Article

Healthy pets, healthy people

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Articles about TNR programs commonly cite public concern about disease spread as a significant contributor to the opposition of TNR programs (36,51). Several diseases are of concern, including toxoplasmosis, ringworm, bartonella, and rabies (65). Most are spread by direct contact or fleas, except toxoplasmosis, and rabies does not occur in Australia. ...
... Concerns are often raised about toxoplasmosis, which for most healthy humans results in no clinical signs. However, in humans with weakened immune systems or pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can cause serious disease (65). Although infection can occur from accidentally ingesting cat feces with oocysts (eggs) from contaminated hands, especially in children, most infections are caused by the handling or ingestion of poorly cooked/uncooked meat; toxoplasmosis can infect sheep, cattle, pigs and wildlife (65). ...
... However, in humans with weakened immune systems or pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can cause serious disease (65). Although infection can occur from accidentally ingesting cat feces with oocysts (eggs) from contaminated hands, especially in children, most infections are caused by the handling or ingestion of poorly cooked/uncooked meat; toxoplasmosis can infect sheep, cattle, pigs and wildlife (65). There is no association between cat ownership and the presence of toxoplasmosis antibodies indicating human exposure (67,68). ...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of Brisbane residents was undertaken to investigate community attitudes toward urban stray cats and their management. Surveys were distributed to 84 medical and dental practices across Brisbane City, and were completed by 305 patients and staff. Practices were targeted to achieve a sample of respondents from a representative distribution of socioeconomic backgrounds. After being informed about trap, neuter, and return (TNR) programs for management of urban stray cats, most respondents (79%), chose TNR as their preferred management strategy, while a lesser proportion (18%) expressed a preference to continue the current Brisbane City Council lethal control program (catching and culling ~1,000 cats annually), and 3.4% selected to leave the cats alone. Differences in beliefs and attitudes toward urban stray cats as a function of demographic variables were investigated. Statistical analyses indicated that respondents who were male, older, non-cat owners, those who believed euthanasia of stray cats was humane, and that urban stray cats spread disease to humans were significantly more likely to express a preference for lethal control, as opposed to non-lethal population management. Based on these findings, we recommend that information is disseminated to mitigate these concerns or negative beliefs, where warranted. Ultimately, findings from this study demonstrate that current Queensland legislation does not reflect public views and opinions on stray cat management and should be reviewed. Formal research evaluating the efficacy of TNR programs for urban stray cats in Australia would be in the public interest.
... Os animais de estimação, em especial cães e gatos, representam companhia para muitas pessoas e podem também contribuir com o desenvolvimento físico, social e emocional das crianças e com o bemestar de seus proprietários, em particular de indivíduos idosos. Além dos reconhecidos benefícios psíquicos, estudos clínicos revelam normalização da freqüência cardíaca e dos níveis de pressão arterial nos indivíduos que possuem animais de estimação (BERZINS, 2000;PATRONEK et al., 1997;WONG et al., 1999). ...
... Os animais de estimação são criados, muitas vezes, de acordo com a rotina de vida dos seres humanos, geralmente, cometendo-se o erro de incorporar maus hábitos ao seu cotidiano, privandoos de sua vida instintivamente saudável e de seus hábitos naturais. Tais alterações acabam por se refletir diretamente na sua expectativa de vida (BERZINS, 2000;WONG et al., 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to evaluate the canine life expectation in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, as well as the causes of death of these animals, data related to 2,011 dogs attended at a University Veterinary Hospital or collected from veterinary clinics, kennels and private owners were analyzed. It was observed that the median age of the dogs at death due to all causes was 36 months old. Dogs of medium, large and giant breeds had longer longevity than the small ones. Female and neutered dogs lived longer than male and intact dogs. There was no difference in life expectation related to the fact that the animal was from a pure breed or not. The most important causes of mortality were, in decrescent order of occurrence, infeccious diseases, neoplasms and traumatic injuries. Canine life expectation found in this survey was shorter than that observed in other countries and infeccious diseases constitute the major cause of death.
... Nos últimos 10 anos o número de animais de companhia, principalmente de cães e gatos em áreas urbanas, tem aumentado consideravelmente (Pinheiro Jr. et al., 2006), a ponto de em 2007 ter sido registrada a presença de cães e gatos em 43% dos domicílios brasileiros (IBGE, 2009). Neste contexto, a relação entre o homem e o animal de estimação evoluiu qualitativa e quantitativamente, seja em relação ao bem estar animal (Carvalho, 1994), seja em relação aos benefícios da posse animal no tratamento da depressão, estresse, ansiedade e hipertensão arterial, bem como estímulo à prática de atividades físicas, socialização de crianças, idosos, deficientes físicos e mentais (Bahr & Morais, 2001;Wong et al., 1999). ...
... Segundo a "World Society for the Protection of Animals" (WSPA), os cuidados com a saúde animal estão inseridos no contexto da posse responsável e incluem cuidados com a alimentação, higiene, companhia, exercícios e acompanhamento médico veterinário. Animais de estimação criados de acordo com a rotina de vida dos seres humanos podem adquirir maus hábitos (Wong et al., 1999) que podem resultar em agressões por mordeduras, poluição sonora e visual, acidentes de transito. Ainda, a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) estima que haja aproximadamente 500 milhões de cães abandonados no mundo e que, no Brasil exista cerca de 25 milhões de cães abandonados, o que agrava os problemas de saúde pública e bem-estar animal. ...
