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The Role of Cadence on the V˙O2 Slow Component in Cycling and Running in Triathletes

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of cyclic severe exercise (running and cycling) on the VO2 slow component. Moreover we examined the influence of cadence of exercise (freely chosen [FF] vs. low frequency [LF]) on the hypothesis that: 1) a stride frequency lower than optimal and 2) a pedalling frequency lower than FF one could induce a larger and/or lower VO2 slow component. Eight triathletes ran and cycled to exhaustion at a work-rate corresponding to the lactate threshold + 50% of the difference between the work-rate associated with VO2max and the lactate threshold (delta 50) at a freely chosen (FF) and low frequency (LF: - 10 % of FF). The time to exhaustion was not significantly different for both types of exercises and both cadences (13 min 39 s, 15 min 43 s, 13 min 32 s, 15 min 05 s for running at FF and LF and cycling at FF and LF, respectively). The amplitude of the VO2 slow component (i.e. difference between VO2 at the last and the 3rd min of the exercise) was significantly smaller during running compared with cycling, but there was no effect of cadence. Consequently, there was no relationship between the magnitude of the VO2 slow component and the time to fatigue for a severe exercise (r = 0.20, p = 0.27). However, time to fatigue was inversely correlated with the blood lactate concentration for both modes of exercise and both cadences (r = - 0.42, p = 0.01). In summary, these data demonstrate that: 1) in subjects well trained for both cycling and running, the amplitude of the VO2 slow component at fatigue was larger in cycling and that it was not significantly influenced by cadence; 2) the VO2 slow component was not correlated with the time to fatigue. If the nature of the linkage between the VO2 slow component and the fatigue process remains unclear, the type of contraction regimen depending on exercise biomechanic characteristics seems to be determinant in the VO2 slow component phenomenon for a same level of training.
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Physiology and Biochemistry
Billat VL, Mille-Hamard L, Petit B, Koralsztein JP. The Role of
Cadence on the V
˙
O
2
Slow Component in Cycling and Running
in Triathletes. Int J Sports Med 1999; 20: 429 437
Accepted after revision: February 24,1999
■■■■ The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of
two different types of cyclic severe exercise (running and cyc-
ling) on the V
˙
O
2
slow component.Moreover we examined the in-
fluence of cadence of exercise (freely chosen [FF] vs. low fre-
quency [LF]) on the hypothesis that: 1) a stride frequency lower
than optimal and 2) a pedalling frequency lower than FF one
could induce a larger and/or lower V
˙
O
2
slow component. Eight
triathletes ran and cycled to exhaustion at a work-rate cor-
responding to the lactate threshold + 50% of the difference be-
tween the work-rate associated with V
˙
O
2
max and the lactate
threshold (50) at a freely chosen (FF) and low frequency (LF:
– 10 % of FF). The time to exhaustion was not significantly differ-
ent for both types of exercises and both cadences (13 min 39 s,
15 min 43 s, 13 min 32 s, 15 min 05 s for running at FF and LF and
cycling at FF and LF, respectively). The amplitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow
component (i.e. difference between V
˙
O
2
at the last and the 3rd
min of the exercise) was significantly smaller during running
compared with cycling, but there was no effect of cadence. Con-
sequently, there was no relationship between the magnitude of
the V
˙
O
2
slow component and the time to fatigue for a severe ex-
ercise (r = 0.20, p = 0.27). However, time to fatigue was inversely
correlated with the blood lactate concentration for both modes
of exercise and both cadences (r = – 0.42, p = 0.01). In summary,
these data demonstrate that: 1) in subjects well trained for both
cycling and running, the amplitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow component
at fatigue was larger in cycling and that it was not significantly
influenced by cadence; 2) the V
˙
O
2
slow component was not cor-
related with the time to fatigue. If the nature of the linkage be-
tween the V
˙
O
2
slow component and the fatigue process remains
unclear, the type of contraction regimen depending on exercise
biomechanic characteristics seems to be determinant in the V
˙
O
2
slow component phenomenon for a same level of training.
Key words: V
˙
O
2
slow component, fatigue, running, cycling,
cadence, triathletes.
Introduction
At work rates that elicit a lactic acidosis, an additional slow
phase of V
˙
O
2
(V
˙
O
2
slow component) is superimposed upon
the underlying V
˙
O
2
kinetics. Indeed, previous studies of cy-
cling exercise reported that oxygen uptake can attain a steady
state above the lactate threshold, but only in the work-rate
range where lactate remains constant. Moreover, at higher
work rates i.e. above what has been termed “critical power”
[27], oxygen uptake continues to rise until the end of the test
or until exhaustion and will eventually drive V
˙
O
2
to the maxi-
mal oxygen uptake (V
˙
O
2
max) [32,35,42].
Although the mechanism underlying the continuous rise in
V
˙
O
2
during a suprathreshold exercise remains poorly under-
stood, Poole et al., [34] demonstrated that exercising muscle
was the predominant site of the V
˙
O
2
slow component. How-
ever, few studies [8] have investigated the influence of cyclic
exercise modality (running vs. cycling) on the V
˙
O
2
slow com-
ponent. Indeed, the difference between the muscle tension
and contraction characteristics of running and cycling may
provide important insights into the phenomenon of the V
˙
O
2
slow component whose ultimate causes remain still unsettled.
Therefore, the biomechanical difference between running and
cycling, which imposes different types of muscular contrac-
tion, might imply that the muscle metabolism will have differ-
ent effects considering the modality of exercise.
Given that endurance training decreases the magnitude of the
V
˙
O
2
slow component [19], influence of training was controlled
in a recent study performed with triathletes well trained both
in cycling and running [8]. This study reported a larger V
˙
O
2
slow component in cycling (ten fold) than in running at the
same relative exercise intensity (between the lactate threshold
and V
˙
O
2
max of each exercise i.e. 50). Whether the type of
cyclic exercise influences the magnitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow com-
ponent has not been well documented or understood.
