et al., 1997), and still others report declines (Keltikangas-Jarvinen, 1990;Zimmerman et al., 1997). Some of these inconsistencies may be due to gender differences that are believed to emerge at this age, specifically the tendency for boys to have higher selfesteem than girls (Block & Robins, 1993;Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999;Major, Barr, Zubek, & Babey, 1999). ...
... Nonetheless, there are some interesting gender divergences. Although boys and girls report similar levels of self-esteem during childhood, a gender gap emerges by adolescence, such that adolescent boys have higher self-esteem than adolescent girls (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999;. This gender gap persists throughout adulthood, and then narrows and perhaps even disappears in old age (Kling et al., 1999;. ...
... Although boys and girls report similar levels of self-esteem during childhood, a gender gap emerges by adolescence, such that adolescent boys have higher self-esteem than adolescent girls (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999;. This gender gap persists throughout adulthood, and then narrows and perhaps even disappears in old age (Kling et al., 1999;. ...
Book
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This book LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT prepares professionals to grow as a Leader in their field of specialization and HR practitioners who want to develop as a leader in their respective filed, and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically to Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher-level professionals who can use this book LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT, prepares professionals to grow as a Leader in their field of specialization and HR practitioners who want to develop as a leader in their respective filed, and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher-level professionals who can use this book for their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day to day management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day to day management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their career. This book LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT, prepares professionals to grow as a Leader in their field of specialization and HR practitioners who wants to develop as a leader in their respective filed, and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically to Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher level professionals who can use this book for their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day to day management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their career.
... Introversion normally diverges from masculinity traits (e.g. seeking power, showing strength; see Kling et al., 1999) so that reclusive behaviour may negatively affect how teachers perceive withdrawn boys' academic engagement. However, since it is more phenotypical for girls to perform well in school, an increase in boys' academic performance may be more socially facilitating for boys than for girls, for whom such academic performance might be less anticipated. ...
... These gendered effects are relevant to the findings of Doye et al. (2014) and the follow-up analyses made by Rubin and Barstead (2014), supporting the notion that withdrawn boys are more vulnerable to negative social effects than girls. Potential explanations for these gender effects are indicated in the introduction; being outgoing may be more valuable for boys than girls, because it is associated with masculinity, and thus social withdrawal has more fundamental negative consequences on academic achievement for boys than girls, perhaps especially during puberty (Kling et al., 1999). This could explain how socially withdrawn boys were perceived by their teachers. ...
... The gender effect in our data could also originate from internal psychological processes among boys such as changes in self-esteem. Large community studies have consistently found that adolescent boys -in general -score higher than girls on self-esteem (Kling et al., 1999). As reported by von Soest et al. (2016), from a large Norwegian prospective community study looking at six domains of specific self-esteem, boys scored lower than girls in two domains: social acceptance and close relationships. ...
Article
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Background: Socially withdrawn children tend to perform poorer academically than their peers. What remains unknown, is the temporal ordering of the two phenomena. Also, substantial gender differences exist in both social withdrawal and academic achievement; thus, it is conceivable that the strength of the relation between them is gendered as well. Aims: To investigate cross-sectional correlates and test directional effects of social withdrawal and academic achievement from primary to upper secondary school, and examine potential gendered effects. Methods: Prospective associations were analyzed from age 6 to age 14 using biannual teacher ratings of children's social withdrawal and academic achievement in a representative community sample (n=845), by means of random intercept cross-lagged panel modelling. Results: In boys, increased academic achievement at ages 8 and 12 forecasted decreased social withdrawal two years later, whereas increased social withdrawal at age 10 predicted reduced academic achievement at age 12. No such effects were seen in girls. Conclusion: Social withdrawal and academic achievement are bidirectionally related among boys, but not girls. Results are discussed in light of need-to-belong theory, and practical implications for schools and teachers are illuminated.
... Mirroring research with adult samples, studies typically show that adolescent boys score higher on measures of global self-esteem than girls (Bleidorn et al., 2016;Block & Robins, 1993;Kling et al., 1999;Knox et al., 1998;Schöne & Stiensmeier-Pelster, 2016). Extending focus to gender role self-concept has revealed the positive relation between masculinity and global self-esteem in adolescents (Allgood-Merten & Stockard, 1991;Buckley & Carter, 2005;Cate & Sugawara, 1986), a relation also found for instrumentality (Choi et al., 2010) and agency (Stein et al., 1992). ...
... The structural equation model indicated that instrumentality was positively associated with global self-esteem in both genders, with this relation being stronger in female students. Our present results support past findings in which male gender (Bleidorn et al., 2016;Block & Robins, 1993;Kling et al., 1999;Knox et al., 1998;Schöne & Stiensmeier-Pelster, 2016) and higher masculinity (Allgood-Merten & Stockard, 1991;Buckley & Carter, 2005;Cate & Sugawara, 1986), agency (Stein et al., 1992), and instrumentality (Choi et al., 2010) have been found to relate to higher global selfesteem in adolescents. Past research on academic contingent self-esteem has established that female students tend to score higher in this domain, indicating that they attach their self-esteem to their academic performance to a greater extent than male students (Moore & Smith, 2018;Schöne & Stiensmeier-Pelster, 2016;Schöne et al., 2015;Van der Kaap-Deeder et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Gender differences in school are often discussed in reference to a particular type of masculinity, negative masculinity, which is often conceptualized as detrimental to success. Another type of masculinity, instrumentality, has rarely been studied in schools even though instrumental characteristics are often exalted outside the academic context. The current study focuses on potential benefits that students may reap from instrumentality. The extent to which an instrumental self-concept is directly and indirectly associated with achievement motivation and self-esteem was examined for adolescent boys and girls in a structural equation model (SEM). A sample of German ninth graders (N = 355) completed self-report measures pertaining to their gender role self-concept, hope for success, fear of failure, and global and academic contingent self-esteem. The SEM revealed that instrumentality was associated with lower fear of failure and higher hope for success for both male and female adolescents. High scores in instrumentality were associated with greater self-esteem and lower academic contingent self-esteem. The association between instrumentality and global self-esteem was stronger for adolescent girls, and the indirect association between instrumentality and fear of failure through global self-esteem was significant only for girls. Results indicate that instrumentality can be an asset for students and that female students especially reap the benefits of an instrumental self-concept. The results are discussed in reference to the dangers of emphasizing solely the association between negative masculinity and academic failure, and the importance of studying relations with gender role self-concept separately for male and female adolescents.
... The reported effect sizes typically range within the limits of small to medium effects. In a meta-analysis of 216 effect sizes, Kling, et al (1999) [21] found an overall effect size of 21 across age groups, with the largest effect emerging in late adolescence. This absolute gender gap notwithstanding, both males and females seem to follow essentially the same life span trajectories; For both genders, self-esteem is relatively high in childhood, drops during adolescence, rises gradually throughout adulthood before it tends to decline in old age Amato (2000) [13]. ...
... The reported effect sizes typically range within the limits of small to medium effects. In a meta-analysis of 216 effect sizes, Kling, et al (1999) [21] found an overall effect size of 21 across age groups, with the largest effect emerging in late adolescence. This absolute gender gap notwithstanding, both males and females seem to follow essentially the same life span trajectories; For both genders, self-esteem is relatively high in childhood, drops during adolescence, rises gradually throughout adulthood before it tends to decline in old age Amato (2000) [13]. ...
Article
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This study investigated the influence of family types, parental care and peer pressure on self-esteem. Five hundred (500) research participants which include undergraduates drawn from Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti and Federal University of Oye, Oye-Ekiti were used for this study. Four research instruments were used for this study and this includes Brief family relationship scale used in measuring family orientations and types. Other research instruments include, Rosenborg self-esteem scale used in assessing individuals self-esteem and peer pressure inventory used in assessing domains of peer pressure. Three hypotheses were tested in this study; the first hypothesis tested the relationship between all the variables. Also, the second hypothesis tested the influence of peer pressure on self-esteem while the third hypothesis tested gender differences in self-esteem. Appropriate statistical methods were used in testing the hypotheses. The result of hypothesis one using Pearson Momentum Correlation analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between self-esteem and family relation. Also, the result revealed further that there is a relationship between self-esteem and peer influence. Moreover, result from hypothesis two using independent t-test table revealed that peer pressure has an influence on self-esteem while result from hypothesis three revealed there is a gender differences in self-esteem. Findings are discussed according to literatures, conclusions are formulated and it was recommended that government should organize programmes and symposia to orientate parents to enhance policy formulation. This research was carried to know and understand how family types, parental care and peer pressure influence self esteem, self-esteem is defined as the feelings of affection for oneself, and there are several research that argue about self esteem and its relation to self evaluation, it also posit the imbalance within family about the equalization and acceptable of role, it also argues about how parental care can influence the person's development and it explains that peer pressure starts becoming a real influence in a child's life as he grows older because peers interaction becomes to influence as people grow. There is an highlights about the relationship between family type, parental care on self-esteem and personality characteristics. Studies have shown that family and parental influence acts as a mediator of self-esteem and personality development.
... The meta-analysis of Kling and colleagues (1999) found that the gender gap was more pronounced in adolescence, and gradually seemed to fade away with age [12]. Similar findings have been reported by Bleidorn et al. (2016) who reported that the trajectories emerging in adolescence persist throughout early and middle adulthood before narrowing down and even disappearing in old age [11]. ...
... As regards gender patterns, results indicated a slightly but not significantly higher level of self-esteem for men. Although these findings are not in line with most existing research in the field [12] there have been some studies also reporting no significant differences [13]. The gender difference reached significance only for the age groups 18 to 22 years old and 23-29-years old. ...
Conference Paper
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Self-esteem is a widely investigated variable, across different countries and cultures. Levels of self-esteem seem to vary across cultures, and also cultural similarities and differences have been reported in several studies. Some aspects of age and gender differences seem to be universal across cultures. The aim of the present study was to assess age and gender patterns of self-esteem among Kosovo youth. The study sample included 4303 participants (four subsamples), 45.5% male and 54% female. The mean age of participants was 16.57 years (SD=2.99). The measuring instrument was the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Albanian translation. Results indicated a slightly but not significantly higher level of self-esteem for men. The gender difference reached significance only for the age groups 18 to 22 years old and 23-29-years old. The study revealed developmental trajectories of self-esteem and gender patterns which are comparable to findings from other countries, although with some slight differences. Findings requires further investigation, particularly as regards the presence of any cohort effects in the findings. The study represents an important contribution to the investigation of self-esteem in Kosovo, and provides several directions for further research particularly as regards gender or developmental studies.
... The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory at both baseline and follow-up (Cronbach's alphas = 0.91 and 0.93, respectively). The Rosenberg scale has been widely used for evaluating the self-esteem of young people, and its reliability and validity are well documented [30]. ...
... This may result in greater self-monitoring of appearance among girls, potentially with more screen time spent on appearance related issues, leading to higher levels of body dissatisfaction in females than males [3]. Adolescent girls also tend to have lower self-esteem [30,43] and more depressive symptoms [44] than adolescent boys, which may make them more vulnerable to the negative effects of mass media [8,45]. In addition, the quality of social relationships has been found to be positively associated with screen use among boys [46], which may have beneficial influences on their overall mental well-being [8]. ...
