Involvement of Small GTPases in Mycoplasma fermentansMembrane Lipoproteins-mediated Activation of Macrophages
Mycoplasma fermentans lipoproteins (LAMPf) are capable of activating macrophages and inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and NF-kappaB and activated protein 1 (AP-1) play a crucial role in the activation induced by this bacterial compound. To further elucidate the mechanisms by which LAMPf mediate the activation of macrophages, we assessed the effects of inhibiting small G proteins Rac, Cdc42, and Rho. The Rho-specific inhibitor C3 enzyme completely abolished the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha by macrophages stimulated with LAMPf and also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase. In addition, we have shown that LAMPf stimulate Cdc42 and that inhibition of Cdc42 or Rac by dominant negative mutants abrogates LAMPf-mediated activation of JNK and transactivation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. These results indicate that small G proteins Rho, Cdc42, and Rac are involved in the cascade of events leading to the macrophage activation by mycoplasma lipoproteins.
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