Indeed, the two types of exercise are quite different from a bio-
mechanical standpoint. Mechanical efficiency of cycling i.e.
2025% [43] is much less than that of running at 45 70%
The Role of Cadence on the V
˙
O
2
Slow Component in Cycling
and Running in Triathletes
V. L. Billat, L. Mille-Hamard, B. Petit, J. P. Koralsztein
Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université Lille 2, Centre de Médecine du Sport CCAS, Paris, France
Int J Sports Med 1999; 20: 429 437
© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York
ISSN 0172-4622
429
[11]. The mechanical work observed in running is due to the
stretch-shortening movements in running which can be at-
tributed to the elastic behaviour of the muscle-tendon com-
plex during contact with the ground [10]. Hence, muscle ten-
sion during running is applied for a shorter duration and at
higher levels than in cycling which has an isometric contrac-
tion phase. In fact, Patterson and Moreno [31] reported that,
as the frequency increased from 60 to 120 rpm, a relatively
large percentage of the average crank force was “isometric-
like” and produced no external work. This difference in muscle
contraction regimen leads to the fact that other than in run-
ning, where the freely chosen stride length allows for the most
economical run [12], this is not the case in cycling [25] and
thus could influence the amplitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow compo-
nent. Indeed, the fact that in running and not in cycling, the
preferred cadence at a particular work rate is the most
economical (i.e. lowest aerobic demand) could have a potential
effect on the V
˙
O
2
slow component.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the possi-
ble influence of cadence on the difference in the V
˙
O
2
slow
component between two types of cyclic exercises (running vs.
cycling). We postulated that lowering the cadence in cycling
and running could decrease and increase respectively the V
˙
O
2
slow component. Moreover, we wanted to check the relation-
ship between the magnitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow component and
the time to exhaustion during supra critical-velocity exercise
to allow us to better appreciate the influence of the magnitude
and/or kinetics of the V
˙
O
2
slow component on exercise toler-
ance [32,35].
Methods
Subjects
Eight well-trained triathletes gave their informed consent and
volunteered to participate in this study, which was approved
by the Paris Ethical Committee. The physical characteristics of
the subjects are presented in Table 1. All subjects were highly
motivated and familiar with treadmill running, ergometer cy-
cling and with the sensation and symptoms of fatigue during
heavy exhaustive cycling and running exercise.
Material
Running tests were performed on a motorized treadmill (Gym-
rol 1800, Techmachine, Saint Etienne, France) kept at a 0%
slope for all of the tests, the speed being controlled with a re-
solution of 0.5 m × h
–1
(controller provided by the “Centre
d'Enseignement et de Développement pour le Montage en Sur-
face”, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France). Cycling
tests were carried out on a ERG 600 Bösch electronically-
braked cycle ergometer (Berlin, Germany). Respiratory and
pulmonary gas exchange variables were measured using a
MedGraphics CPMax cart (Medical Graphics, St. Paul, MN,
USA) which was calibrated prior to each test according to the
manufacturer's instructions. Breath-by-breath data were aver-
aged every 15-s (with discrete time-bins). ECG was monitored
from a three lead configuration (Jaeger cardioscope) and the
output signal was fed to the CPX Medical Graphics system for
computation of HR. V
˙
O
2
max was the highest 30-s V
˙
O
2
reached
at the end of an incremental test. The velocity (in running) or
power output (in cycling) when the subject attained V
˙
O
2
max
were termed vV
˙
O
2
max and pV
˙
O
2
max, respectively. Blood sam-
ples were analyzed for blood lactate concentration (La
b
) using
a purpose-built analyzer YSI 27 (Yellow Springs Instruments,
Ohio, USA).
Preliminary measurement
Each subject performed tests at the same time of day in a cli-
mate-controlled laboratory (21 to 228C). Subjects were in-
structed not to train hard, or ingest food and beverages con-
taining caffeine three days before testing. Each subject under-
took two preliminary incremental tests, one on the treadmill
and one on the cyclo-ergometer, to determine 1) V
˙
O
2
max, 2)
the work-rate associated with V
˙
O
2
max and 3) the fraction of
V
˙
O
2
max at which the lactate threshold occurred. These two in-
cremental tests (running and cycling) were performed three
days apart and in a randomized order. Subjects performed a
continuous incremental test (3-min stages) to exhaustion.
Duration and workload increments were standardized for run-
ning and cycling as follows. The workload increments were es-
timated to demand a V
˙
O
2
response equal to 2 × resting V
˙
O
2
(2
METS i.e. 2 × 3.5 ml × kg
–1
× min
–1
). Each work increment,
Table 1 Physical characteristics, triathlon experience, and training regimen data of the 8 triathletes
Subjects Age Body mass Height Triathlon
Experience
Triathlon
Competitions
Mean Training Distance (km × wk
-1
)
(yr) (kg) (cm) (yr) (number) Run Bike Swim
1 33 75 175 5 18 60 170 8
2 29 60 166 5 19 40 150 8
3 23 76 170 3 12 70 150 6
4 25 72 175 5 16 40 170 6
5 25 66 177 4 13 50 200 5
6 30 68 170 6 9 60 220 7
7 38 80 185 6 10 60 200 6
8 24 82 175 4 9 50 220 8
Mean 28 72 177 5 13 54 185 7
SD 5 7 5 1 4 11 29 1
Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 V. L. Billat et al.430
ranged between 35 to 50 watts for cycling depending on the
weight of the subject (on basis of 12 ml O
2
/min/watt according
to recommendations by Astrand and Rodahl [3]). For example,
for a subject of 60 kg the work load increment was 35 watts
([60 (kg) × 7 (ml × kg
–1
× min
–1
)]/12 (ml/min/watt)). For run-
ning, the speed was increased by 2 km × h
–1
(33.3 m × min
–1
)
at each stage, except for the last stage when the increment
was only 1 km × h
–1
(16.7 m × min
–1
). The initial work was set
at 70 to 100 watts for cycling (double that of the workload in-
crements) and at 10 km × h
–1
for running.