Article
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Studies of adolescent body image and screen use are mostly limited to girls, and longitudinal data are scarce. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between these variables in mid-adolescent boys and girls. Data was collected when participants were at age 15 and 17, by questionnaire and objective measurements (n = 152 had complete data). Sex-specific linear regression was used to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of self-reported screen use (total use, and time spent in gaming, TV/DVD/internet-based watching and internet use for communication) and body image, adjusting for vigorous physical activity, symptoms of depression, and body composition. Screen time was negatively associated with body image at both time points, although more strongly at age 15, and for girls only. Gaming and TV/DVD/internet watching was more strongly associated with body image than internet use for communication. Girls with above median screen time at both ages had 14% lower body image score at age 17 than girls with below median screen time at both time points. Our results suggest that screen use is likely to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Limiting screen time may, therefore, help to mitigate body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls.
... Empirical work has demonstrated a difference between males and females with regard to self-esteem. In a meta-analysis, Kling, Hyde, Showers, and Buswell (1999), found females to have lower self-esteem across the lifespan. This difference has been reported in adolescents (Chubb, Fertman, &Ross, 1997) and has been shown to be present in late childhood/early adolescence (Bolignini, Plancherel, Bettschart, & Halfon, 1996). ...
Thesis
This thesis examined the association between peer acceptance in the sport context and psycho-social outcomes for adolescent females.
... On the one hand, several studies, having employed large representative WEIRD samples, found no sex differences in self-esteem during adolescence and young adulthood (Erol & Orth, 2011;Orth et al., 2012). On the other hand, some research has demonstrated that sex differences may be present in adolescence such that males have moderately higher self-esteem compared to females; subsequently, during young adulthood, the gap may gradually become narrower (Kiviruusu et al., 2015;Robins & Trzesniewski, 2005) and statistically small (Kling et al., 1999). In the cross-cultural perspective, men had higher self-esteem than women across WEIRD populations, but showed fewer differences across many Asian countries, with even higher selfesteem among women in several cases (Bleidorn, Arslan, et al., 2016). ...
Article
The current study investigates stability and change in self-esteem among Russian emerging adults. Self-esteem of 1,004 undergraduates (Mage = 19.50, SDage = 1.25) was assessed during their bachelor’s program (T1). Eight years later, 242 of them took part in an online follow-up (T2). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We conducted a longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis with strict measurement invariance constraints. Self-esteem showed substantial mean-level stability and rank-order consistency, both for women and men. No sex differences, effects of parenthood and change in the place of residence were found. Those participants who had had higher self-esteem at T1 were more likely married by T2 compared to singles, and those who cohabited with their partner by T2. Although individual differences in the self-esteem change cannot be excluded, the findings support the idea of self-esteem stability during emerging adulthood, both in the mean-level and rank-order terms.
... However, including only women also reduced the heterogeneity of the sample. Although this may have been beneficial given the literature on gender differences in affect (Fujita et al., 1991) and self-esteem (Kling et al., 1999), our results should be replicated in a mixed-gender sample. ...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is commonly characterized by pervasive instability. Affective instability, despite being a diagnostic criterion in the DSM-5, is commonly seen as a transdiagnostic feature, but recent studies have brought new attention to the importance of self-esteem instability as a potential defining feature of BPD. However, evidence is lacking regarding whether heightened self-esteem instability is a specific feature of BPD when patients with BPD are compared to clinical controls. Using ambulatory assessment, we examined self-esteem instability and affective instability in participants' daily lives. We assessed momentary self-esteem and affective state 12 times daily for 4 consecutive days in 71 patients with BPD, 121 patients with anxiety disorders (ADs), and 74 healthy controls (HCs). To determine group differences, we used established instability indices and analyzed multilevel models. Compared to HCs, patients with BPD and those with ADs exhibited heightened self-esteem instability and affective instability. Importantly, the clinical groups did not differ in affective instability, whereas self-esteem instability was significantly higher in patients with BPD than in those with ADs across all instability indices. Beyond the influence of mean self-esteem, patients with BPD had the highest general instability, the most frequent extreme changes, and the largest decreases in self-esteem, especially from high levels of self-esteem. Our results support previous findings on affective instability, which may constitute a transdiagnostic feature, and they provide the first evidence that heightened self-esteem instability is particularly prominent in BPD, underscoring the importance of self-esteem for the understanding of dysregulation in BPD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... For example, prior evidence points to differences in the rate and expression of prosocial behavior across groups defined by gender (McMahon et al., 2006;Veenstra et al., 2008), ethnicity and race (Armenta et al., 2011;Trommsdorff et al., 2007), and socioeconomic status (Benenson et al., 2007;Chen et al., 2013). Likewise, prior evidence points to higher levels of self-esteem among males (Bleidorn et al., 2016;Kling et al., 1999), those from individualistic cultures (Flynn, 2016), and those from high socioeconomic backgrounds (Twenge & Campbell, 2002). In addition to controlling for each of these factors in the present analyses, we conducted post-hoc multigroup analyses, which revealed no group differences by gender or socioeconomic status. ...
Article
This study assessed maternal caregiving quality and children's prosocial behavior as related to changes in child self‐esteem from early childhood across the transition into formal schooling. Although a robust literature indicates that sensitive caregiving promotes self‐esteem, less is known about the potential contribution of children's positive social behavior to enhanced self‐esteem. This study drew on a diverse sample of young children (N = 250; Mage = 4.085, SD = .249; 50% female, 50% male; 46% Latinx) to evaluate prospective relations between an observational assessment of sensitive maternal caregiving at the age of 4 and child reports of self‐esteem at the age of 8 as mediated by teacher‐reports of children's prosocial behavior at the age of 6. Analyses revealed a significant indirect pathway whereby sensitive maternal caregiving promoted children's self‐esteem via children's prosocial behavior. These findings highlight both sensitive caregiving and children's prosocial behavior as promising points of intervention to bolster children's self‐esteem.
... ab dem achten Schuljahr) als ungewöhnlich groß (s. a. Kling et al., 1999). Auch insgesamt werfen gerade die geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlichen Ergebnisse diverse weitergehende Fragen auf und erfordern weitere Untersuchungen mit einem expliziten Fokus auf geschlechtsspezifische Anforderungen, Erfahrungshintergründe und Selbstdefinitionen. ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. Die drei Grundbedürfnisse Autonomie, Kompetenzwahrnehmung und soziale Eingebundenheit wurden wiederholt als mögliche Determinanten eines globalen Selbstwerts untersucht. Doch nur wenige dieser Untersuchungen erfassen explizit eine mehrjährige Selbstwertentwicklung und die Rolle der Schule bei der Erfüllung der Grundbedürfnisse während der Adoleszenz. In der vorliegenden Studie werden die Angaben von 334 Schüler*innen zur Gewährung von Autonomie durch die Lehrkräfte sowie deren Kompetenzrückmeldungen und die soziale Eingebundenheit in der Schulklasse zur Vorhersage der nachfolgenden Selbstwertentwicklung genutzt. Dabei lässt sich zunächst eine tendenziell dichotome Unterscheidung in einen über Jahre stabilen gegenüber einem abnehmenden Selbstwert ermitteln. Von den drei Grundbedürfnissen führt nur ein höheres Ausmaß an Autonomie (5. Schuljahr) zu einer höheren Wahrscheinlichkeit einer stabilen Selbstwertentwicklung vom fünften bis zehnten Schuljahr (6 Messzeitpunkte), und dies bei geschlechtergetrennter Berechnung nur bei den Mädchen. Cross-Lagged-Panel-Modelle bestätigen dieses Ergebnis als einseitigen und ungewöhnlich deutlichen Effekt.
... Gender differences in selfesteem have been attributed to numerous factors such as the effects of "power" in society (Rosenfield, 1999), whereby men have more power than women, appraisals and social comparison (e.g., women express greater dissatisfaction with their appearance than men; Rosenberg, 2017), societal gender roles (Miller, 1986), and income inequity (women tend to be underpaid comparatively to men; Pugliesi, 1995). Overall, compared to women, men systematically experience higher self-esteem in adulthood (Bleidorn et al., 2016;Kling et al., 1999), which places them at greater risk for depression (Orth et al., 2009). ...
Article
Objectives: Black Canadians report experiencing various forms of racial discrimination disproportionately. This study aimed to: (a) examine the association between everyday racial discrimination and self-esteem; (b) test the mediating role of internalized racism and social support in the association between racial discrimination and self-esteem, and (c) test the moderating role of gender and age in this same relationship. Method: A total of 860 participants (76.60% female) aged 15-40 (Mage = 24.96, SD = 6.31) completed questionnaires assessing racial discrimination, self-esteem, internalized racism, and social support. Descriptive and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Results: A total of 65.33% of participants were categorized as endorsing low self-esteem, with no significant difference between males and females (66.67% and 62.20%, respectively; χ² = 1.56, p = .47). Participants aged 25-40 exhibited a higher prevalence of low self-esteem compared to those aged 15-24 (89.91% and 58.54%, respectively, χ² = 37.31, p < .001). The results showed a progressive increase in the prevalence of low self-esteem commensurate with increasing levels of reported racial discrimination. Internalized racism (β = -.09, SE = .01, p < .001) and social support (β = .10, SE = .01, p < .001) mediated the association between everyday racial discrimination and self-esteem; whereas gender moderated the latter association (β = .17, SE = .04, p < .001; being a woman). Conclusions: Results indicate a strong association between racial discrimination and low self-esteem. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of self-esteem problems among Black individuals in Canada. They also have important relevance for the development of educational and clinical programs for prevention and intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... In fact, previous research has consistently found that women tend to be more religious (Feltey and Poloma 1991;Collett and Lizardo 2009) and grateful (Kashdan et al. 2009;Guse et al. 2019). Simultaneously, several studies (Kling et al. 1999;Gentile et al. 2009;Bleidorn et al. 2016;Zeigler-Hill and Myers 2012) have found that men score higher than women on both the general and specific domains of self-esteem across their life span, even though the difference is small. Interestingly, all of the above-mentioned variables also vary with respect to age. ...
Article
Full-text available
In comforting or distressing circumstances, individuals tend to have various perceptions of themselves. It seems that religious comfort and religious distress correlate differently with people’s self-esteem. Since the relationship between religiosity and self-esteem is not only direct but can be mediated by other factors that are recognized as buffers against adverse situations, our main goal was to verify whether dispositional gratitude may have an indirect effect on the association between both variables. The research involved data from 254 participants aged 18 to 25 (M = 21.24; SD = 2.09) and included 192 women (76%) and 62 men (24%). To measure the title variables, we used: the Religious Comfort and Strain Scale (RCSS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). The results showed that people who consider religion as a source of comfort express positive attitudes toward the self and recognize others’ kindness, as well. In contrast, people who consider religiosity as a cause of fear, stress, and internal strain tend to display a lower subjective sense of personal worth and lower appreciation of the positivity around them. Moreover, gratitude had a mediatory effect on the relationships between religious comfort/negative emotions toward God and self-esteem.