Article
Full-text available
Discussions about the responsible ownership theme have been increasingly frequent in modern society, mainly due to the increasing number of pets and zoonotic risk between man and his animal. In order to evaluate the perception of dog owners in the municipality of Alegre - ES about responsible ownership, with emphasis on animals care, an interview was conducted with 76 dog owners from Alegre-ES. Of all dog owners, only 12.0% (n=9) searched about animal race characteristics before its acquisition and 74.0% (n=56) of the animals were acquired through friend's or relative's donation. According to the report of owners 30.0% (n=23) of dogs were properly vaccinated, 39.0% (n=30) vermifugated, although 73.0% (n=55) of dogs have accompanying veterinarian. Among the owners, 57.0% (n=26) related collect the feces of their dogs on public places and 83% (n=60) consider the presence of stray animals a problem. The results found reveal the lack of animal's care information, and consequently, exposes the community to risk of zoonotic decease occurrence, besides reinforces the necessity of the veterinarian effective action in the region studied.
... Os animais de estimação, em especial cães e gatos, representam companhia para muitas pessoas e podem também contribuir com o desenvolvimento físico, social e emocional das crianças e com o bemestar de seus proprietários, em particular de indivíduos idosos. Além dos reconhecidos benefícios psíquicos, estudos clínicos revelam normalização da freqüência cardíaca e dos níveis de pressão arterial nos indivíduos que possuem animais de estimação (BERZINS, 2000; PATRONEK et al., 1997; WONG et al., 1999). Os animais de estimação são criados, muitas vezes, de acordo com a rotina de vida dos seres humanos, geralmente, cometendo-se o erro de incorporar maus hábitos ao seu cotidiano, privandoos de sua vida instintivamente saudável e de seus hábitos naturais. ...
... Os animais de estimação são criados, muitas vezes, de acordo com a rotina de vida dos seres humanos, geralmente, cometendo-se o erro de incorporar maus hábitos ao seu cotidiano, privandoos de sua vida instintivamente saudável e de seus hábitos naturais. Tais alterações acabam por se refletir diretamente na sua expectativa de vida (BERZINS, 2000; WONG et al., 1999). A idade é definida como um processo biológico complexo, que resulta na redução progressiva da capacidade de um indivíduo manter a homeostasia sob estresses fisiológicos, diminuindo, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Com o objetivo de avaliar a expectativa de vida dos cães na área metropolitana de São Paulo e as causas relacionadas com a morte destes, foram analisados dados correspondentes a 2.011 animais provenientes de um hospital veterinário universitário, de clínicas particulares, de canis e de proprietários particulares. A idade mediana de sobrevivência dos animais foi de 36 meses. Os animais de porte médio, grande e gigante tiveram maior longevidade que os cães de porte pequeno. As fêmeas viveram mais que os machos e os animais castrados viveram mais que os não-castrados. Não houve diferença na expectativa de vida entre os animais de raça pura e os animais sem raça definida. Constatou-se que as causas mais importantes de mortalidade foram, em ordem decrescente de ocorrência, as doenças infecciosas, as neoplasias e os traumas. Pode-se concluir que a expectativa de vida dos cães foi menor que a observada na literatura internacional e que as doenças infecciosas constituem a principal causa de óbito.
... Os animais de estimação, em especial cães e gatos, representam companhia para muitas pessoas e podem também contribuir com o desenvolvimento físico, social e emocional das crianças e com o bemestar de seus proprietários, em particular de indivíduos idosos. Além dos reconhecidos benefícios psíquicos, estudos clínicos revelam normalização da freqüência cardíaca e dos níveis de pressão arterial nos indivíduos que possuem animais de estimação (BERZINS, 2000;PATRONEK et al., 1997;WONG et al., 1999). ...
... Os animais de estimação são criados, muitas vezes, de acordo com a rotina de vida dos seres humanos, geralmente, cometendo-se o erro de incorporar maus hábitos ao seu cotidiano, privandoos de sua vida instintivamente saudável e de seus hábitos naturais. Tais alterações acabam por se refletir diretamente na sua expectativa de vida (BERZINS, 2000;WONG et al., 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to evaluate the canine life expectation in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, as well as the causes of death of these animals, data related to 2,011 dogs attended at a University Veterinary Hospital or collected from veterinary clinics, kennels and private owners were analyzed. It was observed that the median age of the dogs at death due to all causes was 36 months old. Dogs of medium, large and giant breeds had longer longevity than the small ones. Female and neutered dogs lived longer than male and intact dogs. There was no difference in life expectation related to the fact that the animal was from a pure breed or not. The most important causes of mortality were, in decrescent order of occurrence, infeccious diseases, neoplasms and traumatic injuries. Canine life expectation found in this survey was shorter than that observed in other countries and infeccious diseases constitute the major cause of death.
... These subjects need to be aware of possible zoonotic parasites and of all measures to prevent infections for their pets and for themselves. It is worth highlighting that immunocompromised individuals should not give up their animal, as it has been demonstrated that pet ownership minimizes depression and that standard hygiene measures reduce at minimum the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections in this particular category [215,216]. ...
... The cornerstone to control intestinal parasitoses of pets is a combination of strategic worming methods (especially puppies, kittens and dams), wearing footwear when needed, supervising playing children and their interactions with pets, breaking faecal-oral routes by washing hands and removal and disposal of faeces from public and private grounds and litter trays, alimentary habits [216][217][218]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.