The power output and velocity associated with V
˙
O
2
max
(pV
˙
O
2
max and vV
˙
O
2
max) were defined for running and cycling
as the minimal work-load at which V
˙
O
2
max occurred [8]. All
subjects were verbally encouraged and gave a maximum ef-
fort.
Blood samples were obtained from the fingertip at the end of
each 3-min stage, immediately after the end of the exercise
test and then 8 minutes into the recovery period.
In this study, the lactate threshold (LT) was defined as the
V
˙
O
2
corresponding to the starting point of an accelerated lac-
tate accumulation (around 4 mmol × l
–1
) and expressed in %
V
˙
O
2
max [4]. Although using a ramp like increase in work rate
cannot allow precise determination of this blood lactate
threshold, the incremental test gave us a useful index to de-
lineate the domain at which blood lactate starts to dramatical-
ly accumulate in the blood.
To be sure that the triathletes would exercise in the range of
severe-intensity exercise (where neither V
˙
O
2
nor blood lactate
can be stabilized and at which a consequent V
˙
O
2
slow compo-
nent appeared) [20], the work rate for both modes of exercise
was set at 50% of the work rate difference between those at the
lactate threshold and at V
˙
O
2
max determined in the incremen-
tal test exercise described above (Wr 50). This suprathres-
hold exercise was designated to be a severe intensity all-out
exercise bout that produced fatigue between 10 and 15 min-
utes.
Experimental design and procotols
The subjects ran and cycled to exhaustion at Wr 50 at a freely
chosen (FF) and low frequency (LF) cadence. Each of these tests
were separated by one week. After a fifteen minute warm-up
period at 50% of the work rate associated with V
˙
O
2
max
(WrV
˙
O
2
max) (which was below the lactate threshold for all
subjects), the work-rate was increased to the suprathreshold
exercise within 20 s. All subjects were given verbal encourage-
ment throughout each trial. For running, time to fatigue at su-
prathreshold exercise was the time at which the subject's feet
left the treadmill as he placed his hands on the guardrails, and,
for cycling, the time at which the subject was no longer able to
maintain the required power-output. This time was recorded
to the nearest second.
Blood samples were obtained from the fingertip before the
warm-up run, during the last 30 seconds of the warm-up, ev-
ery 3 min of all-out suprathreshold exercise and immediately
after the end of the exercise test and then 8 minutes into the
recovery period.
Data analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests for paired
comparisons to determine whether V
˙
O
2
max, blood lactate
concentration, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, blood
lactate threshold (in % V
˙
O
2
max) and times to exhaustion were
different in cycling and running tests. The amplitude of the
V
˙
O
2
slow component was computed as the difference between
V
˙
O
2
at the last and the 3rd min of the exercise. A two-way AN-
OVA measure tested the overall effect of exercise and frequen-
cy on the V
˙
O
2
slow component. Subsequently, the differences
were located by Scheffes' post hoc test. Results are presented
as means ± standard deviation (SD). Correlations between bio-
energetic characteristics were determined using Pearson cor-
relation coefficient. The parameters of the linear distance-time
model were derived using linear regression (Statview 4.5,
Berkeley, CA). The level of statistical significance was set at
p = 0.05.
Results
Incremental tests
Table 2 shows the maximal V
˙
O
2
, heart rate and blood lactate,
reached at the end of the incremental tests in cycling and run-
ning. There was no significant difference between triathletes'
V
˙
O
2
max during cycling and running. However, the blood lac-
tate and heart rate were significantly higher in cycling than in
running. The lactate threshold was higher in running than in
cycling relative to the work-rate associated with V
˙
O
2
max
(84.9 ± 0.6 vs. 72.5 ± 4% WrV
˙
O
2
max). Therefore, when setting
the work-rate for both modes of exercise 50 work rate exer-
cise gave 86.3 ± 2 and 92.5 ± 0.7 % WrV
˙
O
2
max for cycling and
running, respectively.
The lactate threshold was determined between the range of
35 mmol × l
–1
, in accordance with Aunola and Rusko [4]. This
point was closer in definition to the onset of blood lactate ac-
cumulation defined by Sjödin and Jacobs [36], than to the lac-
tate threshold of Farrel et al. [17].
Table 2 Maximal values of metabolic and cardiorespiratory param-
eters (mean ± SD) during the incremental tests for cycling and running
Variables Cycle
Ergometry
Treadmill
Running
p Values
V
˙
O
2
max (l × min
-1
) 4.33 ± 0.66 4.19 ± 0.68 0.56
V
˙
O
2
max (ml × kg
-1
× min
-1
) 60.2 ± 5.5 59.8 ± 4.7 0.82
RER 1.17 ± 0.04 1.13 ± 0.04 0.01*
HR (beat × min
-1
) 183 ± 10 189 ± 11 0.65
[La] (mmol × l
-1
) 8.9 ± 1.3 7.7 ± 1.0 0.004*
Work rate at V
˙
O
2
max 350 ± 38.5 19.9± 0.8
(Watt for cycling and
km × h
-1
for running)
Lactate Threshold
(%WrV
˙
O
2
max)
72.5 ± 4.0 84.9 ± 0.6 0.001*
* Significant difference, p < 0.05 (RER, Respiratory Exchange Ratio; HR, Heart
Rate)
Effect of Cadence on V
˙
O
2
Slow Component Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 431
The selected warm-up period was below the lactate threshold.
The fifteen minute warm-up period was performed at 53 ± 2%
and 52 ± 2% of V
˙
O
2
max for running and cycling, respectively
(50% of WrV
˙
O
2
max).
Constant work rate tests
Table 3 shows, the contribution of the slow component to V
˙
O
2
,
the cycling and running maximal V
˙
O
2
heart rate, and blood lac-
tate reached at the end of the all-out severe work tests at free
and low cadence. The mean cadence for exercise freely chosen
by the subjects was higher in running than in cycling (Table 3).