... There are significant differences between girls' and boys' self-esteem during adolescence (Kling, Hyde, Showers & Buswell, 1999). Heaven and Ciarrochi (2008) report some fluctuation in boys' self-esteem and a steady deterioration in girls' self-esteem. ...
Article
This study involved assessing the outcomes of a school-based, cost-effective, time-limited intervention directed at enhancing the self-esteem of Indian adolescent females. Adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 years (n=71), identified as having low self-esteem, belonging to four government schools, took part in the intervention. The intervention consisted of three domain-specific sessions. The sessions were developed after interviews with some of the participants to elicit the factors shaping their sense of self-worth. Control group participants (n=54) received no inputs on self-esteem enhancement. A pre-post design was followed. The selfesteem mean for the intervention group rose significantly immediately after the workshops. The mean of the control group was also significantly higher at the time of the second assessment. However the increase in selfesteem was much greater for the intervention group. Limitations and future directions of the study are discussed.
... (2007)reportedalowerlifesatisfactionforgirlsascomparedtoboys. On the other hand, Kling, Hyde, Showers and Buswell (1999) and Haring, Stock and Okun (1984), reported a slightly higher life satisfaction in men than women. Similarly, Smith and Baltes (1998) also reported higher life satisfaction in elderly men than women. ...
Article
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Life satisfaction, recognized as one of the main goals of life for individuals and for social policies of governments, is generally low in Nigeria. The few available studies on life satisfaction have been concentrated on other aspects of life satisfaction without giving attention to the importance of gender and self esteem in improving life satisfaction. This study, therefore, examined the effects of gender and self-esteem on life satisfaction among residents in Ibadan metropolis. Using a 2-way factorial design and a multistage sampling technique, five of the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the metropolis were purposively selected. Based on the list of enumeration areas for 2005 census, 10 enumeration areas each were selected from the LGAs with simple random technique. The number of houses on the selected enumeration areas was determined with enumeration area maps. Two hundred and twenty households each were selected from the LGAs using systematic technique. A total of 1100 household heads were randomly sampled. A structured questionnaire focusing on socio-demographic profile, self-esteem (r=0.61) and life satisfaction (r=0.74), were administered to the participants. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance at 0.05 level of significance. Self esteem influenced life satisfaction (F (1,685) = 30.59; p<.05) while, gender did not influence life satisfaction (F (1,685) = .85p>.05).There was a significant interaction effect of self-esteem on gender to predict life satisfaction (F (1,685) = 5.40;p<.05). Gender was not important but self esteem was crucial in improving life satisfaction. Gender differences should be considered for adequate measurement of life satisfaction based on gender descriptions of men and women.
... También sería interesante la adopción de una forma paralela del cuestionario con el objeto de establecer programas de intervención de mejora de la autoestima y validar su efectividad mediante el sistema de test y retest -pretest o postest. Por lo tanto, con los resultados obtenidos, se pueden también afirmar que los datos sobre la autoestima van a favor de los hombres como ya encontraron las investigaciones de Milicic y Garostegui (1993); Feingold (1994); Kling et al (1999) donde las diferencias entre 15 y 18 aumentaban considerablemente (d=.33) (citados en UNIR, 2016). De los resultados obtenidos, como prospectiva, esto nos podría sugerir futuras investigaciones dirigidas a llevar a cabo programas preventivos y de carácter temprano, y personalizados según género y cada subnivel de la autoestima, también sería interesante trabajar la relación entre la autoestima en todos sus subniveles y la relación con la reincidencia. ...
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Resumen: El presente trabajo tiene como fin el análisis de los valores de la autoestima en una muestra formada por 555 menores y jóvenes de edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 19 años pertenecien-tes al Programa de Reparaciones Extrajudiciales y Desarrollos Educativos (REDES), Programa pertene-ciente a la Agencia de la Comunidad de Madrid para la Reducación y Reinserción del Menor Infractor (ARRMI), desarrollado mediante contrato de servicio público con la Federación de Plataforma Sociales Pinardi. Este Programa atiende desde la perspectiva socioeducativa a los menores sujetos al cumpli-miento de medidas judiciales, así como aquellos otros que tienen que realizar reparaciones extrajudi-ciales dentro del ámbito de la justicia juvenil. A estos menores y jóvenes se les aplicó la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg. Los resultados arro-jaron que las puntuaciones obtenidas son similares a otros estudios, y que se encuentran diferencias significativas entre sexo, tipo de actividad judicial y no tanto por edad. Se encontraron relaciones entre la autoestima con sexo, edad y medida judicial. Las principales conclusiones de este estudio es validar el perfil descriptivo sobre la autoestima en estos menores, la cual puede permitir ajustar las interven-ciones orientadas a la mejora del autodesprecio o autoaprecio en función del sexo, así como valorar la edad como una variable para intervenir sobre la autoestima para la prevención de conductas de repro-che penal. This paper aims to analyze the values of self-esteem in a sample of 555 children and young people aged between 14 and 19 years belonging to the Program Extrajudicial Repairs and Educational Development, program belonging to the Agency for the Reduction and Reinsertion of Juvenile Offenders of the Community of Madrid (ARRMI), signed by public service contract with the Federation of Pinardi Social Platform. This Program attends from a socio-educational perspective to minors subject to compliance with judicial measures, as well as those who have to carry out extrajudicial reparations within the scope of juvenile justice. To this minors and youngs, were applied the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. The results showed that the scores are similar to other studies, and found significant differences between sex, activity and age not so much. There are also differences in the relationship between self-esteem with sex, age and judiciary measures. The main conclusions of this study is to validate the descriptive profile on self-esteem in these minors, which may allow adjusting the interventions aimed at improving self-esteem or self-esteem based on sex, as well as assessing age as a variable to intervene on the self-esteem for the prevention of conduct of criminal reproach.
... Over the past decade, there has been an increase in major depressive episodes [9], and more students seek treatment for anxiety and depression [10]. Studies regarding gender differences in mental health indicate that males have better body image, higher self-esteem, less stress, anxiety, and depression [11][12][13]. Results for gender differences on perceived loneliness among university students have been mixed [14]. Restrictions during the pandemic, such as suspension of schools and lockdowns, led to a dramatic decrease in social connection, educational engagement, and opportunity to exercise, which all protect against ill-being. ...
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Objective COVID-19 has affected people’s health in various ways. University students are a particularly sensitive group for mental and physical health issues. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the mental and physical health of male and female first-year university students during and before COVID-19. Method Total of 115 first-year university students (54% male) answered questions about mental and physical health. The students were asked to estimate their physical activity, sedentary behavior, loneliness, stress, and sleep quality during COVID-19 opposed to before the pandemic. Result Males had fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression, and their self-esteem was higher than females (p<0.05). Over 50% of both genders estimated their mental health to be worse than before COVID-19. Larger proportion of males (69%) compared to females (38%) estimated that their physical health had worsened than before the pandemic. Larger proportion of females (38%) than males (14%) experience increased loneliness and stress (68% vs. 48%). Over 70% of both genders estimated increased sedentary behavior than before the pandemic, and larger proportion of males (76%), compared to females (56%), estimated that they were less physically active than before COVID-19. About 50% of participants estimated their sleep quality was worse than before COVID-19. Conclusion University students estimated their mental and physical health to have deteriorated during the pandemic. Therefore, it is important that the school and healthcare systems assist students in unwinding these negative health and lifestyle changes that have accompanied the pandemic.
... Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1979) is a 10-item self-report Likert-type inventory measuring global self-esteem (Kling et al., 1999). Each item consists of a simple statement (e.g. ...
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The current study examined the impact of using social media in English on associations between social media dependency and self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and loneliness for Welsh speakers. A total of 836 pupils (317 Welsh speakers; 519 non-Welsh speakers), with a mean age of 13.44 (± .943), attending state-maintained Welsh/bilingual-medium secondary schools throughout Wales, completed scales on social media dependency, self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and loneliness. A structural equation model approach found that whenever social media dependency was the predictor, its hypothesized associations with depression, loneliness, social anxiety, and self-esteem were stronger for Welsh speakers relative to non-Welsh speakers. The results suggest that a perceived or actual marginalization of a minority language within the social media domain might negatively impact minority language speakers’ self-esteem levels, which potentially impacts related psychological constructs.
... However, in terms of self-esteem these findings revealed that male teachers were more resilient. This conclusion is reinforced by previous meta-analytic evidence that men consistently outperform women in terms of self-esteem [83]. ...
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(1) Background: The closure of schools and the transition to online teaching because of the COVID-19 pandemic’s restrictions have resulted in significant changes in the workplace. Consequently, several resilience strategies have been implemented, and chief among them focus on the topic of burnout and coping abilities; (2) Purpose: Thus, this study investigates the influence of self-esteem, dispositional hope, and mattering on teacher resilience, and how crisis self-efficacy and gender differences mediate and moderate the relationships among associated variables. (3) Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with a cluster random sampling. A total of 248 secondary school teachers in Malaysia participated in this study. Questions were first transferred and formatted using a template of a commercial internet survey provider. Then, the university’s online learning platform was used both as a questionnaire distribution channel and a data collection method. Data analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) with a partial least squares method; (4) Results: The findings of this study revealed that self-esteem, dispositional hope, and mattering significantly influence teacher resilience, and crisis self-efficacy mediates the impact of self-esteem and dispositional hope on teacher resilience. In some instances, the results also showed that gender has a moderating effect on teacher resilience during the pandemic; (5) Conclusions: This study used psychological factors to understand teacher resilience and incorporated crisis self-efficacy into teacher resilience research. It is one of the very few studies in resilience literature to investigate the moderating role of gender on teacher resilience.
... On average, a number of meta-reviews suggest that men perceive themselves to be (or are perceived as) slightly more confident than women, but this difference is quite small (Lundeberg et al., 2000). However, given varying definitions of confidence and the fact that confidence itself has been found to be highly contextual, influenced by factors such as task and environment (Kling et al., 1999), men are still stereotyped as being much more confident and agentic than women (Fisk and Ridgeway, 2018). Prentice and Carranza (2002) found that some of the most intensified gender prescriptions (i.e., beliefs about what women and men should be) for men are all highly associated with confidence-e.g., to have leadership ability, ambition, and high self-esteem and to be assertive and decisive. ...
Article
One's ability to express confidence is critical to achieve one's goals in a social context—such as commanding respect from others, establishing higher social status, and persuading others. How individuals perceive confidence may be shaped by the socio-indexical cues produced by the speaker. In the current production/perception study, we asked four speakers (two cisgender women/men) to answer trivia questions under three speaking contexts: natural, overconfident, and underconfident (i.e., lack of confidence). An evaluation of the speakers' acoustics indicated that the speakers significantly varied their acoustic cues as a function of speaking context and that the women and men had significantly different acoustic cues. The speakers' answers to the trivia questions in the three contexts (natural, overconfident, underconfident) were then presented to listeners ( N = 26) in a social judgment task using a computer mouse-tracking paradigm. Listeners were sensitive to the speakers' acoustic modulations of confidence and differentially interpreted these cues based on the perceived gender of the speaker, thereby impacting listeners' cognition and social decision making. We consider, then, how listeners' social judgments about confidence were impacted by gender stereotypes about women and men from social, heuristic-based processes.
