Longitudinal Change in Height of Men and Women: Implications for Interpretation of the Body Mass Index: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 12/1999; 150(9):969-77. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010106
Source: PubMed


Age differences in height derived from cross-sectional studies can be the result of differential secular influences among
the age cohorts. To determine the magnitude of height loss that accompanies aging, longitudinal studies are required. The
authors studied 2,084 men and women aged 17–94 years enrolled from 1958 to 1993 in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging,
Baltimore, Maryland. On average, men's height was measured nine times during 15 years and women's height five times during
9 years. The rate of decrease in height was greater for women than for men. For both sexes, height loss began at about age
30 years and accelerated with increasing age. Cumulative height loss from age 30 to 70 years averaged about 3 cm for men and
5 cm for women; by age 80 years, it increased to 5 cm for men and 8 cm for women. This degree of height loss would account
for an “artifactual” increase in body mass index of approximately 0.7 kg/m2 for men and 1.6 kg/m2 for women by age 70 years that increases to 1.4 and 2.6 kg/m2, respectively, by age 80 years. True height loss with aging must be taken into account when height (or indexes based on height)
is used in physiologic or clinical studies. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:969-77.

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Available from: John Sorkin, Aug 06, 2014
    • "Men who appeared to be 42 years old were perceived to be somewhat shorter than men who appeared to be 25 years old. It is possible that people may associate older age with a decline in stature as height loss in men begins at around age 30 (Sorkin et al., 1999). These results confirm the hypothesis that there is an inverted-U relationship between perceived height and age. Figure 5. Diagram depicting how masculinity mediates the effect of height and age on dominance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have examined the individual effects of facial cues to height, masculinity, and age on interpersonal interactions and partner preferences. We know much less about the influence of these traits on each other. We, therefore, examined how facial cues to height, masculinity, and age influence perceptions of each other and found significant overlap. This suggests that studies investigating the effects of one of these traits in isolation may need to account for the influence of the other two traits. Additionally, there is inconsistent evidence on how each of these three facial traits affects dominance. We, therefore, investigated how varying such traits influences perceptions of dominance in male faces. We found that increases in perceived height, masculinity, and age (up to 35 years) all increased facial dominance. Our results may reflect perceptual generalizations from sex differences as men are on average taller, more dominant, and age faster than women. Furthermore, we found that the influences of height and age on perceptions of dominance are mediated by masculinity. These results give us a better understanding of the facial characteristics that convey the appearance of dominance, a trait that is linked to a wealth of real-world outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Perception
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    • "The low sensitivity or high misclassification of obesity diagnosis using self-reported BMI in this study seemed largely attributable to discrepancies in height, rather than weight values. This can be explained as either age-related process of the population or by the length of the period since the last height measurement (Sorkin et al., 1999). The aging process in bones, discs, joints, and muscles contributes to a height loss of 1 cm every decade after the age of Table 3 Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported BMI for obesity diagnosis a according to participants' characteristics. "
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    ABSTRACT: While there are strong correlations between self-reported and directly measured anthropometric data, the discrepancy and systematic errors associated with these, particularly among middle-aged and older persons residing in South Korea, remain a contentious issue. All participants were selected from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), a panel study conducted by the Korea Labor Institute; data from 510 participants (290 females; 56.9%) were analyzed. We considered general characteristics, including sex, age, education, marital status, employment, income, and residential region, and used self-rated health (SRH) as a generic indicator of health status. One-way ANOVA, t-test, and Scheffé's test (α=0.1) were employed to explore the difference between directly measured and self-reported values. Sensitivity and specificity values were used to assess the validity of obesity diagnoses based on self-reported body mass index (BMI: body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters). The means of BMI differences were 1.3 (±1.2)kg/m(2) among men and 1.8 (±1.5)kg/m(2) among women. In men, the difference could be attributed to measured BMI and residential region; among women, age and education level influenced the discrepancy in BMI. Scheffé's test (α=0.1) for multiple comparisons of group means revealed that women over the age of 65 years, with lower than middle-school education, who lived in rural areas, and had a measured BMI of 25kg/m(2) or more, were more likely to have significant BMI discrepancies. In contrast, for men, significant predictors were living in rural areas and being obese. Although adequate correlations were seen in self-reported BMI, they indicated low sensitivity, with 46.5% and 60.1% among males and females, respectively. However, specificities were very high, at 97.8% and 98.0% for males and females, respectively. The diagnostic performance of self-reported BMI is insufficient for assessing obesity prevalence among middle-aged or older Koreans.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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    • "For women over 90 the BMI values are significantly lower, which corresponds with data published by other authors [32-34]. There are statistically significant differences in height for the group of elderly women and the long-lived group who is characterized with the lowest values of this trait (P <0.05). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The study of aging processes and the changes in morphological, physiological, and functional characteristics that are associated with aging is of great interest not only for researchers, but also for the general public. The aim of the present paper is to study the biological age and tempos of aging in women older than 60 years, including long-lived females (over 90-years-old), and their associations with morphofunctional characteristics. Results Somatic traits, body mass components, and functional characteristics were investigated in 119 elderly (between 60 and 74-years-old) and long-lived (over 90-years-old) women in Tiraspol. With the special PC software ‘Diagnostics of Aging: BioAge’ (National Gerontological Center, Moscow, Russia) the biological age and tempos of aging were evaluated in the study participants. The results show close connections between morphofunctional changes, particularly in body mass components, and biological age. The software demonstrated its validity in the estimation of biological age in the group of elderly women. In the homogenous (according to their chronological age) group of women, three subgroups were separated with different tempos of aging: those with lower rates of aging (biological age less than chronological age by two years or more); those consistent with their chronological age, and those with accelerated tempos of aging (biological age higher than chronological age by two years or more). Conclusions Morphofunctional characteristics in the studied groups of women demonstrate the trends of age-involutive changes which can be traced through all groups, from those with slow rates of aging, to those with average rates, to those with accelerated tempos of aging, and finally in long-lived women. The results of comparative analysis show that women with accelerated aging are characterized with such traits as lower skeletal muscle mass, lower hand grip strength, and higher metabolic rate. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed a number of morphofunctional characteristics which differentiate the early-aging women from women with average rates of aging: higher BMI values, excessive fat mass, lower skeletal muscle mass and low values of hand grip strength. Thus the presence of such characteristics in elderly women can be considered as additional risk factor towards the early onset of the aging process.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
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