... Hill et al. [20] proposed that pets residing in the homes of immunocompromised people should be screened for enteric zoonotic organisms. However, Wong et al. [7] believed that, if appropriate care was taken, the risk of transmission of zoonoses to immunocompromised people was minimal. The United States Public Health Service considered that Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma were of signi®cant risk to immunocompromised people. ...
... However, these risks are not necessarily associated with pet ownership as Luft and Remington [48] determined that the risk of cerebral toxoplasmosis was not increased by cat ownership as most cases occurred because of reactivation of previously latent infections acquired from eating undercooked meats [49]. Although pet ownership may present a health risk, it is equally important to take into account adverse physical and emotional effects that may result if immunocompromised individuals are advised to give up loved pets [7]. In a study of HIV infected persons by Angulo et al. [50], pet ownership was associated with a decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms and Chomel [51] believed that provided immunocompromised patients were diligent in washing their hands after handing animals or cleaning cages, the risks of acquiring zoonotic infections were minimal . ...
Article
Pets offer individuals and the community significant benefits, however cognisance must be taken of the potential for transmission of infectious agents from these animals to humans. The prevalence of many parasites, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, has increased over the past few decades while others, such as Toxocara and Ancylostoma, have decreased. These changes could be real, associated with the ready availability of efficacious anthelmintic products or could be artificial due to the type of surveys conducted, the animals surveyed and the diagnostic tests used. Immunocompromised people, in particular, must be aware of the potential risk of acquiring parasitic infections from their pets. However, with the adoption of good hygiene and a thorough knowledge of the transmission of these parasites, immunocompromised people should be able to continue to enjoy the significant benefits of pet ownership. As many owners are not aware of the zoonotic parasites that could be carried by their pets or their mode of transmission, it is concluded that veterinarians need to play a greater role in the education of their clients.
... There are 223 million and 220 million dogs and cats respectively worldwide. Pets are used as companions also there have many advantages for societies in households, contributing to their use physically, socially, and emotionally for children [1]. However, pets are bringing health hazards. ...
Article
A pet has been shared in the environment many times and also they are bringing major psychological well-being to society. However, dogs and cats were a carrier of microorganisms that are pathogens for human infection, like viral, bacterial, parasitic, and others. From those pathogens are the emerging or re-emerging viral zoonoses for a human being, such as rabies, cowpox, rotaviruses, and others. Bacterial infections include scratches, pasteurellosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira, and tuberculosis leading to severe cases for people because of the different factors which occur in pet animals. Similarly, parasitic infections including hydatidosis, and leishmaniasis, are also recalled as pet-related zoonotic diseases. Lack of Veterinary care, good personal hygiene and pet hygiene, and absence of health education are the factors such as a risk of zoonotic infection.
... Livestock plays an important economic role for communities and families by providing food, fiber, hides, manure for fuel and fertilizer, and draught power, as well as having cultural significance and playing a role in the status of individuals in certain societies [1,2]. Pet animals, particularly dogs and cats, are important companions in many households, and contribute to the physical, social, and emotional development of children and the well-being of their owners [3][4][5][6][7], while non-domesticated animals (wildlife) provide a range of benefits to humans, including economic, health, recreational, scientific, and ecological values [8]. However, disease can have a significant impact on the productivity of livestock and the quality of product produced [9], the lifespan and quality of the life of pets, and the biodiversity of wildlife, with the potential for many disease pathogens to be transmitted to humans [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Domesticated and non-domesticated animals, including wildlife, deliver significant financial and nonfinancial benefits to the human community; however, disease can have a dramatic impact on the morbidity, mortality, and productivity of these animal populations and hence can directly and indirectly affect the human communities associated with them. This manuscript provides an overview of the important features to consider for the prevention and control of disease, with a focus on livestock diseases, and highlights the key role veterinary epidemiology plays in this endeavor. Measures of disease frequency and the type of epidemiological studies required to identify risk factors for diseases are summarized, with a focus on the use of these in the implementation of measures to control disease. The importance of biosecurity in maintaining disease-free flocks/herds is discussed and the steps taken to implement good biosecurity measures are outlined. It is concluded that a sound knowledge of veterinary epidemiology is required when developing control programs for disease and implementing biosecurity programs at a farm, regional, and national level. Keywords: Biosecurity, Disease control, Epidemiology
... For someone whose romantic experience was limited to a single partner in college whom he soon married, Maslow had a surprisingly strong, sustained interest in the topic. As early as Maslow (1953) in his book chapter "Love in healthy people," he described romantic ardor among individuals at a high level of personality functioning, and the following year, in an unpublished essay titled "Acceptance of the Beloved in Being-Love" (Maslow, 1996a), he further developed this conceptualization. For the rest of Maslow's life, he sought to refine his notion of what he called "Being-love," often included amid his analyses on the wider subject of "Being-psychology" or related to "Being-cognition." ...
Article
Maslow’s concept of self-actualization has been a bulwark of humanistic psychology for more than 50 years, and has increasingly gained international appeal beyond its original nexus within the United States. His description of the high achieving characteristics of self-actualizing men and women has influenced theorists and practitioners in such fields as counseling, education, health care, management, and organizational psychology. Through these same decades, Maslow’s formulation has also been criticized as promoting a hyperindividualistic, even narcissistic, orientation to personality growth. Because Maslow by temperament and intellectual style expressed himself in an ever-evolving set of speeches and writings that were seldom explicit about interpersonal relations, his actual outlook on the social world of self-actualizers has remained elusive. The focus of this article, therefore, is how Maslow depicted self-actualizing people with regard to five major interpersonal dimensions of life: friendship, romantic love, marriage and lasting intimacy, parenthood, and communal service. By pulling together Maslow’s comments primarily in his published works, and secondarily in his unpublished works-in-progress, it is possible to explicate his tacit viewpoint. Doing so will not only help dispel the misconception that Maslow depicted self-actualizers as loners or even hermits but also guide future theory and research on personality growth.