... Contrairement à la précédente étude, nous avons fixé davantage de conditions d'inclusion afin que notre échantillon en ligne se rapproche le plus possible de la population étudiante. En effet, nous avons souhaité augmenter la comparabilité de nos résultats avec ceux des études réalisées au sein de l'Université Savoie Mont-Blanc (1a et 1b) en contrôlant certaines variables socio-démographiques (âge, sexe) qui auraient pu avoir un impact sur nos résultats par leur implication sur l'estime de soi (Kling et al., 1999;Orth et al., 2018). 25 Les plateformes de production participative permettent aux expérimentateurs de valider ou de rejeter la participation de chaque sujet en fonction de la fiabilité des réponses et de la réalisation effective des études proposées. ...
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Self-esteem is recognized as an essential psychological resource. Low self-esteem is a trans-diagnostic symptom of many psychological disorders. Considering its association with coping skills and psychological adjustment strategies, the preservation of self-esteem appears to be an important clinical issue in oncology care as it would allow patients to better cope with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This thesis, through a meta-analysis of the interventions proposed to increase self-esteem in adults, has highlighted some of their characteristics that limit their efficacy and clinical applicability. Then, seven randomized controlled studies were conducted and allowed the development of a new short and self-administered technique for self-esteem increase, easily applicable to cancer patients. The lexical association technique aims at improving self-esteem by reinforcing the associative links between the Self and positive concepts stored in memory, through the activation of semantic and episodic forms of self-knowledge. This reinforcement is based on a reading and mental visualization exercise. In this thesis, the efficacy of the lexical association technique on global self-esteem was highlighted in students and breast cancer patients. Various studies aiming to simplifying and increasing the clinical applicability of the technique have demonstrated the need for retrieval of detailed memory traces, as well as the importance of contact with the experimenter in the efficacy of our technique. These results enabled us to develop and test a second format of the lexical association technique on global self-esteem, optimizing the activation of episodic self-perceptions, and proposing personalized and engaging exercises. Self-perceptions, on which self-esteem is based, are rooted in the individual's memory system. This thesis has contributed to highlighting that their reinforcement requires a combined activation of the different forms of self-knowledge that constitute them. However, the clinical applications of the lexical association technique as a transdiagnostic intervention have yet to be defined.
... Istraživanje Stejgera i saradnika (Steiger et al., 2014) pokazalo je da adolescenti ispoljavaju viši nivo globalnog samopoštovanja i pozitivnije percepcije o svom fizičkom izgledu i akademskim kompetencijama nego adolescentkinje. Neka od istraživanja takođe govore u prilog tome da osobe muškog pola samoizveštavaju o višem nivou samopoštovanja i da najveći rodni jaz kada je ta varijabla u pitanju postoji upravo u adolescenciji (Kling et al., 1999;Thorne & Michaelieu, 1996), pri čemu ta razlika ostaje primetna i tokom rane i srednje mladosti, a zatim se u kasnijem uzrastu smanjuje i potencijalno nestaje (Robins et al., 2002;Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2012). Postojanje rodnog jaza u nivou samopoštovanja moguće je tumačiti uvreženim tendencijama porodičnog vaspitanja da se dečacima pruža veća autonomija, različitim rodnim ulogama u smislu većeg vrednovanja samopouzdanja dečaka i akcentom na fizičkom izgledu devojčica što, zajedno sa pritiscima medija, potencijalno može dovesti do nižeg samopoštovanja adolescenta ženskog pola (Steiger et al., 2014). ...
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U radu se polazi od pretpostavke da primena osnovnih polazišta pozitivne discipline u porodici može da obezbedi značajan potencijal za razvoj samopoštovanja adolescenata. Takva pretpostavka ce temelji na razumevanju pozitivne discipline kao pristupa vaspitanju koji obezbeđuje jasna pravila i ravnopravan dijalog između roditelja i adolescenata, čime se razvija odgovornost adolescenata i povećava njihova sposobnost da prevazilaze rizične situacije. Na toj osnovi sprovedeno je istraživanje pitanja povezanosti između procene indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici i nivoa samopoštovanja adolescenata. Uzorkom je obuhvaćeno 195 učenika iz novosadskih srednjih škola, a za prikupljanje podataka korišćene su Rozenbergova skala za procenu nivoa samopoštovanja i skala procene indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici, koja je konstruisana za potrebe ovog istraživanja. Rezultati su pokazali da je primena osnovnih polazišta pozitivne discipline u porodici procenjena kao umerena, pri čemu su stavke koje se odnose na usmerenost na dugoročne ciljeve u vaspitanju, individualni pristup i oslanjanje na pozitivno u adolescentu procenjene kao najzastupljenije. Utvrđeno je da ispitani adolescenti generalno imaju visok nivo samopoštovanja i da procena indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici i nivo samopoštovanja adolescenata međusobno pozitivno koreliraju. Takođe, dobijeni rezultati sugerišu da se procena indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici može posmatrati kao dobar prediktor nivoa samopoštovanja adolescenata. Na osnovu iznetih nalaza zaključuje se da primena osnovnih polazišta pozitivne discipline u porodici može da bude resurs za osnaživanje i učvršćivanje samopoštovanja tokom adolescencije, štoukazuje na značaj i potrebu osnaživanja roditelja u ovom domenu.
... Sociocultural factors might partly explain why gender did not moderate the mediating effect of self-esteem in our sample. A sociocultural perspective holds that gender differences in self-esteem are largely governed by social influences that vary by context and culture (Kling et al., 1999;Orth and Robins, 2014). In many Asian countries, such as China, there are small gender differences in self-esteem, as people are more likely to engage in within-gender social comparisons that reduce selfstereotyping processes (Guimond et al., 2007;Bleidorn et al., 2016). ...
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Hoarding behavior may not only interfere with hoarders’ daily lives but may also endanger the community. However, few studies have investigated the role of personality characteristics in hoarding behavior. We hypothesized that dispositional mindfulness would be negatively associated with hoarding behavior, and tested mechanisms and gender differences in this association. An online survey was conducted in a sample of 533 Chinese adults (262 women, Mage = 26.82; SD = 6.30). Regression-based analyses showed that mindfulness was associated with less hoarding behavior through higher self-esteem and lower emotion dysregulation. Moreover, gender moderated the mediating effect of emotion dysregulation in the association between mindfulness and hoarding behavior. Specifically, the indirect association was only significant for women. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how, why, and for whom dispositional mindfulness is negatively associated with hoarding behavior, they provide support for self-completion theory and the cognitive-behavioral model of hoarding, and they have heuristic value for future research.
... For instance, Labbrozzi et al. (2013) observed that 13-year-olds had a poorer physical perception, lower intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment of physical activity when compared with younger girls. In a meta-analyse (Kling et al., 1999) it was found that an effect size of d = 0.21, a small difference favouring males, and that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). Rose et al. (2015) found that, although adolescent males rate their global self-esteem as significantly higher than adolescent females, this difference remains constant independently of MC differences. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between motor competence (MC) and self-esteem in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Methods This is five years mixed longitudinal study, although only the last two years were included in the analysis. Participants were N = 144 of both sexes (69 girls) divided in 6 cohorts. At baseline the youngest and the oldest cohorts had 4 and 9 years of age respectively. MC was assessed with KTK. Self-esteem and self-worth were assessed with the Portuguese version of Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children and Youth (PSPP-CY). Cross-lagged models were used to find out whether MC predicts self-esteem and self-worth, or the reverse. Linear mixed models were applied. Results Overall, only self-esteem was predicted by MC across age. Results show that self-esteem had a significant decrease between 7 and 13 years of age (−0.56) and that MC is positively associated with self-esteem (b = 0.006). Conclusions MC had a mitigating effect on the decrease of self-esteem. Promoting MC during childhood and adolescence might have a positive effect on children's well-being and mental health and prevent them to dropout from physical activities.
... On the one hand, males tend to show higher self-confidence and self-esteem than females, which may cause them to report higher CO. For example, a meta-analysis (Kling et al., 1999) showed that males reported higher self-esteem than females. On the other hand, females may suffer more discrimination than males in the labor market. ...
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Purpose Given its importance, career optimism (CO) has drawn much attention from researchers. Fruitful evidence has been accumulated; unfortunately, a quantitative review is still lacking, which would limit the continuous development of this field. To address this, this paper uses the meta-analysis technology to evaluate the links between CO and its antecedents and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This study used Hunter–Schmidt method random effect meta-analysis technology to systematically evaluate the true score correlations between CO and its antecedents and outcomes. Findings Among the CO antecedents, this study found significant links between CO and agreeableness ( ρ = 0.11), career adaptability ( ρ = 0.55), career knowledge ( ρ = 0.43), career decision self-efficacy ( ρ = 0.52), social support ( ρ = 0.30), conscientiousness ( ρ = 0.54), extraversion ( ρ = 0.38), gender ( ρ = 0.07), GPA ( ρ = 0.11), neuroticism ( ρ = −0.42), and openness ( ρ = 0.27). Moreover, among the CO outcomes, significant links have been found between CO and academic satisfaction ( ρ = 0.43), career choice satisfaction ( ρ = 0.44), career decisiveness ( ρ = 0.37), depersonalization ( ρ = −0.48), and emotional exhaustion ( ρ = −0.59). Originality/value By conducting the first meta-analysis of CO, our study contributes to the CO literature. Additionally, our study increases the knowledge of CO, which would help leaders in the school or workplace to understand the significance of CO better and thereby take actions to intervene and increase students or employees' CO.
... These benefits of self-enhancement are observed across cultures. Women report lower levels of self-enhancement (Grijalva et al., 2015) and self-esteem (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999). Further, women report lower life satisfaction and more negative affect than men, while the evidence on positive affect is inconclusive (Batz-Barbarich, Tay, Kuykendall, & Cheung, 2018). ...
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We extend Benenson et al.'s hypothesis from the individual level to the societal level. Because women have highly limited reproductive rates, societies have generally prioritized female survival and regarded males as expendable. We describe various lines of evidence that are consistent with this hypothesis, and we offer additional predictions about differential attitudes toward male versus female endangerment.
... In terms of identity formation, girls are normally more mature than boys during early adolescence, while boys catch up by late adolescence (Klimstra et al., 2010). In addition, males are widely found to have higher self-esteem than females (Khanlou, 2004;Kling et al., 1999). However, empirical works on gender difference in identity formation have not yielded consistent findings. ...
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The negative effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on children’s mental health is widely explored. However, the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship among children in mainland China are rarely investigated. This study examines the indirect link from ACEs to children’s depressive symptoms and self-esteem through peer victimization and positive identity. Gender differences in the pathways are also discussed. A total of 775 primary and middle school students (mean age = 12.43, 9–16 years old, 46.3% males) in Dali city of Yunnan province voluntarily participated in a questionnaire survey. The ACEs, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, peer victimization, and positive identity were assessed via questionnaire survey using validated measurement tools. Structural equation model with Amos 24.0 was used to test the hypothesized theoretical model. The results showed that ACEs had a direct effect on children’s depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Meanwhile, peer victimization and positive identity partially mediated the main effect. Moreover, four paths in the model showed significant gender differences, namely, from ACEs to depressive symptoms, from ACEs to peer victimization, from positive identity to depressive symptoms, and from positive identity to self-esteem. All of these paths showed that the moderating effect was stronger for males than for females. This study contributes to the current understanding of the mechanisms of ACEs on children’s depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Findings also highlight that future intervention programs and social services for enhancing children’s mental health must be more targeted to male victims of ACEs.