Time to fatigue
The speed and the work rate set in all-out severe exercise were
18.4 ± 1.1 km × h
–1
and 302 ± 43 watts, respectively. The time to
fatigue for each exercise (running and cycling) at both caden-
ces (spontaneous and low) were not significantly different
(around 14 minutes, Table 3). Moreover, the time to fatigue be-
tween sports was not significantly different for the free or low
cadence (r = 0.46, p = 0.26 and r = 0.58, p = 0.14 for FF and LF
between cycling and running). However, there was no correla-
tion between cadence (free of low frequency) and time to fa-
tigue in cycling (r = 0.60, p = 0.1).
Table 3 Delay before exhaustion (tlim), maximal values of metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters (mean ± SD) during the constant work-
load tests for cycling and running in the two cadences: Free frequency (FF) and Low Frequency (LF)
Variables Treadmill Running Cycle Ergometry p values
A sports effect
B cadence effect
A × B interaction
FF LF FF LF
Cadence (rotation or stride per min) 92.1 ± 2.5 83.0 ± 2.3 82.5 ± 10.0 74.3 ± 8.9 0.0008*
0.001*
0.86
tlim (min, sec) 13 min 39 s
± 3 min 07 s
15 min 43 s
± 4 min 11 s
13 min 32 s
± 4 min 52 s
15 min 05 s
± 4 min43 s
0.80
0.24
0.87
work rate or speed (Watt or km × h
-1
) 18.4 ± 1.1 18.4 ± 1.1 254.5 ± 37 254.5 ± 37
relative work rate (%WrV
˙
O
2
max) 92.4 ± 0.3 92.4 ± 0.3 86.3 ± 1.9 86.3 ± 1.9 0.0001*
V
˙
O
2
(l × min
-1
) 3.95 ± 0.92 4.03 ± 0.58 4.09 ± 0.58 4.13 ± 0.74 0.63
0.82
0.93
V
˙
O
2
(ml × kg
-1
× min
-1
) 54.3 ± 9.0 56.0 ± 7.8 56.5 ± 3.8 57.3 ± 8.5 0.53
0.64
0.86
relative V
˙
O
2
(%V
˙
O
2
max) 90.7 ± 11.1 94.0 ± 13.1 94.5 ± 9.8 95.8 ± 15.8 0.54
0.61
0.82
HR (beats × min
-1
) 185 ± 12 184 ± 12 182 ± 14 182 ± 16 0.54
0.90
0.88
[La] (mmol × l
-1
) 6.1 ± 2.5 6.4 ± 2.3 9.2 ± 0.7 7.5 ± 2.3 0.01*
0.38
0.24
RER 1.11 ± 0.07 1.06 ± 0.06 1.15 ± 0.04 1.12± 0.04 0.01*
0.03
0.58
V
˙
E
(l × min
-1
) 139.9 ± 28.8 135.0± 20.6 159.1 ± 28.1 159.5± 38.5 0.04*
0.83
0.80
[La] (63 min) (mmol × l
–1
) 1.5 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.7 0.25
0.16
0.87
V
˙
O
2
(63 min) ml × min
-1
) 81.4 ± 27.6 77.6 ± 39.5 212.8 ± 72.5 191.4± 108.5 0.0006*
0.694
0.782
RER, Respiratory Exchange Ratio; HR, Heart Rate; V
˙
O
2
(ml × min
-1)
) and [La] difference of V
˙
O
2
and lactatemia between the sixth and the third minute of exer-
cise. * Significantly different
Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 V. L. Billat et al.432
V
˙
O
2
slow component and maximal V
˙
O
2
attained in the severe
all-out exercise
As shown in Table 3, 1) the V
˙
O
2
slow component was signifi-
cantly higher in cycling than in running, 2) it was not influ-
enced by the cadence (212.8 ± 73 and 191.4 ± 108 ml of O
2
/min
in cycling at FF and LF vs. 81.4 ± 17.6 and 77.6 ± 39 ml of O
2
/min
in running, p = 0.0006). Thus there was no effect of cadence on
the V
˙
O
2
slow component.
Moreover, in cycling there was no significant difference be-
tween the maximal value of V
˙
O
2
at the end of the all-out severe
exercise and V
˙
O
2
max obtained in the incremental test (Table
3). On the contrary, for running at free cadence, maximal V
˙
O
2
was significantly lower than V
˙
O
2
max obtained in the incre-
mental test. However, by running at a reduced cadence as for
cycling, triathletes attained their V
˙
O
2
max at the end of the
all-out severe exercise.
By examining the individual V
˙
O
2
response in the all-out severe
exercise in running and cycling for free and low frequency, we
can observe that in each exercise (2 sports × 2 cadences) there
was no difference between the maximal value of V
˙
O
2
attained
in the four 50 exercises and the V
˙
O
2
max attained in the ramp
protocole (chi 2 = 7.5, p = 0.27). The average tendency, there-
fore, is to reach V
˙
O
2
max in cycling, and that the reduction in
cadence in either sport (running or cycling) has no effect on
the V
˙
O
2
achieved (chi 2 = 1.8, p = 0.41).
Blood lactate and the V
˙
O
2
slow component
Blood lactate level at the end of the exhaustive exercise was
not significantly different from that at the end of the incre-
mental test in all constant load tests but for cycling at low ca-
dence where blood lactate was significantly lower. In all-out
severe exercise, maximal blood lactate was higher in cycling.
However, for each sport there was no influence of cadence on
blood lactate (Table 3). Considering both cadences (free and
low), the amplitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow component was signifi-
cantly correlated with the blood lactate accumulated in the
same time (between the 3rd and the 6th min) for cycling
(r = 0.50, p < 0.05, n = 16) but not for running (r = 0.08,
p = 0.78, n = 16).