... Par contre, il semble que l'acquisition d'animaux sauvages ou exotiques doive être dissuadée. Certains chercheurs se mobilisent en faveur d'une meilleure information des propriétaires sur ces zoonoses, notamment par le biais des vétérinaires (Wong, Feinstein, & Heidmann, 1999). (Pour de plus amples informations à ce sujet, nous invitons le lecteur à se référer à l'article en français de Geffray (1999).) ...
Article
Full-text available
Cette analyse évoque tout d’abord l’étendue de la possession des animaux de compagnie par les aînés. Ensuite, elle suggère différentes explications possibles au fait que les aînés soient parmi les plus grands possesseurs d’animaux de compagnie. Enfin, le coeur de cette analyse vise à évaluer si le fait de vivre avec un animal de compagnie peut avoir un impact positif sur la santé de ses maîtres. Nous passons en revue les différents impacts possibles dans les différents domaines de la santé physique. Au préalable, nous analysons également, et ce de manière plus succincte, les éventuels impacts négatifs de la possession d’animaux de compagnie sur la santé physique.
... One study showed that these individuals are more likely to pursue volunteer work. 11 A controlled study also confirmed that families that owned pets experienced caring interactions with animals. 12 Although the findings of these studies are not directly applicable to professional caring behavior in pharmacy students, they are applicable to caring behavior of people in general. ...
Article
Objectives. This manuscript explores the contribution of a veterinary therapeutics elective course to the learning of professional caring values in pharmacy students. Students' reflective and evaluative comments about the course were solicited at the midpoint and end of the course to assess educational outcomes reflective of student learning. Methods. A qualitative evaluation of the comments was conducted. The expected responses to the questions were in the content areas of new knowledge on veterinary disease states, therapeutic management, and the regulatory acts and statutes that affect the practice of veterinary pharmacy. Results. While students reported a gain of knowledge and confidence with the subject matter, an unexpected theme of professional caring and caring behaviors was identified. Elements of caring and caring attitudes were a strong undercurrent in student's comments. Conclusions. The unexpected benefit of students expressing and displaying core values of caring serves to reinforce the teaching of caring in the pharmacy curriculum and highlights the value of a veterinary therapeutics course to instill caring values.
... Los animales domésticos, en especial los caninos, al tener una estrecha relación con el ser humano (Wong et al. 1999), se convierten en una fuente de contaminación de diferentes agentes patógenos, como es el caso de los parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos. Los caninos son hospederos de estos agentes, los cuales ocasionan deterioro de la salud del animal y, en casos extremos, la muerte. ...
Article
El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar los parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos en caninos con dueño del área urbana del Municipio de La Mesa, Cundinamarca Con este fin, se realizó un censo tipo encuesta que determinó la población real de caninos, arrojando un total 1142 perros censados; de los cuales solo se incluyeron 897 en el estudio, ya que de estos se obtuvo información completa. Posteriormente, se tomaron 122 muestras de materia fecal de los caninos, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante la técnica de concentración de formol – acetato de etilo y leídas por microscopia. La prevalencia total de parasitosis encontrada fue 19.67% (24/122). El parásito hallado con mayor frecuencia fue Ancylostoma spp. 17.21%, seguido de Trichuris spp. 1.63% y Giardia spp. 0.81%. En comparación con otros estudios en Colombia la prevalencia hallada fue menor y no se encontraron multiparasitosis. No se encontró relación (p>0.05) entre la presencia de parásitos y las variables estudiadas (raza, edad, sexo, desparasitación, vacunación, fuente de agua de consumo y lugar donde habita). Concluyendo, la presencia de parásitos encontrada constituye un riesgo para la salud humana y animal, así que, es necesario implementar estrategias educativas y sanitarias para la comunidad del municipio y elaborar planes de desparasitación y diagnóstico parasitológico para las mascotas.
... Zoonoses are diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans [1]. Worldwide, an estimated 60-70% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonoses and large proportions originate from wildlife. ...
... Zoonoses are the diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate, animals and man (Wong and Heidmann, 1999). Zoonotic disease risks and infection control practices in public and private research, public health, clinical and diagnostic laboratories, and in animal care facilities has expanded all over the world. ...
Article
Zoonoses risks are evident in veterinary practices and are often neglected. Production of vaccines and diagnostic agents for effective control of zoonotic diseases is very important. The main objective of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and use of infection control practices among the veterinarians of developing country. A survey was undertaken to observe the level of knowledge, aptitude, practice and experience regarding occupational health risks among the veterinarians. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to 180 veterinarians to evaluate the relevance. The important determinants has been identified, verified and validated for risk assessment. The response rate of the questionnaires was 100% and results indicated that most veterinarians were unaware of appropriate use of personal protective equipment and need practices that may help in reduction of zoonoses transmission. The veterinary technicians have to face many problems due to lack of information, education, and training. It is necessary that the Government provide the vaccination facility to all the veterinarians against the relevant zoonotic diseases. The level of awareness about the risks associated is needed to improve through proper education, training, and establishment of written infection control policies could be effective means of improving veterinary practices.