... These benefits of self-enhancement are observed across cultures. Women report lower levels of self-enhancement (Grijalva et al., 2015) and self-esteem (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999). Further, women report lower life satisfaction and more negative affect than men, while the evidence on positive affect is inconclusive (Batz-Barbarich, Tay, Kuykendall, & Cheung, 2018). ...
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The target article presented a plausible argument that females' susceptibility to threats might be self-protection for staying alive, but some evidence requires scrutiny. We need to consider (1) the biases of narrative reviews, (2) subjective life quality, and (3) the shadow side of extreme reactions to threats before concluding that females' threat-based response is a self-protection mechanism that promotes survival.
... Such group differences has been found, especially among adolescents in dispositional hope (e.g., Esteban-Gonzalo et al., 2020;Sengupta & Karmakar, 2021), i.e. young men may be more hopeful than young women (but see meta-analysis by Yarcheski and Mahon, 2014, where variability in statistical findings was found across gender differences in dispositional hope in adolescence). Such differences are often explained through two types of origin theories-those related to 1) different dispositions (e.g., men may perceive a higher self-efficacy of affect regulation and thought, and more robust self-esteem than women, e.g., Graves et al., 2021; however, the reported effects sizes are typically small, Kling et al., 1999;Zuckerman et al., 2016), and 2) social structure (e.g., social roles associated with femininity have been related to stronger concerns about relations than those associated to masculine roles (Helgeson, 2003), it is important because women's self-view, e.g., self-esteem seems to be stronger connected to other's view of oneself than in men). Gender gaps in hope are not consistently stable across studies (Snyder, 2002;Snyder et al., 1996). ...
Article
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In Snyder' theory the construct of hope is central to successful goal attainment. The present studies aimed to examine whether the experience of success versus failure in goal pursuits influence state hope, as was found in previous research. In Study 1, the participants completed a scale assessing current hopeful thoughts, in which they recall and describe successful, or unsuccessful goal pursuits. Then they again completed the state hope scale. In Study 2, the participants were instructed to complete two measures, assessing current hopeful thinking, and self-esteem. Then, they performed anagram tasks-representing easy, mixed, or difficult levels of difficulty, in which they respectively succeed, perform neutrally, or fail, or were assigned to control condition (the participants were sitting only). Next, they filled in the same two scales. In Study 1, state hope increased in the respondents who recalled successful goal pursuits, and decreased in those who recalled unsuccessful goal pursuits. However, this effect was moderated by gender: thinking about success increases state hope only in men, whereas thinking about failures decreases state hope just in women. In Study 2, those who experience failure experienced a decrease in state hope. However, such an effect was found only in women.
... Dapatan yang paling kukuh daripada literatur menunjukkan jurang jantina yang signifikan iaitu remaja lelaki mempunyai estim kendiri yang lebih tinggi daripada perempuan. Jurang jantina semasa peringkat remaja ini akan berkurangan dan hilang apabila di usia tua, (Kling et al., 1999;Robins et al., Zeigler-Hill & Myers, 2012). Walaupun terdapat beberapa laporan yang mengatakan estem kendiri bagi lelaki adalah tinggi, kebanyakan kajian tidak menunjukkan perbezaan yang boleh dipercayai pada estim kendiri di antara perempuan dan lelaki (Martin et al., 2012). ...
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Abstrak: Artikel ini membincangkan tentang estim kendiri dalam kalangan remaja perempuan. Remaja dibahagikan kepada 3 fasa atau peringkat iaitu peringkat awal remaja, remaja pertengahan dan akhir remaja. Remaja lelaki dan perempuan mempunyai tahap estim kendiri yang berbeza. Oleh yang demikian peranan jantina dalam pembentukan estim kendiri adalah sangat penting bagi membentuk estim kendiri yang positif dalam kalangan remaja. A. PENDAHULUAN Estim kendiri ialah satu aspek yang penting dalam kehidupan kita kerana estim kendiri merupakan penawar dan kunci kejayaan seseorang individu dalam mengharungi kehidupan. Estim kendiri merupakan salah satu cara seseorang itu menilai kebolehannya. Pengasas estim kendiri, James, (1890) mendefinisikan self-esteem (estim kendiri) sebagai kadar pencapaian sebenar kepada piawai yang sepatutnya. Penetapan tahap pencapaian yang bersesuaian dengan keupayaan diri akan menghasilkan estim kendiri yang tinggi. Estim kendiri pada dasarnya menentukan bagaimana seseorang individu itu menilai diri mereka sendiri. Menurut Coopersmith, estim-kendiri dilihat sebagai sejauh mana penilaian terhadap diri sendiri sama ada baik atau tidak.
... Subjective (or psychological) well-being, as an umbrella term, is often used for the evaluation of self-esteem, optimism, happiness, life satisfaction or even body image [80] causing mixed results. For instance, studies on body image [81] or global self-esteem [82] showed clear gender disparities favoring men, but studies on life satisfaction among adults indicated no gender differences [31]. Naturally, it is important to acknowledge that the lack of significant findings does not mean that there are no real differences. ...
Article
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Background Previous findings suggest a female preponderance in nonproductive thoughts -rumination and worry-, but studies on gender differences in the strength of the relationship between nonproductive thoughts, somatic symptoms and subjective well-being are scarce. Our aim was to test whether gender and age would moderate these associations. Methods 1572 adolescents were involved in this representative cross-sectional study (770 boys; mean age=15.39; SD=2.26 years). Nonproductive thoughts were measured by Nonproductive Thoughts Questionnaire for Children (NPTQ-C), somatic symptoms were assessed by Somatic Complaint List (SCL), while Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was used to measure subjective well-being. To assess the moderation effects of age and gender on the relationship between nonproductive thoughts, somatic symptoms and well-being, four multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) models were defined. Results Our results suggested that higher rates of nonproductive thoughts predicted a higher level of somatic symptoms and a lower level of subjective well-being. The analyses revealed that although nonproductive thoughts were strongly and equally associated with somatic symptoms among boys and girls, age was a significant moderator. Gender also moderated the relationship between nonproductive thoughts and subjective well-being. Conclusions Our results support the importance of nonproductive thoughts in somatic symptoms and highlight that the strength of the relationship is similar across both genders but could be dependent upon age. The findings also shed light on the decreased well-being of girls, especially with elevated level of nonproductive thoughts.
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The present study was conducted to explore the association between Instagram usage and College belongingness, and if the relationship was mediated by Self-esteem. A sample (N=105) of students belonging to a Mumbai college was administered the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (adapted for Instagram), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and the Psychological Sense of School Membership (adapted for college students). Correlations were drawn between all the three variables in pairs, and were subjected to regression. The results indicate that correlations between Instagram Usage and Self-Esteem (r=-0.31, p ≤ 0.001) and Instagram Usage and College Belongingness (r=-0.28, p ≤ 0.003) were statistically significant, meanwhile that of Self-Esteem and College Belongingness was not (r=0.62, n.s). Mediation analysis revealed the association between Instagram Usage and College Belongingness was significantly mediated by Self-Esteem. The study further discusses the results and provides suggestions so as to improve the College Belongingness among students.
Article
Background There is conflicting evidence on predictors of nursing degree completion. Identification of predictors of student desire to continue their education could be important in developing strategies for encouraging and supporting students to complete their university-level nursing education. Aim To explore the factors associated with the enrollment in the first graduate year of nursing studies, progression from the first to the third year of university undergraduate nursing study, and the desire of third-year undergraduate students to continue nursing education at the graduate level. Participants and methods A cross-sectional study involving 351 first- and third-year undergraduate and first-year graduate nursing students from three cohorts of the University of Split Department of Health Studies and one generation of first- and third-year undergraduate nursing students from the Catholic University of Croatia, Zagreb. We collected sociodemographic data on the participants, their opinions about their education, and scores on nine psychological questionnaires: performance self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, perseverance, attitudes towards science, self-respect, motivation, dispositional hope, future time perspective, and perceived personal incompetence. Results More than half of third-year undergraduate students wanted to continue their nursing studies at the graduate level, but they did not progress to the graduate degree studies immediately after finishing their undergraduate studies. None of the assessed characteristics predicted the desire of the final undergraduate year students to continue nursing education at the graduate level. In a nested follow-up study of a cohort of undergraduate students, we observed an increase in student attitudes towards science, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, future orientation, and a decrease in perceived personal incompetence. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that immediate progression to graduate level of nursing education, although perceived as desired, is not achieved by undergraduate nursing students. Interventions focusing on motivation, future orientation, and personal competence need to be explored as a way to promote academic progression in nursing.
Article
Purpose General causality orientation is a mini-theory within the self-determination theory (STD). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of general causality orientations (autonomous, controlled, and impersonal) on perceived stress and self-esteem among students in a women-only college. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through a questionnaire administered to students ( n = 132) of a small women-only university in Roanoke, Virginia, USA. The survey included questions on the three general causality orientations, perceived stress, and self-esteem; the survey also included questions on student satisfaction, financial resources, and academic performance, used as control variables in the study. Findings Autonomous orientation was not significantly related to self-esteem or perceived stress. Controlled orientation negatively influences self-depreciation. Finally, impersonal orientation positively influenced self-depreciation and negatively affected self-confidence. Practical implications Faculty and administrators in women-only universities should be encouraged to implement programs that strengthen the sense of optimism among female students. Student support services that emphasize enhancing autonomous orientation could be even more helpful by offering interventions that help students overcome their impersonal orientation. Originality/value While previous studies have concentrated on autonomous orientation, this study provides recommendations for overcoming impersonal orientation among female undergraduate students in women-only colleges to enhance self-esteem and reduce stress.
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Although personal and environmental correlates of adolescents’ happiness have been found, the temporal direction of these relationships is less known. The present study explored the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between self-esteem, school adjustment, and happiness during secondary school years in South Korea. Longitudinal data of 2,351 adolescents from three time points (Grades 7, 9, and 11) were drawn from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) and were analyzed using autoregressive cross-lagged modeling. The results indicated that inter-individual differences in self-esteem, school adjustment, and happiness were moderately stable from Grades 7 to 11. Self-esteem and happiness, and self-esteem and school adjustment reciprocally predicted each other over time. The effects of self-esteem on happiness and school adjustment two years later were stronger than the reverse direction of effects. School adjustment and happiness were only indirectly interrelated through self-esteem over time. These longitudinal relationships did not differ between genders. The implications of the findings for future research and adolescent interventions are discussed.
