Article

Development of the EURO-D Scale – A European, Union Initiative to Compare Symptoms of Depression in 14 European Centers

Department of Psychiatry, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 05/1999; 174(4):330-8. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.174.4.330
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In an 11-country European collaboration, 14 population-based surveys included 21,724 subjects aged > or = 65 years. Most participating centres used the Geriatric Mental State (GMS), but other measures were also used.
To derive from these instruments a common depression symptoms scale, the EURO-D, to allow comparison of risk factor profiles between centres.
Common items were identified from the instruments. Algorithms for fitting items to GMS were derived by observation of item correspondence or expert opinion. The resulting 12-item scale was checked for internal consistency, criterion validity and uniformity of factor-analytic profile.
The EURO-D is internally consistent, capturing the essence of its parent instrument. A two-factor solution seemed appropriate: depression, tearfulness and wishing to die loaded on the first factor (affective suffering), and loss of interest, poor concentration and lack of enjoyment on the second (motivation).
The EURO-D scale should permit valid comparison of risk-factor associations between centres, even if between-centre variation remains difficult to attribute.

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Available from: Brian A Lawlor, Dec 20, 2013
    • "Every domain is scored 1 point if present, and 0 points if absent, and total score is the sum of all the items, leading to a minimum score of 0 and a maximum score of 12. The optimal cut-off point of this scale was set to 4 points or above for a clinically significant depression (Prince et al., 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The longitudinal association of depression and pain according to gender was investigated using a population-based sample from 13 European countries. Methods The study population was taken from waves 4-5 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The sample consisted of 22,280 participants ≥50 years, who were interviewed at baseline, and after two years. Regression models for each gender were used to assess the variables associated with depression and pain incidence and persistence. Results Prevalences of depression, pain, and depression-pain co-occurrence, were higher in women than in men (depression: 34.5% vs. 20.3%; OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.9-2.2; pain: 60.2% vs. 53.5%; OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2-1.4; co-occurrence 25.3% vs. 14.0%; OR=2.3; 95% CI=2.2-2.6). Treated baseline pain in women (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.3-2.0), and treated/untreated pain in men (untreated OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.1-1.7; treated OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.5-2.7), were associated with incident depression. Untreated baseline depression was associated with incident pain (women OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.1-1.7; men OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.3-2.6), and with persistent pain only in women (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.1-1.6). Limitations We lack information on pain severity, and the consumption of analgesics was used as a proxy. We lack information on antidepressants and anxiolytics consumption separately. Participants were interviewed twice in two years, and pain/depression at both interviews were considered persistent although they may have relapsed and recurred. Conclusions Treated baseline pain is a risk factor for incident depression in both genders; untreated baseline pain is a risk factor only in men. Treating depression at baseline may protect from developing pain in both genders, and in women, it may also protect from pain persistence.
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    • "The first three response options were collated into the category 'good health' and the other two options into the category 'poor health'. Mental health was measured by the EURO-D scale for depression (Prince et al., 1999). The EURO-D scale consisted of twelve items, which were " depressed mood " , " pessimism " , " suicidality " , " guilt " , " sleep " , " interest " , " irritability " , " appetite " , " fatigue " , " concentration " , " enjoyment " and " tearfulness " . "
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