... Animais de estimação, particularmente cães e gatos, desempenham importante papel na sociedade. Em muitos lares são importantes como companhia, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento emocional, social e físico de crianças, e no bem estar dos proprietários, particularmente idosos (ROBERTSON et al., 1990; WONG et al., 1999). Apesar dos benefícios, esses animais podem ser acometidos por ecto e endoparasitos e propagar, segundo Rey (2001), agentes responsáveis por zoonoses como larva migrans cutânea e larva migrans visceral. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to determinate the prevalence of ectoparasites and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in domiciliated cats, from central and peripheral region, of Lages city, Santa Catarina State and also characterize the economic, social and cultural status of families' pet owners. From the period of December 2005 to December 2006, 600 questionnaires were distributed to pet owners of Lages city and ectoparasites and faeces were collected. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 13.8% (28/203) and for GI parasites was 37.8% (42/111). The prevalence of parasites in domiciliated cats from the peripheral region were bigger than in the central region. The ectoparasites observed were Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis and Ctenocephalides hybrid (C. felis felis x C. canis). The intestinal helminths eggs observed in cats faeces were Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Taeniidae family and Oncicola sp. In the peripheral region, the largest number of positive animals belonged to owners of low-income wage and low education The peripheral region population are over exposed to potencial zoonotic agents.
... (5) Refrain from face and mouth contact with the animal. If the necessary steps are taken, the transmission of zoonotic infections is significantly reduced (Wong et al., 1999). ...
Article
The emergence of immunosuppressive human diseases and therapies in the last decades has raised the question of the risks and benefits for this group of patients deriving from their interaction with pets and the necessity to balance them in the best interest of the pet owner. Risks are related to the possibility of contracting zoonotic infections that are more severe and occasionally lethal in immunocompromised patients. To mitigate the risks and allow the owner to keep the pet, guidelines have been devised. The cooperation and communication between the owner, the physician and the veterinarian are fundamental for a rational approach in evaluating of the potential health risks associated with pets as sources of zoonotic diseases. The final decision should, however, be made by the owner, who alone will enjoy the benefits of the relationship but also be the one to bear the consequences.
... There are a variety of zoonoses that can be transmitted to the transplant recipient from pet animals (14). The veterinarian should be viewed as a colleague, both to the transplant clinician and the transplant recipient, because maintenance of pet health can help reduce human risk (15). ...
... The most frequent parasites found in homeless dogs were Ancylostoma (22%), Isospora spp INTRODUÇÃO Os animais domésticos, particularmente cães e gatos, representam um importante papel na sociedade, principalmente na pós-modernidade. Eles são importantes para o desenvolvimento emocional de crianças e o bem-estar de seus donos, especialmente para fazer companhia a pessoas idosas e portadoras de necessidades especiais (ROBERT et al., 1990;WALTNETOEWS, 1993;ZASLOFF & KIDD, 1994;JENNINGS, 1997;DOHOO et al., 1998;WONG et al., 1999;RAINA et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Com o objetivo de estudar a freqüência de enteroparasitos e comparar técnicas de diagnóstico, foram examinadas 434 amostras de fezes de cães do município de Goiânia, Goiás, no período de agosto-2001 a março-2002. Destas, 384 (88,5%) foram provenientes de cães domiciliados e 50 (11,5%) de cães vadios. Foi feito um estudo comparativo entre as técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação em solução saturada em açúcar (Sheather) e flutuação com sulfato de zinco (Faust) em 150 amostras de fezes de cães domiciliados. A técnica utilizando solução de Sheather foi significativamente melhor do que a de Faust, para o diagnóstico de ovos, cistos e oocistos de parasitos intestinais. Com base nisto, as demais amostras foram analisadas pelas técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação em solução saturada em açúcar (Sheather) e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Das 434 amostras examinadas, 94 (21,65%) foram positivas para um ou mais enteroparasitos, sendo 21 (42%) dos cães vadios e 73 (19%) dos cães domiciliados. Os parasitos mais freqüentes para cães vadios foram ancilostomídeos (22,0%), Isospora spp (10,0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (6,0%) e Toxocara canis (4,0%). Nos cães domiciliados foram ancilostomídeos (9,9%), Isospora spp (2,6%), T. canis (2,34%), C. parvum (2,08%), Giardia sp (1,6%), Sarcocystis sp (0,26%) e Dipylidium caninum (0,26%). Foram observadas associações entre T. canis e C. parvum (4,0%); Isospora spp e C. parvum (4,0%), nos cães vadios e entre ancilostomídeos e T. canis (0,5%), ancilostomídeos e Isospora spp (0,8%), ancilostomídeos e D. caninum (0,3%), ancilostomídeos, T. canis e Isospora spp (0,3%), ancilostomídeos e C. parvum (0,3%), T. canis e Isospora spp (0,3%), nos cães domiciliados. Em relação ao sexo, foram encontradas 14,93% e 15,19% de amostras positivas para cães machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Em relação à faixa etária, 38,35% dos cães parasitados tinham idade menor que um ano; 27,39% entre um e três anos e 34,24% maior que três anos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cão, enteroparasitos, helmintos, protozoários, zoonoses.