The V
˙
O
2
slow component and time to fatigue
No significant correlationwas found between the amplitude of
the V
˙
O
2
slow component and the duration tolerated in this su-
pra-threshold exercise (r = 0.20 for both running and cycling
and r = 0.02 and 0.37 for running and cycling considered
separately).
Blood lactate and time to fatigue
A significant inverse relationship was found between the mag-
nitude of blood lactate accumulated and time to fatigue in se-
vere exercise considering both modes of exercise and both ca-
dences (r = 0.42, p = 0.01, n = 32). Examining each mode or
frequency only, there was a close significant relationship for
running at low frequency between lactate accumulation and
time to fatigue (r = – 0.46, p = 0.07, r = 0.43, p = 0.07, respec-
tively n= 16).
The V
˙
O
2
slow component and cardio-ventilatory variables
Heart frequency was similar between modes of exercise and
cadence. However, end RER, and V
˙
E values were significantly
higher in cycling than in running at cessation of all-out severe
exercise, cadence having no influence in each mode of exercise
(Table 3).
End V
˙
E/V
˙
O
2
was similar in running and cycling with no effect
of cadence in each mode of exercise (Table 3). Nevertheless,
the “drift” in V
˙
E between the 3rd and 6th min was significantly
larger during cycling than during running (V
˙
E = 43.6 ± 16.0 l/
min and 49.9 ± 18.1 l/min in FF and LF in running vs.
18.4 ± 11.7 l/min and 16.0 ± 5.6 l/min in FF and LF for running,
p < 0.001).
However, the V
˙
O
2
slow component was not correlated with the
increase of V
˙
E (r = 0.34, p = 0.20 for running and r = 0.05,
p = 0.85 in cycling). This decrease of running economy (defined
as the V
˙
O
2
at the same speed) due to an increase in V
˙
O
2
of
+ 2.27 ml/min/kg at the third minute during LF, induced a
higher value of V
˙
O
2
at the end of the constant severe exercise
with the triathletes reaching their V
˙
O
2
max at the low stride-
frequency, unlike FF. This difference, however, was not signifi-
cant (t = 1.6, p = 0.32). For cycling the low cadence did not
modify the economy of exercise since V
˙
O
2
at the third minute
was the same at both exercise frequencies (t = 0.62, p = 0.55).
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the influence of
cadence of exercise (spontaneous vs. low in running and cy-
cling) on the V
˙
O
2
slow component during an exhaustive exer-
cise in triathletes equally trained in cycling and running, 2)
whether the magnitude of the V
˙
O
2
slow component influenced
the duration of severe exercise (i.e. time limit: tlim).
This study showed that, 1) triathletes well trained in both run-
ning and cycling (V
˙
O
2
max = 60 ml/min/kg for both exercises)
had a larger V
˙
O
2
slow component in cycling and this difference
was not reduced by a lower cadence (– 10% of the spontaneous
one), 2) the V
˙
O
2
slow component (in cycling) was correlated
with blood lactate accumulation but was not correlated with
time to fatigue. Time to fatigue at this severe intensity was
only correlated with the blood lactate concentration.
The V
˙
O
2
slow component is larger in cycling than
in running and is not influenced by the cadence
The V
˙
O
2
slow component is larger in cycling than in running
Most of the studies which have reported a V
˙
O
2
slow compo-
nent were performed during cycling [20]. However, this pres-
ent study confirmed that for the same subject (triathlete), the
amplitude V
˙
O
2
slow component at fatigue was significantly
greater in cycling than running. These results are in accord-
ance with those of a previous study also carried out with ten
other triathletes at a work rate corresponding to 90% of work
rate (Wr) at V
˙
O
2
max [8].
Considering the absence of the V
˙
O
2
slow component in run-
ning despite continuous blood lactate accumulation, this pres-
ent study is in accordance with that of Nagle et al. [28] who
Effect of Cadence on V
˙
O
2
Slow Component Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 433
underlined that during running “lactic acid is produced in
work requiring 65 90% of V
˙
O
2
max even when a reasonably
steady state of V
˙
O
2
is attained” (duration 30 min at
86.4 ± 2.6% of V
˙
O
2
max). Costill [15] reported that three highly
trained distance runners (V
˙
O
2
max > 70 ml/kg/min) were able
to sustain a V
˙
O
2
steady-state at 90% of V
˙
O
2
max for more than
25 minutes (10 km performed on treadmill) with end blood
lactate of 5 mM. In the same manner, a recent study [7]
showed that thirteen high level runners (V
˙
O
2
max =
74.9 ± 3.0 ml/min/kg) were able to maintain a V
˙
O
2
steady-state
at 91% of V
˙
O
2
max for 17 minutes with an end blood lactate of
6.5 ± 2.1 mM. They ran at 90% of the velocity associated with
V
˙
O
2
max (vV
˙
O
2
max ) a velocity well above their critical velocity
(86 ± 1.5 % vV
˙
O
2
max). This present study, performed with
triathletes, confirmed that the V
˙
O
2
slow component was very
slight in running (25 ml/min) and was ten fold higher in cy-
cling (250 ml/min). In fact, 5 and 4 out of the 8 subjects
reached their V
˙
O
2
max in cycling for FF and LF, respectively,
and only 1 and 3 out of the 8 subjects reached their V
˙
O
2
max
in running for FF and LF, respectively.
Given that Poole et al. [33] demonstrated that the majority of
the V
˙
O
2
slow component is attributable to factors within the
working limbs [20], and considering the absence of V
˙
O
2
slow
component for severe running by highly trained distance run-
ners and triathletes, we hypothesized that not only the train-
ing and the relative intensity, but also the type of contraction
regimen could influence the V
˙
O
2
slow component. The main
difference between these two types of exercise is from the bio-
mechanical standpoint: the mechanical efficiency of cycling is
much less than in running due to the fact that the contraction
regimen is quite different. A greater efficiency is seen in run-
ning due to the stored elastic energy contributing to the posi-
tive mechanical work [10,13]. On the contrary, cycling is char-
acterized by longer phases of isometric contraction [31]. This
could explain our results reporting a larger lactate production
above the lactate threshold at the same relative fraction of the
difference between the work-rate at V
˙
O
2
max and the work rate
associated with the lactate threshold (50). This decrease of
muscle pH which displaces the equilibrium of the Lohman
reaction [21] accelerates the dephosphorylation of phospho-
creatine (PC) to creatine. The decrease of the intramuscular
pH due to lactate accumultion might be the signal “turn on”
of a slow and continuous increase of V
˙
O
2
[24] and decrease in
maximal explosive power, due to a decreased (PC) as demon-
strated by Capelli et al. [9].
