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Gingiva, teeth and sea salt

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Abstract

This article presents a review of the effects of sea salt on gingival tissues. The beneficial effects of sea salt are described.
... The one is the YAMA+ natural toothpaste based on 70% Dead Sea water and 30% essential oils with anti-inflammatory attributes. Salt has a long history of beneficial effects on healing gum disease (15). The new product, is currently undergoing clinical trials. ...
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The reaction of synthetic Ca5(PO4)3OH (HAP) with Cu2+ ions is investigated by means of pH, pCu and pCa measurements as a function of the time, pH and electrolyte type (NaCl, NaHCO3, Na2HPO4). The solid phases separated after different reaction times are investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and IR techniques. The Cu2+ does not form mixed compounds with Ca2+ and does not replace Ca2+ in the HAP structure. The presence, in an appropriate concentration, of anions which form very insoluble Cu2+ compounds favours the precipitation of the latter with no involvement of HAP. If the concentration of the anions is low, the precipitation of Cu2+ also involves HAP and this behaviour is particularly enhanced with Na2HPO4.
Article
Rare earth elements (lanthanides)--known from chrystal-chemistry for the rehardening effect on apatites--have been tested previously for the possibility of their incorporation in dental enamel. From the non-toxic lanthanides cerium was incorporated under in vitro conditions in human dental enamel. In the present study, the incorporation of lanthanum (La), europium (Eu), samarium (Sa), ytterbium (Yb) and neodymium (Nd) in human permanent enamel, dentine and deciduous enamel has been investigated by neutron activation analysis. The lanthanides were incorporated--following the above sequence--in an increasing ratio into enamel and dentine, by forming new, more resistant rare earth elements containing apatite structures.
Article
Using the method of atomic absorption spectrometry the levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, strontium, nickel, manganese, copper were determined in the hard tissues of milk teeth with and without caries and the interrelations between these elements were analysed The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis with an IMP 85 m computer. In the present study the analysis of the interrelations between elements was based on correlations and regression analyses. Many statistically significant interrelations were revealed between Mn and Fe, Mn and Zn, Mn and Cu, Mn and Ni, Fe and Zn, Fe and Cu, Fe and Ni, Zn and Cu, Zn and Ni. A decrease of the correlation coefficients was noted in carietic teeth. For the highly correlated elements equations of simple regression were calculated. A significant correlations was noted between caries and the levels of Mg, Zn, Fe, Sr, Ni, Mn, Cu in the hard tissues in milk teeth. The carietic milk teeth contained less Mg, Fe, Sr, Ni, Mn and Cu and much more Zn as compared to teeth without caries.
Article
Trace elements (Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu) levels were determined in lower deciduous incisors which were collected from four areas (Sapporo, Yokosuka, Nagano and Kitakyushu) in Japan. Samples were divided into enamel and dentin, and dissolved with nitric and dried at 80 degrees C. Each element was separated chromatographically using an acetone-HCL gradient solution with a cation exchange resin and then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results were as follows: 1. Ca, P, Ca/P ratio levels showed no significant differences among four areas. 2. In the enamel, (1) Cd levels of each area were 0.593 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 0.315 micrograms/g (Sapporo) greater than 0.261 micrograms/g (Nagano) greater than 0.222 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu). (2) Zn levels of each area were 174.912 micrograms/g (Nagano) greater than 157.473 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 150.971 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu) greater than 128.980 micrograms/g (Sapporo). (3) Pb levels of each area were 8.412 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu) greater than 7.925 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 5.426 micrograms/g (Sapporo) greater than 4.285 micrograms/g (Nagano). (4) Cu levels of each area were 9.276 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu) greater than 6.928 micrograms/g (Nagano) greater than 6.178 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 4.389 micrograms/g (Sapporo). 3. In the dentin, (1) Cd levels of each area were 0.214 micrograms/g (Sapporo) greater than 0.184 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu) greater than 0.145 micrograms/g (Nagano) greater than 0.119 micrograms/g (Yokosuka). (2) Zn levels of each area were 124.152 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 112.242 micrograms/g (Nagano) greater than 111.952 micrograms/g (Sapporo) greater than 111.456 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu). (3) Pb levels of each area were 3.584 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu) greater than 3.019 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 1.819 micrograms/g (Sapporo) greater than 1.523 micrograms/g (Nagano). (4) Cu levels of each area were 3.734 micrograms/g (Kitakyushu) greater than 2.221 micrograms/g (Nagano) greater than 2.098 micrograms/g (Yokosuka) greater than 1.664 micrograms/g (Sapporo). Therefore, the results suggest that the trace elements levels in deciduous teeth depended on the environmental condition of each area and the deciduous teeth could be a useful material as an environmental contamination indicator.