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Introduction: Student’s self-concept about their academic capabilities plays an important role in academic achievement. Main objective of the study was to examine the relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement. Methods: The sample (Male 261, Female 320, aged 17-19 years) were drawn from 15 secondary schools affiliated with CBSE board, India. Academic achievement was measured by self-reported CGPA of the previous year. Academic self-concept was measured by Kample and Naik Academic Self Concept Scale (ASCS). Data obtained was analyzed with the help of SPSS (16th, version) and JASP (Version 0.14.1). Results: Measurement model for ASCS was excellent fit in the samples [GFI=9971, CFI=.926, TLI=.897, RMSEA=1173(90%CI: Lower-0.1019: Upper-0.1333) and SRMR=0.0445].The result of the study revealed that there was a positive relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement(r=117) and this relationship was stronger for male students (r=0.125) than that of female students (r = .091). Academic self-concept accounted for 12.5% of the variance in the academic achievement. Moreover, gender differences in the academic self-concept of the students were also found (P= 0.01). Conclusions: This finding suggests that students performed academically better when they had good level of academic self-concept. Female students had significantly higher academic self-concept than male students.
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Self-esteem is individuals’ subjective appraisals about their self-worth. It is widely accepted that self-esteem is an important factor in adolescentdevelopment and has been suggested to have important links with adolescent well-being. The gender factor in self-esteem has been included inmany studies. Gender roles and stereotypes, body image, parental style, and cultural norms become prominent as the self-esteem predictors wefocus on in the female gender. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the findings on culture-related differences with effective predictorsof adolescent women’s self-esteem development. As a result, it has been determined that perceptions of gender roles, parental styles, and bodyimage have changed in the cultural context, and have different effects on the development of self-esteem in female adolescents.
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In recent years, the problem of mobile phone addiction (MPA) has become increasingly serious among mainland Chinese adolescents. Studies have found that self-esteem may be related to MPA, but the conclusions are inconsistent. Consequently, this meta-analysis aims to explore the real relationship between self-esteem and MPA, and analyze the moderator variables. The relevant studies used in meta-analysis were obtained by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Data, Chongqing VIP Information Co., Ltd. (VIP), PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase. Then articles were screened and coded, and statistical analysis was carried out by Stata 16.0 software. A total of 45,765 participants from 64 articles were included in the research. Meta-analysis showed that there was a moderate negative correlation between self-esteem and MPA( r = −.25, 95% CI = −.29, −.21). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis showed that the age and publication time can significantly moderate the relationship between self-esteem and MPA, but MPA measurement instrument, gender, region and publication type have no significant moderating effect. The current meta-analysis provided solid evidence that self-esteem was negatively correlated with MPA. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the causality between them, so as to make more specific practice and policy recommendations.
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European politicians have become increasingly concerned about the possible distorting effects of citizens not only being uninformed, but systematically misinformed about the European Union (EU). Against this background, this study assesses the role of EU knowledge in shaping the preference to vote to leave or remain in a (hypothetical) referendum on EU membership using cross-national survey data that were collected simultaneously in eight EU countries during the run-up to the 2019 EP elections. The surveys included a newly designed item battery of EU knowledge capturing both the accuracy as well as confidence in knowledge of the respondents. The results show that misinformedness is associated with a preference to leave the EU, the uninformed citizens tend to be undecided or not intending to vote, while the well-informed prefer to remain. Overall, our findings contribute to the ongoing debates about the role of misinformation in politics.
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In-session emotional processing is a central component of psychotherapy, but little is known about the types and the quality of emotional processing individuals engage in daily life. An ecological momentary assessment (EMA) schedule has been validated to assess distinct emotional experiences as they emerge in daily life. It remains an open question whether changes observed in distinct emotional experiences over a week of assessment are related to in-session self-esteem. In total, N = 42 university students participated in a one-week assessment of emotions using ecological momentary assessment, as well as in a one-session experiential task of resolving self-criticism (using a two-chair dialogue from emotion-focused therapy). The emotions in daily life were self-reported by the participants on a regular basis, and self-esteem was assessed three times during the two-chair dialogue. Two-level hierarchical linear models reveal emotional changes in daily life, and in-session self-esteem is introduced as predictor at level 2. In-session self-esteem was correlated with symptom levels. The results showed that changes in primary maladaptive emotions in the one-week assessment were predicted by state and trait components of in-session self-esteem, which took place at the outset of the EMA. Trait-components of self-esteem were linked with the level of symptoms, whereas state-components of self-esteem were not. The present study underscores the importance of extending research from within-session observations of emotional processing towards daily life. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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In Japan, active recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine was withheld between 2013 and 2021 due to adverse reaction reports. This resulted in low vaccine coverage with reports from less than 1%. This study aimed to investigate if knowledge and health-belief related factors associated with vaccine intention among young adolescents with the hope that our findings may be helpful in promotion campaigns. We recruited students in four colleges and universities in Akita Prefecture from 2020 to 2021 who had never been vaccinated. A total of 318 students (male 54%, mean age 21 years) responded to a self-administered questionnaire; only 6% reported immediate vaccine intention, and 61% reported no such intention or “do not know.” The correct percentages of 20-item knowledge about HPV vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, and prevention were very low regardless of gender (average males 41.4% vs. females 39.6%). Multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that in males, higher levels of literacy, perceived susceptibility, and place for vaccination (logistical barrier) were associated with HPV vaccine intention, whereas “no need now” was associated with less intention. In females, a higher level of knowledge was significantly associated with vaccine intention, whereas “concerns of adverse effects” were associated with less intention.
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Vast empirical evidence suggests a high significance of physical activity (PA) for health and well-being. Still, researches show a decline of PA in youth worldwide. Early adolescence is a particularly sensitive period because then children adopt healthy habits and build a positive attitude towards PA. Examining the significance and contribution of potential factors to overall PA in early adolescence is of theoretical and practical relevance. Thus, this study aimed to explore the validity of physical fitness and physical self-concept in the prediction of overall PA in early adolescence, taking into account gender and Body Mass Index (BMI). The sample consisted of 417 primary school students (54.9% boys), the average age 13.6 years (SD=0.73) who participate in regular physical education classes three times per week, each class 45 minutes. Physical self-concept was measured using the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). To assess everyday physical activity, we used the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Anthropometric measurements included the body height and bodyweight of the respondents. Physical fitness, i.e., flexibility, muscular strength (abdominal endurance strength and lower-limb explosive strength), and cardiorespiratory endurance were measured using the EUROFIT test battery. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that physical self-concept predicts 35% of the variance of PA over and above gender and dimensions of physical fitness. Significant predictors of physical activity were dimensions of physical self-concept: Physical Activity, Sports Competence, and Endurance. The interaction of Gender and Self Esteem contributed significantly indicating that higher Self Esteem had a significant role in the level of PA only in male adolescents. The main finding is that physical self-concept plays a crucial role in the prediction of the level of overall PA in which early adolescents will be engaged. The results support findings showing that intervention programs aimed to improve PA should encourage positive physical self-concept of adolescents with appropriate content and procedures.
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Studies of the activation of the behavioral immune system triggered by the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic have demonstrated that evolutionary explanations of individual differences in self-protection should not be based only on parental investment and sexual selection theory. An evolutionary model must also incorporate individual differences that arise within each sex as a result of life history strategies and attachment patterns.
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Self-protection can have psychological and behavioral implications. We contrast them with the implications of a self-enhancement strategy. Both self-enhancement and self-protection have costs and benefits as survival strategies, and we identify some of the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tradeoffs associated with the differential preferences for each strategy. New analyses on a large existing data set confirm the target article’s hypothesis that women are more attuned than men to potential negative consequences of innovations.
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While research has documented positivity biases in workplace feedback to women versus men, this phenomenon is not fully understood. We take a motivational perspective, theorizing that the gender stereotype of warmth shapes feedback givers' goals, amplifying the importance placed on kindness when giving critical feedback to a woman versus a man. We found support for this hypothesis in a survey of professionals giving real developmental feedback (Study 1, N = 4,842 raters evaluating N = 423 individuals) and five experiments with MBA students, lab participants, and managers (Studies 2-5, N = 1,589). Across studies, people prioritized the goal of kindness more when they gave, or anticipated giving, critical feedback to a woman versus a man. Studies 1, 3, and 5 suggest that this kindness bias relates to gendered positivity biases, and Studies 4a and 4b tested potential mechanisms and supported an indirect effect through warmth. We discuss implications for the study of motivation and workplace gender bias.
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Background: Humans are sociable creatures who thrive in social situations. Family is the child's first social Microsystems with which he or she interacts from birth to death. Interaction with family members and other peers during the teenage years helps him understand the pace of development. Self-esteem and body image are two factors that can help a child deal with an ageing crisis. It is imperative to understand the impact of family size on these two attributes.
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More women are running for and serving in the U.S. House of Representatives than ever before, but how does gender influence the careers of House members once they arrive in Congress? We find that gender matters in two important ways: first, freshmen women are older than freshmen men. Second, women are both more likely to lose a reelection race and more likely to retire because of electoral concerns than men. The result is that women have significantly shorter careers in the House than men. Both factors—women's delayed entry and early exit—produce fewer women in the House at any given time than if these disparities did not exist. These findings have significant consequences for the House's demographic makeup, ideological makeup, and policy agenda. The broader implication of our findings is that more women in the electoral arena is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the representation of women truly equal.
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Dispositional envy has been conceptualized as an emotional trait that varies across comparison domains (e.g., attraction, competence, wealth). Despite its prevalence and potentially detrimental effects, little is known about stability and change in dispositional envy across time due to a lack of longitudinal data. The goal of the present research was to close this gap by investigating stability and developmental change in dispositional envy over time. In a preregistered longitudinal study across 6 years, we analyzed data from N = 1,229 German participants (n = 510-634 per wave) with a mean age of 47.0 years at intake (SD = 12.4, range 18 to 88). Results from latent factor models revealed that both global and domain-specific dispositional envy were stable across 6 years in terms of their rank order and mean levels, with stability coefficients similar to those of other trait measures reported in literature. Moreover, a substantial amount of variance in global and domain-specific dispositional envy was accounted for by a stable trait factor. Results thus provide evidence for a stable disposition toward the experience of envy both at the global level and within specific envy domains. The present findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the stability and development of dispositional envy in adulthood and advance the understanding of emotional traits in general.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of career goal and self-esteem among adolescents. A sample of 221 high school sophomores and juniors was administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Their teachers also were asked to rate the students' self-esteem using the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC). It was found that, on both the RSE and SERSC, adolescents with some career goals had significantly higher self-esteem than did those without any career goal.
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Conventional wisdom has regarded low self-esteem as an important cause of violence, but the opposite view is theoretically viable. An interdisciplinary review of evidence about aggression, crime, and violence contradicted the view that low self-esteem is an important cause. Instead, violence appears to be most commonly a result of threatened egotism--that is, highly favorable views of self that are disputed by some person or circumstance. Inflated, unstable, or tentative beliefs in the self's superiority may be most prone to encountering threats and hence to causing violence. The mediating process may involve directing anger outward as a way of avoiding a downward revision of the self-concept.