Moreover, it has been suggested that the V
˙
O
2
slow component
may primarily be related to motor unit recruitment patterns
during exercise depending upon the contribution of less effi-
cient, fast twitch motor units [5,6]. The hypothesis that the
V
˙
O
2
slow component arises from the recruitment of a fast
twitch fiber population with slow kinetics is consistent with
the notion that the V
˙
O
2
kinetics are limited by fiber mitochon-
drial content [34]. Moreover, it has been shown that isolated
mitochondria from type II fibers exhibit a 18% lower P/O ratio
[45]. Similarly, Whipp [42] considers that a (if not the) major
contributor to the V
˙
O
2
excess is likely to be the high energy
cost of contraction in the type II fibers recruited proportionally
more at high work rates and requiring a large high-energy
phosphate cost of force production.
To our knowledge, no data are available in the literature to pro-
vide an answer to the question if the difference in V
˙
O
2
slow
component between running and cycling can be accounted
for by a difference in percentage of fast twitch fibres recruited
during these two types of exercises. However, comparing max-
imal treadmill and bicycle exercises, Okita et al. [30] showed,
that in cycling exercise, there was severe metabolic stress on
the quadriceps, leading to near complete depletion of PC and
to a severe decrease in pH. Based on the findings of depleted
PC, they concluded that all the available muscle fibers, includ-
ing slow and fast twitch fibers, had been recruited and ex-
hausted. In treadmill exercise this was not the case since a sig-
nificant amount of PC (about one third) still remained and pH
decrease was less severe both in the quadriceps and in the calf.
The V
˙
O
2
slow component is not influenced by the cadence
for each cyclic exercise (running and cycling)
In cycling, the muscle mass activated is mainly the vastus late-
ralis and medialis [39]. However, for cyclists having a certain
pedalling skill, there is a positive utilization for knee flexors
(biceps femoris) to decrease peak pedal force and alleviate
muscle activity for knee extensors [39]. Takaishi et al. [39]
speculated that pedalling skills that decrease muscle stress in-
fluence the preferred cadence selection, contributing to re-
cruitment of ST muscle fibers with fatigue resistance and high
mechanical efficiency despite increased oxygen consumption
caused by increase repetitions of leg movement. Indeed, Pat-
terson and Moreno [31] demonstrated that when the pedalling
rate was increased from 60 to 120 rpm, the resultant force on
the pedals averaged over a crank cycle was isometric-like and
produced no external work. Their results suggested that pedal-
ling at 90 rpm might minimize peripheral forces and therefore
peripheral muscle fatigue even though this rate might result in
higher oxygen uptake. Consequently, a high frequency of ped-
alling is less economical than a low frequency. For instance,
Gaesser [18] reported that the V
˙
O
2
slow component was signif-
icantly higher when cycling at 100 rpm than at 50 rpm. More-
over, Takaishi et al. [38] demonstrated that the optimal pedal-
ling rate estimated from neuromuscular fatigue in working
muscles was not coincident with the pedalling rate at which
the smallest V
˙
O
2
was obtained, but with the preferred pedal-
ling rate of the subjects. They suggested that the reason that
cyclists preferred a higher pedalling rate was closely related
to the development of neuromuscular fatigue in the working
muscles. In the previous [8] and present study performed with
triathletes, the subjects were free to choose their most com-
fortable cadence and usually adopted a frequency around
85 rpm, which may have increased the magnitude of the slow
component. Therefore, we hypothesized that in cycling, lower-
ing this cadence to 70 rpm could have reduced the V
˙
O
2
slow
component.
In running, the minimum of metabolic energy expenditure
during running with the freely chosen step frequency may de-
rive from a compromise which minimizes the step-average
force exerted by the muscles to sustain the impact against the
ground and the stiffening of the limbs [13]. Indeed, Cavanagh
and Williams [12] reported that the freely chosen stride length
in running allows for the most economical run. However, Mor-
gan et al. [26] reported that this was not systematically the
case for recreational distance runners, and half of the triath-
Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 V. L. Billat et al.434
letes examined in this study were first of all cyclists or swim-
mers and not runners.
Therefore, we hypothesized that the difference between spon-
taneous and most economical cadence which exists in cycling,
but not in running, could be one of the factors contributing to
the larger V
˙
O
2
slow component in cycling for the same subject.
In order to test the possible influence of correspondence be-
tween freely chosen cadence and the economical one [12], we
imposed lower frequency in running and cycling, to respec-
tively induce or reduce a V
˙
O
2
slow component. Some authors
[16,22] have demonstrated that while cycling at pedalling
rates of 8090 rpm (as employed for free cadence in the pres-
ent study), the vastus lateralis shortens at a rate between 1 and
1.5 fibre lengths/sec. They underlined that this contraction
velocity is closer to the velocity of peak efficiency of a type I fi-
bre than a type II fibre. However, the lower cadence did not
change the V
˙
O
2
slow component probably due to the occur-
rence of two contrary factors:
1. Firstly, an increase in the V
˙
O
2
slow component by lowering
the cadence which is probably due to the increased muscle
force required to meet the higher resistance per cycle at a
lower pedal frequency is known to determine (as opposed
to velocity of contraction) the degree of type II fiber
recruitment when the metabolic cost of exercise is held
constant [1]. In our study, work rate at V
˙
O
2
max was 302 ±
43 W and spontaneous cycling cadence was 82.5 ± 10 rpm.
Therefore since power output is equal to the force divided
by the velocity, the average force is equal to 302/
82.5 = 3.66 kgF. A decrease of 10% of the cadence induces
an increase of an average force of 366 gF. Cerretelli et al.
