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Pathologic case of the month. Extraskeletal myxoid chrondosarcoma

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Pathologic case of the month. Extraskeletal myxoid chrondosarcoma

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... 81 Although mainly a tumor of adults, EMCS has been described in children. 82,83 Usually, the question of how to differentiate the two can be resolved by molecular means, as unlike myoepithelial carcinoma, almost all cases of EMCS have an NR4A3 gene rearrangement which can be interrogated by FISH. 84 NR4A3 in most cases is fused with EWSR1. ...
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The SMARCB1 gene ( INI1, BAF47) is a member of the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. SMARCB1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and loss of function of both alleles gives rise to SMARCB1-deficient tumors. The prototypical SMARCB1-deficient tumor is the malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) which was first described in the kidney but also occurs in soft tissue, viscera, and the brain (where it is referred to as atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor or AT/RT). These are overwhelmingly tumors of the very young, and most follow an aggressive and ultimately lethal course. Morphologically, most but not all contain a population of "rhabdoid" cells, which are large cells with abundant cytoplasm, perinuclear spherical inclusions, and eccentric vesicular nuclei with large inclusion-like nucleoli. MRT immunohistochemistry reveals complete loss of SMARCB1 nuclear expression, and molecular analysis confirms biallelic SMARCB1 inactivation in the vast majority. Rare AT/RTs have loss of SMARCA4, another SWI/SNF member, rather than SMARCB1. With the widespread adoption of SMARCB1 immunohistochemistry, an increasing number of SMARCB1-deficient tumors outside of the MRT-AT/RT spectrum have been described. In addition to MRT and AT/RT, pediatric tumors with complete loss of SMARCB1 expression include cribriform neuroepithelial tumor, renal medullary carcinoma, and epithelioid sarcoma. Tumors with variable loss of SMARCB1 expression include subsets of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, schwannomas arising in schwannomatosis, subsets of chordomas, myoepithelial carcinomas, and sinonasal carcinomas. Variable and reduced expression of SMARCB1 is characteristic of synovial sarcoma. In this review, the historical background, clinical characteristics, morphology, immunohistochemical features, and molecular genetics most germane to these tumors are summarized. In addition, familial occurrence of these tumors (the rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome) is discussed. It is hoped that this review may provide practical guidance to pathologists encountering tumors that have altered expression of SMARCB1.
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We report, to our knowledge, the first case of a congenital, widespread, aggressive high-grade sarcoma, presented as multiple skin nodules and respiratory distress in a neonate that had a t(9;22)(q22;q11-12) cytogenetic abnormality suggestive of a more indolent extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC). EMC is generally thought of as a slow-growing tumor that presents between the fourth and sixth decades of life. Our patient was a 45,XY, t(13;14) newborn who presented at birth with subcutaneous nodules involving the face, scalp, back and extremities, as well as multiple intrathoracic, intraabdominal and intracranial masses. Diagnosis was made using electron microscopy and immunohistochemical and cytogenetic studies. Despite attempts to control rapid growth of lesions using high-dose steroids and cis-retinoic acid, patient's clinical status continued to deteriorate and life support was withdrawn at the 26 day of life.
Article
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that has been reported to have a relatively good prognosis. The authors report ten patients with EMC on whom there was a minimum follow-up of 10 years. The patients' ages ranged from 31 to 72 years (mean, 57 years); there were six men and four women (seven white, three black). The tumor locations included the knee area and thigh (three patients each), the shoulder (two patients), and the leg and foot (one patient each). The tumors ranged from 3.5 to 18 cm in greatest dimension (median, 11.5 cm). All cases had typical histologic features. Lung metastases developed in all patients but one, and three patients had extrathoracic metastases (one in regional lymph nodes; one in subcutis; and one widespread). Four of the patients who had metastases also had local recurrence, as did the only patient without known metastases. Seven patients died of tumor at 4, 5, 8, 10, 15, 16, and 17 years, respectively, and the three remaining patients were alive with metastatic disease at latest follow-up of 13, 14, and 16 years. The authors' results are distinctly different from those previously reported in series with shorter follow-up times. The authors conclude that extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas are indolent but resilient and capricious tumors with a high potential for metastasis, especially to the lungs, over the long-term.
Article
Two extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas with a solid soft tissue mass occurred on the right upper arm of a 4-year-old boy and on the chest wall of a 1-year-old boy. Microscopically, both tumors were characterized by lobular configuration and were sparsely cellular with a background of myxoid matrix. The cells were small and round, and appeared undifferentiated, sometimes with a narrow eosinophilic cytoplasm. They grew in nests or strands and sometimes in a single file. They were strongly positive for S-100 protein and vimentin. Ultrastructural features suggested that the cells had a poorly differentiated mesenchymal nature with chondrocytic differentiation. These are the sixth and seventh reported cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma occurring in children. There are definite differences between this tumor with immature features and the extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in adults. Problems of differential diagnoses from other small round cell sarcomas also are discussed.
Article
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare low-grade soft tissue sarcoma that has been reported to have an indolent nature history, and relatively good prognosis. The majority of primary tumors are located in the extremities and they tend to be bulky at presentation. Studies with long-term follow-up have revealed the development of distant metastases in virtually all patients, eventually resulting in death. We reviewed our experience with EMC over the last three decades. The patient population was identified through a search of the database maintained by the Departments of Patient Studies, Pathology, and Melanoma-Sarcoma Medical Oncology. Eleven patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of EMC were identified. The median age was 59 (37-81 years), and there were nine males and two females. Nine patients had an extremity location and the remaining two had a chest wall and abdominal wall primary, respectively. The median size of the primary tumor was 10 cm (range: 4-17 cm) in maximum dimension. Ten of the eleven patients received chemotherapy, mainly with doxorubicin- and dacarbazine-based regimens. One patient is currently on beta-interferon. No objective responses were noted, to a median of 4 (2-6) cycles of chemotherapy. Three patients were treated with ifosfamide as a second-line chemotherapy without any benefit. Three patients have expired, two patients are alive with no evidence of disease, and six patients are alive with disease. The median follow-up is 5 years (range: 1.33-17 years) from diagnosis. Although small numbers preclude adequate assessment, there is no evidence of efficacy of standard soft-tissue sarcoma chemotherapy in patients with EMC.