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This paper examines the roles of gender identity and self-esteem in both physical and sexual abuse in dating relationships. A sample of heterosexual college dating relationships is examined. Data are collected on both inflicting and sustaining physical and sexual abuse for men and for women. No support is found for the long-held theory that abuse is a result of compulsive masculinity. Instead, in accordance with identity theory, we find that physical and sexual abuse are associated with the playing out of a less masculine (more feminine) identity for both males and females. In addition, low self-esteem appears to be associated with inflicting physical abuse for men and sexual abuse for women only in a spurious fashion: both low self-esteem and inflicting abuse result from a more feminine gender identity.
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In this book, Joseph Pleck examines and analyzes the full body of research literature on the male role that has appeared since the 1930s and subjects it to a devastating critique. He identifies the components of the "male sex role paradigm" which has been the basis of research for the past forty years, and notes numerous instances of blatant misrepresentation of data, twisted reinterpretations of disconfirming results, misogyny, homophobia, and class bias. He proposes a new theory, the "sex role strain paradigm," offers a reinterpretation of sex role stereotyping, and a critique of research by sociobiologists that allegedly demonstrates a biological basis for male aggression.
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This study is an extension of the contentanalysis conducted by K. Peirce [(1990) “AFeminist Theoretical Perspective on the Socialization ofTeenage Girls Through Seventeen Magazine,” SexRoles, Vol. 23, pp. 491-500]. Her study examined thecontent of Seventeen magazine for the years 1961, 1972,and 1985, and the impact of the feminist movement fromthe 1960s through the 1980s. The present study explored the content of Seventeen magazine in the years1945, 1955, 1965, 1975, 1985, and 1995 to determine ifthe articles that are presented have changed in responseto the feminist movement from the 1940s to the present day. These results would supportthe contention that there is a relationship between thecontent of Seventeen magazine, in terms of traditionalvs. feminist messages, and the women's movement. However, these changes are slight and still donot reflect the various roles of teenage girls.Implications for further research arediscussed.
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This paper examines single‐ and mixed‐sex elementary schooling in its effects upon the well‐being of girls and boys. Well‐being is defined in terms of adaptation to school life as reflected by affective characteristics such as self‐esteem, sense of mastery, stress, fear of failure, sense of belonging in school, study‐ and school commitment. Use was made of data concerning 2095 sixth‐grade pupils‐‐1130 boys and 965 girls‐‐in 60 private elementary schools. The results indicate that it is not the gender composition of the pupil population in se that exerts an influence but the gender composition of the teaching staff. Particularly, it is found that primary school boys are negatively affected by a school environment characterised by a preponderance of female teachers. Girls do not seem to be affected by the gender organisation of the school.
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The Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale (RSE) is a widely used measure of global self‐esteem. Although its psychometric properties have found considerable support, its relationship to a multidimensional scale of self‐concept has yet to be investigated. The sample for this study consisted of 150 adolescents randomly drawn in equal numbers and equated by gender from grades 8 to 12. Along with the RSE, Harter's Self‐Perception Profile for Adolescents was administered to assess the adolescents' self‐concept in nine separate domains. Correlational and cross‐validation multiple regression analyses found that the RSE total score and both its factor scores were strongly related to Global Self‐Worth, supporting Rosenberg's conclusions that his scale is a measure of global self‐esteem and that its two identified factors are essentially measuring one rather than two different constructs. Other findings include a gender difference, with females reporting significantly lower RSE scores, and modest correlational support for a grade level rise found in the literature.
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N. Betz and G. Hackett's (see record 1982-02194-001) career self-efficacy model was extended using an ethnically mixed (White, Hispanic, American Indian) rural high school population (467 girls and 426 boys). A modified form of Betz and Hackett's interest and self-efficacy instrument was used as well as measures of ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), stressful life events, and self-esteem. Gender differences were observed in interest and self-efficacy estimates for same-gender and cross-gender occupations, marked by boys' restricted consideration of cross-gender options. Ethnic differences were noted as well, particularly regarding self-efficacy estimates, with American Indian efficacy lowest for 7 of 18 occupations studied. Stepwise multiple regression analyses with interest and efficacy as the dependent variables yielded equations that varied by ethnicity.
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Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.
Chapter
Low self-esteem people have always been a puzzle to researchers. For years, many theorists began with the plausible yet probably false assumption that people with low self-esteem were generally the opposite of those with high self-esteem; by this reasoning, if people with high self-esteem want to succeed and be liked, then people with low self- esteem must want to fail and be disliked. More recent theorists (e.g., S. Jones, 1973; Shrauger, 1975) have suggested that the notion that low self-esteem people desire failure and rejection is false. The question remains, however: What do these people want?
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This research addresses a prominent issue in the field of self-esteem research: Do women and men with higher self-esteem have communally and agenlically oriented self-schemas, respectively, as various theories predict? This research utilized self and peer Q-sort inventories via the California Q-set (Block, 1978; Bein & Funder, 1978) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, it found that females do not have communally oriented self-schemas. Instead, they have a predominant composition of agentically oriented traits similar to males. We believe that these similarities between men and women are a product of the university environment from which our participants were drawn. This unique environment promotes individual goals and motivations for both sexes, unlike mainstream society which tends to encourage interdependence for women and individuation for men.
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Identity formation is thought to be one of the major developmental tasks of adolescence. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of leisure activities in this critical developmental process. This study provides an initial examination of the relationship between participation in various categories of leisure activity and level of identity development for male and female adolescents. Survey (n = 73) and interview (n = 20) data were collected from a sample of grade 10 students (mean age = 15.8 years). The questionnaire included measures of time use, identity development status, and self esteem, while the interviews focused on attitudes towards self and towards leisure activities. Analysis showed that level of participation in sports and physical activities was positively associated with identity development for females (r =.45, n = 35, p <.05) but not for males, even though females were less likely than males to self identify as “physically active”. Time spent watching television was negatively associated with identity development for males (r =.41, n = 38, p <.05), but not for females. Participation in social and other free time activities was not significantly associated with identity development for either gender. The findings suggest that different leisure activities can have either beneficial or detrimental effects on the identity formation process. Moreover, the relationship between leisure and identity development seems to depend on both gender and the gendered nature of leisure activities.
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Using a middle-school age sample of 120 an investigation of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale's construct validity was undertaken. Specifically, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale total score and two factor scores were correlated with scores on Harter's (1985) multidimensional Self-perception Profile for Children. Using a series of stepwise multiple regression analyses, for both factors of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and total score, the first identified predictor variable was Global Self-worth among Harter's six subscales. Other findings were the high internal consistency (α .84) and the lack of statistically significant differences by gender or grade. Findings are supportive of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a unidimensional measure of global self-esteem with middle-school age children.
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For three independent samples (mean age = 12.33 years, n = 711; mean age = 10.89 years, n = 225; and mean age = 12.05 years, n = 534, respectively), young adolescents who had experienced 0, 1, 2, and multiple parenting transitions were compared on adjustment scores that were derived from self-reports of grades, health, drug abstinence, self-esteem, and self-mastery (Sample 1); peer reports of peer acceptance (Sample 2); and parent reports of well-being (Sample 3). Overall, there was qualified evidence of a negative linear relation between the number of parenting transitions experienced and adjustment. With controls for parenting transition effects, parenting practices regarding involvement and supervision accounted for unique variability in adjustment in each sample.
Article
We explore gender differences in the importance of reflected appraisals, self-perceived competence, and social comparisons as sources of self-esteem. Gender differences are expected for several reasons: sex role socialization may lead men and women to develop abilities to exploit different sources of self-esteem; men and women may learn to embrace different criteria for self-evaluation; and opportunities to experience self-enhancement in various ways may the distributed unequally between men and women. We find that women attach greater importance to reflected appraisals than do men, and that men attach greater importance to social comparisons than do women. No difference is found for self-perceived competence. Men and women are also much alike, we find, in that reflected appraisals are the most important source of self-esteem for both groups, followed by self-perceived competence and then by social comparisons. These finding are interpreted in terms of compensation/availability dynamic that is hypothesized to underlie self-esteem formation. Some implications of this analysis for modifying identity theory are discussed.
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Previous research, especially that of Gecas and Schwalbe (1986), relating adolescent self-esteem to parental support, control, and participation is extended in the present investigation, which examines the effects of parent-adolescent communication and investigates dimensions of parent-adolescent interaction that predict parents' self-esteem. The findings suggest that (a) adolescents and their parents have similar but distinct perceptions of their relationships; and (b) self-perceptions of these relationships, especially self-judgments of communication, are important in predicting levels of self-esteem for both adolescents and their parents. Our discussion focuses on gender differences in the relationships reported, the central role of communication within the family unit, and the reciprocal character of parent-adolescent socialization.
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The social climate for women has changed considerably since the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS; Spence & Helmreich, 1972a) was developed in the early 1970s, but the pattern of change in AWS scores throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is unclear. Published reports of data from 71 samples of American undergraduates responding to the AWS were located and analyzed for differences across time (1970–1995) and region (South and non-South). Women's AWS scores were strongly correlated with year of scale administration (r= .78, p < .001), and men's scores showed a similar trend toward more liberal/feminist attitudes (r= .60, p < .001). Scores show a steady trend toward more liberal/feminist attitudes, with no appreciable reversal or slowdown during the 1980s. Gender differences steadily increased from 1970 to 1985 and decreased from 1986 to 1995. Southern samples were marginally more conservative/traditional. The results are discussed in terms of generational differences, the effects of maternal employment on attitudes, and the individual's experience of cultural change.
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The relationship of self-esteem to attribution of responsibility for problem cause and problem solution was studied in a sample of 205 college undergraduates. The results revealed a tendency for self-esteem to be negatively associated with the endorsement of an attribution style that features high responsibility for problem cause but low responsibility for problem solving. This result may be due to the lack of instrumentality and the feelings of failure associated with such an attribution style. The results are also discussed with reference to previous research on self-esteem and attribution of responsibility.
Article
In this study, we correlated scores on three self-report measures of creativity and three self-report measures of self-esteem for 55 male and 63 female college students (N = 118) to test the hypothesis that these two constructs are positively related. No differences between the sexes were detected in mean scores on any of the scales. Analysis of the data with Pearson correlation coefficients and by a confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesis was supported for both males and females, although the relationship seemed to be stronger for females than for males.
Article
The purpose of this research was to compare the self-images of male and female children in order to determine whether females were at a particular disadvantage and, if so, why. A random sample of 1988 children from grades 3-12 were interviewed in Baltimore in 1968. Findings show more disturbance among White adolescent females than among White males or Black females: White girls become much more self-conscious and show greater self-image instability and somewhat lower self-esteem. Three sets of factors appear to explain part of these differences: (1) attitudes toward present and future sex role, (2) peer relationships in general and opposite sex relationships in particular, and (3) attitudes toward changing looks in adolescence.
Article
The present study examined gender differences in late adolescents' future narratives.Thirty-nine male and 43 female late adolescents (M=20.01 years) completed 90-minute individual interviews assessing dimensional and thematic aspects of the future narrative as well as psychological profile characteristics (abstract reasoning, psychological distress, self-concept, and self-esteem). As predicted, gender differences emerged in the anticipation and projected timing of adulthood transition events. More females than males anticipated marriage and parenthood; females also anticipated younger ages at marriage and parenthood than males. Examination of adolescents' narratives of the life course beyond the adulthood transition revealed greater extensionoverall among males than females. No gender differences in extension or densitywere obtained for the anticipated occupational domain, and no gender differences were obtained in extension in the family domain. Female adolescents, however, anticipated more events in the family domain than did males. The findings are discussed in terms of the implicit theories of adulthood that inform adolescents' future narratives.