[14] demonstrated that in isometric contractions (5 40%
of maximal tension), V
˙
O
2
was linearly related to the force
exerted.
2. Secondly, the factor which could decrease the V
˙
O
2
slow
component when cadence is reduced is the fact that inter-
nal work and total mechanical work are decreased due to
less frequent accelerations of the limbs in regard to the
body center of mass.
In running, the slower stride frequency did not induce a V
˙
O
2
slow component, since the V
˙
O
2
values at the third minute and
last minute of severe exercise were both higher than for spon-
taneous cadence, and the triathletes reached their V
˙
O
2
max at
the end of the all-out severe run. Cavanagh and Williams [12]
have clearly demonstrated that for ten runners (mean V
˙
O
2
max
64.7 ml/min/kg) at 14 km/h, an increase or decrease of 20% of
the stride frequency induced a mean increase of V
˙
O
2
of 2.6 and
3.4 ml/min/kg, respectively. The simple process of shortening
or lengthening the stride has an important effect on all of the
active musculature: each muscle is forced to work on a slightly
different region of its force-velocity curve and consequently
changes in efficiency are seen [44]. However, in this study,
even if the lower cadence (– 10%) decreased the running econ-
omy (i.e. + 2.27 ml/min/kg of V
˙
O
2
at the same speed), this de-
crease was not significant and did not influence the time to fa-
tigue.
Therefore, we can suppose that a 10% modification of cadence
was insufficient to induce an important change of running
economy or a significant decrease of internal work in cycling,
but to compare the V
˙
O
2
slow components between the sponta-
neous and lower cadence we needed to be sure that triathletes
would be able to sustain the severe exercise at least 6 minutes.
The V
˙
O
2
slow component is not related with time
to exhaustion in severe exercise
The absence of a correlation between the V
˙
O
2
slow component
and time to exhaustion questions the mechanism of fatigue
during this severe intensity exercise. Indeed, regardless of the
fact whether triathletes reached their V
˙
O
2
max (in cycling) or
not (in running), they had the same time to fatigue in both ex-
ercises. Whipp [42] suggested that the more rapidly the slow
component projects toward V
˙
O
2
max, the shorter the tolerable
duration of the exercise test. In Nagle et al.'s study [28], sub-
jects did not reach their V
˙
O
2
max and were not completely ex-
hausted. In the present study, both cases existed since during
running subjects did not reach their V
˙
O
2
max, but were com-
pletely exhausted and in cycling, they reached their V
˙
O
2
max
and were exhausted, too (after the same duration). This time
to fatigue is well above the duration of all-out exercise recom-
mended by Astrand and Saltin [2] which clearly pointed out
that it was possible to measure V
˙
O
2
max with work-rate ex-
hausting subjects in 28 min. Jones [23] suggested that the
sensation of effort presumably reflects the magnitude of the
voluntary motor command generated. The second source of
sensory information, described as a sense of force or tension,
is derived from peripheral receptors in muscles, tendons and
the skin and is assumed to reflect the actual force exerted by
the muscle.
There might be different reasons for stopping cycling and run-
ning, even if the time to fatigue was not significantly different.
However, Vollestad et al. [40] demonstrated that during an ex-
haustive cycling exercise at 91% of V
˙
O
2
max (20 minutes) about
95% of the fibres are activated in the vastus lateralis (VL) and
90% in the 10 first minutes. During severe exercise at 91% of
V
˙
O
2
max, fibres of type I, IIA, IIAB, and IIB were recruited (with
a 1:1 relationship between the fraction of active fibers in the
VL and the intensity determined as a percentage of V
˙
O
2
max, if
exercise was performed until exhaustion). The authors did not
focus on the V
˙
O
2
slow component. However, from their data
we could calculate an average V
˙
O
2
slow component of 224 ml/
min between the 5th and the 20th minute (6.4 % of V
˙
O
2
max).
They suggested that at this exercise at 91% of V
˙
O
2
max, the ac-
cumulation of lactate in muscle and blood in the first part of
exercise indicated a large anaerobic breakdown of glycogen;
this depletion suggested that even for this severe exercise of
10 minutes the lack of glycogen might be an important factor
in development of fatigue (as for longer and slower exercise).
For a 5000 m running race which elicits about 94% of V
˙
O
2
max
during 14 minutes, Newholme et al. [29] suggested that the
possible major cause of fatigue (defined as the inability to
maintain power output), could be the depletion of glycogen.
However, the nature of the linkage between the V
˙
O
2
slow com-
ponent and the fatigue process remains unclear [34] but we
can postulate that glycogen and PC depletion was responsible
for fatigue since the V
˙
O
2
slow component is associated with
the increase of PC dephosphorylation and the Bohr effect
[39,41].
Effect of Cadence on V
˙
O
2
Slow Component Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 435
Conclusion
The fact that cycling exercise induces a more pronounced V
˙
O
2
slow component could indicate that the type of exercise con-
traction regimen (isometric vs. eccentric) is significant in the
process of PC dephosphorylation and consequently in the V
˙
O
2
slow component phenomenon. However, it is also a determi-
nant to consider in further research the role of the handgrip in-
creasing with fatigue during cycling should be a part (signifi-
cant) of the difference of V
˙
O
2
slow component in running and
cycling in triathletes well trained for both exercises. To further
investigate the hypothesis of the importance of the type of
muscular contraction regimen on V
˙
O
2
slow component, it is,
for instance, possible to examine the influence of slope on the
V
˙
O
2
slow component in running, since the slope decreases the
stretch-shortening cycle of running [11].
Acknowledgements
This study was supported by grants from Caisse Centrale des
Activités Sociales d'Electricité et Gaz de France.
