Contingency management, self-control, and education support in the treatment of childhood phobic disorders: A randomized clinical trial
This study evaluated the relative efficacy of an exposure-based contingency management (CM) treatment condition and an exposure-based cognitive self-control (SC) treatment condition relative to an education support (ES) control condition for treating children with phobic disorders. Eighty-one children and their parents completed a 10-week treatment program in which children and parents were seen in separate treatment sessions with the therapist, followed by a brief conjoint meeting. Children in both the CM and SC conditions showed substantial improvement on all of the outcome measures. These gains were maintained at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Interestingly, children in the ES condition also showed comparable improvements at posttreatment and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Implications of the findings are discussed with respect to knowledge development and clinical practice.
Available from: Brian E. Bunnell
- "Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is diagnosed typically during latechildhood to mid-adolescence (age 11–15; DeWit, Ogborne, Offord & MacDonald, 1999; Silverman et al., 1999; Weiss and Last, 2001), and is an intense fear and apprehension of social situations during which one might be evaluated, judged, or criticized by others (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). SAD is marked by frequent avoidance of social situations (e.g., avoiding talking in front of the class and/or meeting new peers) and this pattern of apprehensive fear and avoidance of social situations creates significant functional impairment. "
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ABSTRACT: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children-11 (SPAIC-11) and Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children's Parents-11 (SPAICP-11) were developed as brief versions of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory - Child and Parent Versions via item response theory (IRT) using child and parent reports of social anxiety. A sample of 496 children was analyzed using IRT analyses, revealing 11 items that exhibit measurement equivalence across parent and child reports. Descriptive and psychometric data are provided for the child, parent, and combined total scores. Discriminant validity was demonstrated using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The SPAIC-11 and SPAICP-11 are psychometrically sound measures that are able to measure social anxiety invariantly across children and their parents. These brief measures which include combined parent and child perception of the child's social anxiety may provide notable benefits to clinical research.
- "Children apply the skills in real-life situations to gain mastery over their anxiety. Robust support has now been collected by independent researchers using various CBT formats. Nonetheless some researchers suggested that some maintaining factors associated with childhood anxiety are not addressed in typical CBT protocols, therefore, about 30-40% of anxious children participating in a CBT programs did not experience a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms. "
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Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT) is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD).
Materials and Methods:
This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys) with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group). Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms), Children's Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms), and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software package (v. 20).
CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children's reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping in posttest. None of treatments affected on anger and sadness inhibition and positive cognitive coping in separation anxious children.
ECBT, in comparison with CBT; effectively improved emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety.
Available from: Juliette Margo Liber
- "Psychoeducation and support may be sufficient to help teachers cope more effectively with the problematic behaviors of their pupils. Indeed, Silverman et al. (1999) showed that an attention-control condition involving (child) educational support resulted in a reduction of anxiety comparable to " active " treatments (i.e., a child contingency management condition and a child self-control training condition). Similar results were found for a school-based preventive intervention trial for childhood anxiety (Miller et al., 2011). "
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In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support (ATS) versus educational teacher support (ETS) (CBT + ATS vs. CBT + ETS).
Screening (n = 1,929) and assessment (n = 224) led to the inclusion of 173 children ages 8-12 years from 17 elementary schools. Most of the children were boys (n = 136, 79%) of low or low-to-middle class socioeconomic status (87%); the sample was ethnically diverse (63% of non-Western origin). Children received CBT + ATS (n = 29) or CBT + ETS (n = 41) or were entered into a waitlist control condition (n = 103) to be treated afterward (CBT + ATS, n = 39, and CBT + ETS, n = 64). Effect sizes (ES), clinical significance (reliable change), and the results of multilevel modeling are reported.
Ninety-seven percent of children completed treatment. Teachers and parents reported positive posttreatment effects (mean ES = .31) for CBT compared with the waitlist control condition on disruptive behavior. Multilevel modeling showed similar results. Clinical significance was modest. Changes had remained stable or had increased at 3-months follow-up (mean ES = .39). No consistent effect of teacher condition was found at posttreatment; however, at follow-up, children who received ETS fared significantly better.
This study shows that a school-based CBT program is beneficial for difficult-to-reach children with disruptive behavior: The completion rate was remarkably high, ESs (mean ES = .31) matched those of previous studies with targeted intervention, and effects were maintained or had increased at follow-up.
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