Article
It has been reported by some investigators that deciduous teeth could be useful materials for the analysis of the trace elements available to the human body burden. In this study, an attempt was made to define that uptake of trace elements (Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu) take place during formation of the deciduous tooth. Samples were prepared from exfoliated human upper deciduous central incisors divided into two or three sections at incremental lines includes neonatal line. Samples were dissolved with nitric acid and dried at 80 degrees C. Each element was separated chromatographically using acetone-HCl gradient solution with a cation exchange resin and then analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results were as follows: 1. Ca, P, Ca/P ratio levels showed no significant differences between prenatally and postnatally formed teeth. 2. In the enamel, (1) Cd level showed a tendency to be higher in the postnatally formed enamel, but not significant. (2) Zn and Pb levels were found to be significantly higher in the postnatally formed than in the prenatally formed enamel. (3) Cu level was reversed significantly. 3. In the dentin, (1) Cd and Cu levels in the postnatally formed dentin I were significantly less than prenatally formed denin, and these were almost equal to the postnatally formed dentin II. (2) Zn level in the postnatally formed dentin I was almost equal to the prenatally formed dentin, but that was significantly less than the postnatally formed dentin II. (3) Pb level in the postnatally formed dentin I was significantly less than the prenatally formed dentin and the postnatally formed dentin II. Therefore, the results suggest that the accumulation of Cd and Cu to the deciduous tooth mainly occur in the prenatal and the accumulation of Zn and Pb to the deciduous tooth occur not only in the prenatal but also continuously in the postnatal, and the deciduous tooth can be a useful materials for environmental contamination recorder.
Article
Using the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry the iron level was determined in the hard tissues of carietic and non-carietic milk teeth. The studied material comprised 163 milk teeth, including 81 with caries. All teeth were obtained from children of both sexes living in Lublin. The material was divided into age groups aged up to 6 years, 6-10 years and over 10 years. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis with an IMP 85 m computer. A significant correlation was found between the iron level in the hard tissues of the milk teeth and caries. The carietic milk teeth contained significantly less iron as compared to healthy teeth. The iron level in non-carietic milk teeth decreased with age. Sex was without effect on the level of this element in the dental hard tissues.
Article
By the method of atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry the strontium level was determined in the hard tissues of milk teeth with and without caries. The studied material comprised 163 milk teeth, including 81 with caries. All teeth were obtained from children of either sex living in Lublin. The material was divided into three age groups: up to 6 years, 6-10 years, and over 10 years. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using an IMP85 m computer. It was found age and sex had no significant effect on the strontium level in the hard tissues of healthy milk teeth. However, a significant correlation was observed between strontium level and caries presence. Milk teeth with caries contained less strontium than carietic teeth.
Article
Dental enamel is considered to be a biological interface depending on two phenomena the surroundings and the individual's general metabolism. The analysis of its chemical composition is becoming more and more developed. A neutron activation method has been elaborated and applied to these analyses. The results obtained and their statistical interpretation emphasize the fundamental importance of trace elements as a result of their role in the main physiopathological phenomenon peculiar to dental enamel.
Article
Various studies have shown that the solubility of dental enamel can be reduced by exposing it to metal ions in the presence of fluoride. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various trace metal ions at two concentrations on dental enamel solubility and fluoride uptake. The solubilities of the enamel surfaces and their fluoride concentrations were first determined. Atypical teeth were discarded. Blocks of enamel were then divided into groups of five and solutions of salts of aluminium, strontium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium followed by fluoride (4,000 ppm) were applied. Two successive layers were then etched off, using perchloric acid. Fluoride in the enamel was determined using an ion-specific electrode system. Calcium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The values obtained were used to calculate the thicknesses of the layers removed. The results showed that combined application of aluminium and fluoride led to a marked reduction in solubility of enamel (p less than 0.001). Application of strontium (0.01 M) and fluoride also led to a significant reduction in enamel solubility (p less than 0.01). Pretreatment with titanium solution (both concentrations), aluminium or molybdenum solutions (higher concentrations) increased fluoride uptake in comparison with the control group. Statistically significant increase in fluoride uptake was seen only in those enamels treated with titanium solution at higher concentration when compared with those treated with fluoride alone.