... Animais de estimação, particularmente cães e gatos, desempenham importante papel na sociedade. Em muitos lares são importantes como companhia, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento emocional, social e físico de crianças, e no bem estar dos proprietários, particularmente idosos (ROBERTSON et al., 1990; WONG et al., 1999). Apesar dos benefícios, esses animais podem ser acometidos por ecto e endoparasitos e propagar, segundo Rey (2001), agentes responsáveis por zoonoses como larva migrans cutânea e larva migrans visceral. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to determinate the prevalence of ectoparasites and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in domiciliated cats, from central and peripheral region, of Lages city, Santa Catarina State and also characterize the economic, social and cultural status of families' pet owners. From the period of December 2005 to December 2006, 600 questionnaires were distributed to pet owners of Lages city and ectoparasites and faeces were collected. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 13.8% (28/203) and for GI parasites was 37.8% (42/111). The prevalence of parasites in domiciliated cats from the peripheral region were bigger than in the central region. The ectoparasites observed were Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis and Ctenocephalides hybrid (C. felis felis x C. canis). The intestinal helminths eggs observed in cats faeces were Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Taeniidae family and Oncicola sp. In the peripheral region, the largest number of positive animals belonged to owners of low-income wage and low education The peripheral region population are over exposed to potencial zoonotic agents.
... Although a large proportion of imported animals are destined for biomedical research (in which potential occupational risks are largely understood and quarantine procedures likely mitigate risk), a greater proportion (even among the high-risk genera) are destined for commercial use and therefore could expose a wider group of persons to zoonotic diseases. Education of professionals likely to come in close contact with imported animals (e.g., veterinarians, importers, pet store employees), as well as the general public, should emphasize the risks for contracting zoonotic diseases from wildlife and pets (16) and the need for proper hygiene, safety procedures, and personal protective equipment (17). ...
Article
Full-text available
The United States is the world's largest wildlife importer, and imported wild animals represent a potential source of zoonotic pathogens. Using data on mammals imported during 2000-2005, we assessed their potential to host 27 selected risk zoonoses and created a risk assessment that could inform policy making for wildlife importation and zoonotic disease surveillance. A total of 246,772 mammals in 190 genera (68 families) were imported. The most widespread agents of risk zoonoses were rabies virus (in 78 genera of mammals), Bacillus anthracis (57), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (48), Echinococcus spp. (41), and Leptospira spp. (35). Genera capable of harboring the greatest number of risk zoonoses were Canis and Felis (14 each), Rattus (13), Equus (11), and Macaca and Lepus (10 each). These findings demonstrate the myriad opportunities for zoonotic pathogens to be imported and suggest that, to ensure public safety, immediate proactive changes are needed at multiple levels.
... Although there is not a significant risk to healthy people, immunocompromised pet owners are vulnerable, and veterinarians need to be able to inform pet owners about potential risks. [9][10][11] Furthermore, several zoonoses have the potential for use as agents of bioterror and could affect humans through direct infection or through disruption of food supplies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural zoonotic outbreaks can cause widespread devastation, and several zoonoses can be transmitted as agents of bioterrorism. Although veterinarians can be vital in controlling the transmission of zoonotic diseases, many lack knowledge about their roles in emergency response and about zoonoses. A training session titled "Prevention of Zoonotic Disease Transmission" was provided for New York veterinarians. The training was evaluated using pre-training, post-training, and follow-up surveys, which measured increase in and retention of knowledge. Seventy-five (75) veterinary professionals participated in the training, and 91% responded on pre- and post-training surveys. The percentage of respondents who correctly answered the objective knowledge questions increased from pre-training to post-training. Furthermore, follow-up surveys demonstrated that participants were able to retain much of the information from the training session. Very little research has been found that evaluates a similar training event. As knowledge increases, additional training conferences could benefit veterinarians and supplement this research. The results of the pre-training, post-training, and follow-up surveys indicate that veterinary professionals' knowledge of zoonoses can be significantly improved after receiving training; participants found the training to be useful and requested additional training, indicating that veterinary professionals have a desire to learn about emergency preparedness topics.
... Since the inception of these competitions, veterinary students have proposed many innovative, award-winning projects. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] and these writing competitions have assisted in incorporating technical writing projects into the curricula of health professions programs across the US. 17,18 PROCESS Each entry must reflect an original, student-initiated idea that addresses goals and focus areas identified in Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. ...
... Over 250 organisms are known to cause zoonotic infections (Greene, 1995 ) and whilst this list is formidable , many of the diseases are rare and the chances of humans contracting a zoonotic disease are small. The vectors of many zoonoses are not necessarily household pets, only approximately 30–40 vectors (Wong and Feinstein, 1999). These may include humans, farm animals, feral and exotic animals sold as pets; however, of these only a selective few have been reported with greater frequency in people with immunodeficiency and AIDS (Greene, 1995) The most common mechanisms of transmission are by inhalation or ingestion, but transmission may also occur following bites or scratches or by direct contact with arthropods. ...