Article
The present study was designed to assess the relationship between adolescent loneliness and the following factors commonly associated with adult loneliness: attributional style, self-esteem, social anxiety, and social skills. Subjects were 186 ninth-grade students (107 males and 79 females) who were asked to complete seven different paper-and-pencil measures. Data were analyzed by calculating separate stepwise multiple regression equations for the total sample, males and females. Three significant predictors were found for the total sample: student social skills rating scale, self-esteem, and the perception of stability in interpersonal situations (attributional style). A different pattern of predictors emerged for males and females. Loneliness could be predicted for males from three variables: low self-esteem, the perception of uncontrollability in noninterpersonal situations, and self-perceptions of poor social skills. The best multiple predictors of loneliness for the females were self-perceptions of poor social skills, high social anxiety, and stable attributions for interpersonal situations.
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As a result of China's one-child-per-family policy, concern has been expressed in China regarding the effect of that policy on children. One hundred and sixty-four children, aged 11-13 years, in the same grade in an elementary school in Guangzhou, China, completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Sociometric measures were also completed by the children and their teachers. Of the 164 children, 51 were from one-child families, while 113 had siblings. No significant differences were found on the six subscales of the Self-Perception Profile. Gender effects were noted, however. Student and teacher evaluations on the sociometric measures tended to favor the only children. The results of the study provide no support for existing stereotypes concerning only-children, one-child families in China.
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Contemporary research on sex differences in intellectual abilities has focused on male-female differences in average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance. To examine the validity of that assumption, this article examined sex differences in variability on the national norms of several standardized test batteries. Males were consistently more variable than females in quantitative reasoning, spatial visualization, spelling, and general knowledge. Because these sex differences in variability were coupled with corresponding sex differences in means, it was demonstrated that sex differences in variability and sex differences in central tendency have to be considered together to form correct conclusions about the magnitude of cognitive gender differences.
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Developmental patterns of school-identified learning disabled (LD) and normally achieving (NA) students' responses to the Perceived Competence Scale for Children (PCSC) were investigated in this longitudinal study. Relative to the NA group, LD children were more negative about themselves; however, their self-evaluations did not become more negative over a two-year interval. Analysis of response patterns across PCSC subscales suggested that most of the LD sample was not appropriately characterized by persistent, globally negative self-evaluations. A subgroup of LD children who were very negative about themselves at both test administrations was identified. The characteristics of this subgroup were subsequently examined.
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Middle-aged mothers (n = 149) and fathers (n = 127) completed self-report measures of gender-linked attributes (the PRF-Andro), self-esteem (Rosenberg), sense of mastery, and psychosomatic symptom distress (the SCL-90), as part of a larger interview study of inter generational relations. Factor analyses revealed three major factors in the masculinity and three in the femininity scales. Factor scores were significantly related to sex and occupational status; some factor scores were associated with age. Mental health measures were related to the gender factors, with distinctive relationships for each group defined by sex, occupational status, and age. Gender-linked attributoons were most predictive of mental health measures among older (55+), upper status “gender sensitive” men. The older upper status women seemed most “gender-transcendent,” since none of the gender factor scores significantly predicted their mental health scores.
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Much research has shown that negative feedback has different motivational consequences for low- and high-self-esteem persons (low and high SEs, respectively). Primarily on the basis of laboratory experiments of task performance, it has been suggested that low SEs are much more likely than high SEs to become demotivated in the face of negative feedback. The present studies sought to explore the generalizability of such findings to (1) a more naturalistic setting (Study 1) and (2) a behavioral domain different from task performance (Study 2). Study 1 explored the impact of students' self-esteem and feedback from an initial course examination on their subsequent exam performance. As expected, low SEs performed much worse than high SEs subsequent to the receipt of negative feedback; following positive feedback the two groups performed equally on the subsequent exam. In Experiment 2, participants played the role of managers who had just received feedback that their willingness to communicate certain information either elicited negative outcomes (negative feedback condition) or did not (control condition). As predicted, low SEs expressed much less motivation than high SEs to communicate related information in the former than the latter condition, especially if the negative feedback was more threatening to their well-being in the organization. There were no differences between the two groups in the control condition. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
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Changes in self-perceptions of fitness, appearance, and self-esteem among adolescents were assessed in a 4-year follow-up study. Both the changes in the mean levels across time (profile analysis), and the changes in the reliability and stability of individual differences (i.e. covariance stability as test-retest correlations) were examined. The subjects (64 boys, 49 girls) were 11 years old at the first annual measurement. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, as well as self-assessment questionnaires specifically designed for this study to assess Perceived Fitness and Perceived Appearance. MANOVA-and Simplex-models were used in the analysis. Our results among the girls were in accordance with the gradual consolidation hypothesis, so that self-perceptions become more fixed with increasing age. The boys showed highly stable self-perceptions throughout the follow-up, which may indicate the early emergence of a fixed self-concept. Self-esteem increased with age but changes in perceived fitness were small over time. The decrease in perceived appearance found among the girls but not among the boys was in accordance with the gender intensification hypothesis.
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The purpose of this study was to assess howwomen's perceptions of themselves and their bodies varyby race/ethnicity and class. One hundred and fourteenfemale students (45 African-American, 69 Caucasian) from two Connecticut community colleges weresurveyed. We predicted that African-American women willreport higher levels of self-esteem and a more positivebody image than Caucasian women. These predictions were supported. Also as predicted,African-American women report possessing more masculinetraits and that men of their race tend less to preferthin, small figured women. Controlling for these“protective factors” substantially reduces therelationship between race/ethnicity and self-concept.African-American women's racial identity and exposure tothe dominant culture did not relate to self-conceptmeasures.
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The Self Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II) was administered to 901 students (11 to 18 years old) in grades 7 through 12 who attended one public coeducational high school. Factor analysis clearly identified the 11 SDQ II scales, each scale was reliable (median alpha = .86), and correlations among the factors were small (median r = .17). All of the SDQ II scales were significantly correlated with sex and/or age, though the effects of sex and age were small and independent of each other. The direction of the sex effect varied with the particular scale, and was not significant for the sum of all the SDQ II scales. This total score, and most of the separate scales, had a quadratic age effect where self concepts started out high, reached their lowest level in grade 9, and then increased. At every grade level academic criterion measures were significantly correlated with every academic scale, but not with the nonacademic scales. Verbal achievement was most highly correlated with Verbal self-concept, while mathematics achievement was most highly correlated with Math self-concept. These findings not only demonstrate the multidimensionality of self-concept, but also show that its relationship to other constructs cannot be adequately understood if this multidimensionality is ignored. The findings have important implications for the study of adolescent self-concept and support the construct validity of the SDQ II and the Shavelson model on which it is based.
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This paper analyzes relationships between sexuality and gender in the experiences of nine to eleven year-old children, based on participant observation in four different elementary schools. Children's gender arrangements help lay the foundation for the more overtly sexual scripts of adolescence and adulthood. Extensive segregation between girls and boys, and distinctive social relations within their separate groups, provide gender-differentiated contexts for learning. Groups of boys experience shared excitement and bonding focused on public rule transgression. Girls are organized in friendship pairs linked in shifting coalitions and bond more through mutual self-disclosure; they teach and learn strategies for maintaining and ending intimacy. Heterosexual teasing (“like”; “goin with”) and rituals like “chase and kiss” heighten gender boundaries. Separate gender groups – which sustain somewhat different meanings of the sexual – and ritualized and asymmetric relations between girls and boys, prepare the way for the sexual scripts of early adolescence.
Article
Self-perceptions of specific domains of competence, judgments of the importance of these domains, and perceptions of global self-worth were examined among children with learning disabilities (LD), low achievement (LA), and normal achievement (NA) in a full-time integrated classroom setting. Results showed that children with LD and LA held lower self-perceptions of scholastic competence than children with NA, and children with LD had lower self-perceptions of behavioral conduct than children with LA and NA. Both children with LD and children with LA had significantly larger discrepancies between perceived competence and importance in the scholastic domain than did children with NA. We found little evidence that children with LD employ a discounting mechanism to protect their self-worth. Overall, results offer little support for the use of importance ratings or discrepancy scores in understanding the relation between children's self-perceptions of competence and global self-worth.
Article
Based largely on social comparison theory, it was hypothesized that self-perceptions of scholastic competence, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth are (a) lower among children with learning disabilities (LD) in integrated classes than among nonhandicapped (NH) children in the same classes, and (b) higher among NH children in integrated classes than among NH children in nonintegrated classes. Scores of 341 third graders (52 LD Integrated, 164 NH Integrated, and 125 NH Nonintegrated) on the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985) provided general support for the first hypothesis, but limited support for the second hypothesis. Sex differences were found, as were Placement Group x Sex interactions. Results also indicated that measures of self-perceptions of scholastic competence, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth provided redundant information in the discrimination between LD Integrated and NH Integrated groups. Findings suggest that integration is unlikely to have a positive effect ...
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Upper primary gifted boys and girls were compared with nongifted children on self-perceptions of competence in four areas: cognitive, physical, social, and general self-worth. Gifted students perceived themselves as more competent than their nongifted peers in the cognitive and general self-worth areas, but not in the physical and social areas. Of the gifted children, those in a full-time segregated program had relatively lower perceived cognitive and physical competence than those in a part-time extension program. Sex differences were also observed.
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In basing results on ratios of properties of two groups, it would be undesirable for conclusions to be affected by the arbitrary choice of which group’s properties should be the numerator and which the denominator. From this point of view, using means of ratios is undesirable; medians are somewhat better, and mean logarithms seem the best choice. The geometric mean is a descriptive statistic that shares the desirable properties of the mean logarithm in that it is not adversely affected by the arbitrary choice of numerator.
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Studies involving gender differences in cognitive ability have almost exclusively examined mean differences. In a recent article, Feingold (1992a) addressed this deficiency in the literature with an examination of variability differences between males and females on several cognitive test batteries. His analyses consisted of calculations of variance ratios: dividing male variances by female variances. Averaging these variance ratios, however, can yield misleading conclusions. The creation of log-transformed variance ratios is a simple solution to this problem.
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A cross-sectional survey study examined commitment processes in the dating relationships and cross-sex friendships of young adults residing in the United States or Taiwan. Feelings of commitment were stronger in relationships with greater satisfaction, poorer quality alternatives, greater investment size and greater centrality of relationship. However, there was little evidence that commitment was influenced by normative support for a relationship. The relationship between commitment and satisfaction was stronger for dating relationships than for friendships, as was the relationship between commitment and alternatives. Dispositions appeared to affect commitment primarily in indirect ways. For example, self-esteem, psychological femininity and perspective-taking were associated with features of interdependence such as perceived alternative quality or willingness to invest, which in turn were related to feelings of commitment. Finally, Americans reported weaker commitment than would be expected given other features of their interdependence with partners. The port and extend the generalizability of Rusbult's investment model.