Article
Pet ownership has been associated with both emotional and physical health benefits. However, owning pets may also pose health risks to immunocompromised patients through zoonotic transmission of disease. Our initial impression was that there is a lack of any evidence base in information given by health care professionals regarding these risks. We therefore aimed to produce evidence-based guidelines addressing this issue. A Pubmed search was undertaken and a variety of literature on zoonoses reviewed. Existing guidelines were evaluated and a survey of all Paediatric Oncology Centres in the UK performed. There is a paucity of level 1 and 2 data addressing this issue and clearly more studies, particularly Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs), are required. Nevertheless, general themes emerged and certain specific guidance was produced based on that produced by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in the US. Animal-associated pathogens of concern include Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia lamblia, Rhodococcus equi, Bartonella spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydia psittaci and dermatophytes. Despite this, the literature would suggest that with the exception of Bartonella henselae and dermatophytes only a relatively small number of infections in people are likely to be associated with pet contact. The majority of pet species do not appear to pose a major risk to immunocompromised children. Some animals, particularly reptiles, should be avoided because of the high risk of salmonellosis. Guidelines include general advice on good hygiene practices, veterinary care, pet foods, purchasing of new pets and age restrictions. Health care professionals should actively enquire about household pets and provide accurate information and practical advice on how to minimise the risk of infection. However, the overall benefits of the human-animal bond must be considered and with proper handling and husbandry immunocompromised patients should be able to continue to enjoy the significant benefits of pet ownership.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated negative impacts on the psychological well-being of humans around the world. Most communities have followed social distancing mandates, resulting in social isolation and changes to daily work and social routines. Extended periods of social isolation can lead to boredom, loneliness, and increased risk for physical and mental health concerns. For many individuals during the pandemic, their household members and cats have represented their only daily contact with living beings. Cats have been shown to form strong attachments to their owners and to reduce humans’ stress responses, yet there is a dearth of research, especially when compared to dogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the thoughts, experiences, and concerns of adults regarding their relationships with their companion cat during the initial months of COVID-19. Data were collected between March 30 th and May 1 st , 2020, via an online questionnaire. Respondents (n=956) were recruited through social media outlets and human-animal focused organizations. Directed content analysis methods informed the process for discovering themes in the data. Themes include participants’ enhanced bonds, increased quality time, gratitude, worries about their cat’s well-being, and a reduced sense of isolation and emotional distress.
Article
SOT recipients are at high risk for developing severe infectious complications following discharge from the hospital. Comprehensive anticipatory guidance surrounding everyday lifestyle choices can potentially prevent exposure to infectious agents from the environment. This paper reviews the risks that pediatric and adolescent SOT recipients encounter through exposures such as household contacts, outdoor activities, travel, animal exposures, and dietary choices. Although strong evidence is lacking, this paper makes recommendations aimed at minimizing the risk of infectious complications and hospitalization in pediatric SOT recipients.
Article
The present AST‐IDCOP guidelines update information on strategies for safe living after organ transplantation. While transplantation carries an increased risk for infection from the recipient's environment due to lifelong immunosuppression, the goal is for the recipient to be able to return to their home and live as normal a life as possible with a functioning graft. The current guideline provides updates to prior recommendations including additions on infections from water and food sources, exposures to animals, cannabis use as well as sexual exposures or those encountered with travel. Similar to the prior editions, many of the recommendations are based on good infection prevention standards, extrapolation from other immunocompromised hosts, and risks found from cases series in transplant patients. Enhanced education, and attention to incorporating safe living strategies into daily life should help to accomplish successful transplant with recipients achieving a fulfilling life away from the hospital. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
An increasing body of research evidence now appears to support the view that pets and, in particular, companion pets, act as agents of health promotion. People who own pets, and who form a bond with that pet, benefit in terms of better physical, mental and social well-being, when compared with non pet owners. Although the exact mechanisms responsible for this have yet to be elucidated, it does appear that companion pets are able to act as a buffer against the stresses of daily life, to offer a degree of unconditional social support for the pet owner, and to encourage moderate physical activity that otherwise would not take place. Recent developments in computing and robotics have seen the emergence of robopets, small domestic robots which have the appearance and behavioural characteristics of companion pets. This paper explores this research and suggests that companion pets and their robotic equivalents may be useful agents in the promotion of health and well-being.
Article
Full-text available
La influencia positiva de las mascotas en la salud y bienestar de los seres humanos es bien reconocida y comprende los aspectos sicológico, fisiológico, terapéutico y sicosocial. La función como facilitadores en la terapia asistida motivacional y física de numerosas enfermedades, ha permitido que los efectos benéficos de la tenencia de animales sean empleados en el ámbito terapéutico. Adicionalmente, la compañía de mascotas se ha reconocido como un factor protector contra enfermedades cardiovasculares y reductor del estrés de sus propietarios: son un soporte sicológico, reducen la sensación de soledad y permiten la interacción de sus propietarios con el medio social que los circunda. Estas relaciones hombre-animal implican algunos riesgos zoonóticos que es necesario minimizar, en especial en personas inmunocomprometidas; es aquí donde el médico veterinario debe cumplir una importante función en la asesoría para la tenencia responsable de las mascotas. Así mismo, es esencial que el propietario conozca cuales son las obligaciones legales de la tenencia de una mascota.
Article
Healthy People 2010 is our nation's health promotion and disease prevention initiative for the next decade. As veterinarians, we must educate our human health care counterparts and the public at large regarding our profession's contributions in key areas such as food safety, the human-animal bond, and intervention in the event of bio- or agriterrorism.
Article
Full-text available
The positive influence of mascots in human health and well-being has been widely recognized embracing psychological, physiological, therapeutic and psychosocial aspects. The role of facilitators in motivational and physical therapy of numerous diseases has permitted that the positive effects be used at a therapeutic level. Additionally, animals have been recognized as a protective factor against cardiovascular diseases and to reduce stress. They have also been identified as psychological support, to diminish loneliness and as a social lubricant. However, this animal-man relationship implies some zoonotic risk, which is necessary to lessen, especially with immunecompromised persons. Veterinarians must act as consultants for a responsible animal ownership. La influencia positiva de las mascotas en la salud y bienestar de los seres humanos es bien reconocida y comprende los aspectos sicológico, fisiológico, terapéutico y sicosocial. La función como facilitadores en la terapia asistida motivacional y física de numerosas enfermedades, ha permitido que los efectos benéficos de la tenencia de animales sean empleados en el ámbito terapéutico. Adicionalmente, la compañía de mascotas se ha reconocido como un factor protector contra enfermedades cardiovasculares y reductor del estrés de sus propietarios: son un soporte sicológico, reducen la sensación de soledad y permiten la interacción de sus propietarios con el medio social que los circunda. Estas relaciones hombre-animal implican algunos riesgos zoonóticos que es necesario minimizar, en especial en personas inmunocomprometidas; es aquí donde el médico veterinario debe cumplir una importante función en la asesoría para la tenencia responsable de las mascotas. Así mismo, es esencial que el propietario conozca cuales son las obligaciones legales de la tenencia de una mascota.
Article
Various health, quality, utility and disability adjusted life years or life expectancy (HALY, QALY, DALY; HALE, QALE, DALE) measures have become gold standards for defining outcomes in technology evaluation, population health monitoring, and other evaluative efforts. As such, the analytical framework within which these measures are used for descriptive and evaluative purposes should be theoretically consistent and statistically rigorous. For instance, widely accepted definitions of cost-effectiveness ratios and other technology evaluation criteria that are based on expectations of the respective cost and outcome measures must, as such, be defined in terms of expected HALYs or QALYs. Similarly, measures like HALEs or QALEs used for population health monitoring are typically concerned with population expectations of such measures (or their corresponding totals). This paper demonstrates that estimation of such expectations necessitates consideration of the population variation in, and covariation between, quality and longevity. From the perspective of several different environments characterizing such heterogeneity, quantification or estimation of measures like QALYs is reconsidered. An empirical example of the central issues is provided by means of an analysis of the years of healthy life (YHL) measure drawn from the US National Health Interview Survey.
Article
Full-text available
In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.
Article
Dogs and cats are important members of many families; however, they can harbour gastrointestinal parasites that may infect their owners. Some of these parasites, e.g. Echinococcus sp., can have a significant impact on human health. However, with appropriate education, management and anthelmintic regimes, zoonotic transmission of these parasites can be minimised.
Article
Dr. Calvin Schwabe's vision of "One Medicine" has long inspired many in the public health community to strive toward bringing human and veterinary medicine together to improve the public's health and well-being around the world. In an increasingly human-dominated world, as Dr. Schwabe suggested many years ago, human health provides the most-logical unifying or apical cause in veterinary medicine's hierarchy of values. Veterinarians in all aspects of the profession-have opportunity and responsibility to protect the health and well-being of people in all that they do, including protecting food security and safety; addressing threats to antibiotic sensitivity; preventing and controlling zoonotic emerging infectious diseases; protecting environments and ecosystems; participating in bio- and agro-terrorism preparedness and response; using their skills to confront non-zoonotic diseases (such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, vaccine preventable diseases, chronic diseases and injuries); strengthening the public-health infrastructure; and advancing medical science through research. This article provides an overview of contributions made by veterinarians in each of these areas, and discusses the challenges to be overcome and the need for strategic thinking and action to achieve the vision of "one medicine".
Article
In the past, veterinarians have participated in interprofessional collaboration to support the health promotion and disease prevention goals and objectives described in the United States Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS) Healthy People 2010. Such projects have resulted from collaboration resulting from a writing competition, the DHHS's Secretary's Award for Innovations in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (Secretary's Award). The Secretary's Award, which interfaces with Healthy People 2010, has been effectively used as a means of training community-responsive veterinary students in a variety of interprofessional collaborations. All future health care professionals should be trained in innovative interprofessional problem solving, the 'art of thinking outside the box', and the importance of responsiveness to the needs of the community. These health professional students' collaborative efforts are vital for the continual improvement of any nation's health care system in the 21st century.
Article
Human contact with cats, dogs, and other pets results in several million infections each year in the United States, ranging from self-limited skin conditions to life-threatening systemic illnesses. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common pet-related parasitic infections. Although toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic or mild, it may cause serious congenital infection if a woman is exposed during pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester. Common pet-borne fungal infections include tinea corporis/capitis (ringworm); campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are among the most common bacterial infections associated with pet ownership. Less commonly, pets can transmit arthropod-borne and viral illnesses (e.g., scabies, rabies). Infection in a pet can provide sentinel warning of local vectors and endemic conditions, such as Lyme disease risk. Treatment is infection-specific, although many infections are self-limited. Prevention involves common sense measures such as adequate hand washing, proper disposal of animal waste, and ensuring that infected animals are diagnosed and treated. Special precautions are indicated for immunocompromised persons. Increased communication between primary care physicians and veterinarians could improve treatment and prevention of these conditions.
Article
Despite decreasing coronary heart disease mortality among both men and women, this disease still remains the leading cause of death in the United States. In addition to known physiologic factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and elevated plasma cholesterol, psychosocial factors including anxiety, marital status, and social isolation have been shown to contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pet ownership causes measurable short term psychological and physiological effects in people, including reduction of blood pressure and mitigation of psychological indicators of anxiety. There is also evidence that pet ownership is associated with clinically significant health effects in people, including improved survival after a coronary event. We hypothesize that pet ownership, though its ability to positively influence psychosocial risk factors, results in a lowered risk of coronary heart disease and increased survival after a coronary event if it occurs, and that increased pet ownership would further reduce mortality from coronary heart disease.