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Corresponding Author:
Véronique Billat, Ph.D.
Centre de Médecine du Sport CCAS
2, avenue Richerand
F-75010 Paris
France
Phone: + 33 (1) 42020818
Fax: + 33 (1) 42392083
E-mail: Veronique.Billat@Wanadoo.fr
Effect of Cadence on V
˙
O
2
Slow Component Int J Sports Med 1999; 20 437
... Biomechanical difference between running and cycling involves different contraction paths, thus, muscular metabolism will suffer different effects [6]. It is known that cycling mechanic efficience is less than the one in runnig (20-25% vs 45-75%), [7] cit. ...
... It is known that cycling mechanic efficience is less than the one in runnig (20-25% vs 45-75%), [7] cit. [6] supposedly, because cycling demands a more long duration isometric contraction phase than in running [8]. ...
... If not provided, the analyzed distance was calculated from the reported speed. If only the number of steps or insufficient information was reported for determining the analyzed distance, equivalences between 200 m, 60 s, and 150 steps/min were used-200 m in 60 s corresponds with a speed of 3.33 m/s, which is a common intermediate running speed [9,10], and 150 steps/min is on the low end of preferred running cadence [11][12][13][14], representing a low threshold of number of steps that equates to 200 m. ...
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Inertial measurement units (IMUs) can be used to monitor running biomechanics in real-world settings, but IMUs are often used within a laboratory. The purpose of this scoping review was to describe how IMUs are used to record running biomechanics in both laboratory and real-world conditions. We included peer-reviewed journal articles that used IMUs to assess gait quality during running. We extracted data on running conditions (indoor/outdoor, surface, speed, and distance), device type and location, metrics, participants, and purpose and study design. A total of 231 studies were included. Most (72%) studies were conducted indoors; and in 67% of all studies, the analyzed distance was only one step or stride or <200 m. The most common device type and location combination was a triaxial accelerometer on the shank (18% of device and location combinations). The most common analyzed metric was vertical/axial magnitude, which was reported in 64% of all studies. Most studies (56%) included recreational runners. For the past 20 years, studies using IMUs to record running biomechanics have mainly been conducted indoors, on a treadmill, at prescribed speeds, and over small distances. We suggest that future studies should move out of the lab to less controlled and more real-world environments.
... O limiar anaeróbio ventilatório (lan vent ), mensurado emtermos percentuaisdo VO 2max , registrou um valor médio de 85,4%, reforçando os dados encontrados em estudos anteriores realizados com triatletas e corredores de elite de diferentes distâncias [39][40][41][42]. Em linha de convergência, refere-se que a uma intensidade de esforço entre 80-88% VO 2max , atletas que possuem limiar anaeróbio inferior deplecionam uma maior taxa de glicogénio muscular, o que se traduz numa concentração de lactato duas vezes superior a verificada em atletas com um registo de steady-state do lactato mais elevado [43]. ...
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Objectivo: Analisar o perfil antropométrico e fisiológico dos triatletas portugueses e avaliar os parâmetros isocinéticos da força muscular nos membros inferiores. Métodos: A amostra foi composta de 12 atletas seniores masculinos (30,3 ± 3,8 anos; 70,2 ± 4,4 kg; 177,5 ± 5,4 cm; IMC 22,3 ± 0,6 e percentagem de gordura corporal 6,7 ± 1,9%). Foram avaliadas a impulsão vertical (sCM e sE), potência anaeróbia lática (WingateTest), força muscular em dinamómetro isocinético (velocidades angulares 90º/s e 360º/s), potência aeróbia máxima (tapete rolante). Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, teste T de student para medidas repetidas e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Foram encontradas correlações entre a massa corporal dos triatletas e a potência média (r = 0,57, p = 0,05) e máxima (r = 0,59, p = 0,04)obtidas no teste de Wingate. A potência média (relativa à massa corporal) correlacionou-se com os valores dos torques máximos concêntricos da articulação do joelho à 90º/s (r = 0,683, p = 0,014) e 360º/s (r = 0,622, p = 0,031). Os triatletas revelaram diferenças de 5,5% (p = 0,000) na razão I/Q à 360º/s e de 7,3% (p = 0,001) e 9,9% (p = 0,002) nos torques máximos concêntricos a 90º/s e 360º/s, respectivamente. Conclusão: Triatletas portugueses possuem perfis similares aos dos triatletas internacionais e evidenciam diferenças nos parâmetros isocinéticos da força muscular nos membros inferiores.Palavras-chave: atletas, triathlon, potência anaeróbia, potência aeróbia, dinamómetro.
... First, it was assumed that the time between contralateral steps would be between 0.25 s and 0.50 s, and twice those values for the ipsilateral steps. These constraints correspond to a running cadence of between 240 steps/min and 120 steps/min, respectively, which encompasses the reported preferred running cadences of between 150-192 steps/min [30][31][32][33], with the added advantage that this assumption allows ample room to accommodate for a far wider range of running cadences. Additionally, it was assumed that TO would occur no earlier than 0.1 s following IC [34]. ...
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The identification of the initial contact (IC) and toe off (TO) events are crucial components of running gait analyses. To evaluate running gait in real-world settings, robust gait event detection algorithms that are based on signals from wearable sensors are needed. In this study, algorithms for identifying gait events were developed for accelerometers that were placed on the foot and low back and validated against a gold standard force plate gait event detection method. These algorithms were automated to enable the processing of large quantities of data by accommodating variability in running patterns. An evaluation of the accuracy of the algorithms was done by comparing the magnitude and variability of the difference between the back and foot methods in different running conditions, including different speeds, foot strike patterns, and outdoor running surfaces. The results show the magnitude and variability of the back-foot difference was consistent across running conditions, suggesting that the gait event detection algorithms can be used in a variety of settings. As wearable technology allows for running gait analyses to move outside of the laboratory, the use of automated accelerometer-based gait event detection methods may be helpful in the real-time evaluation of running patterns in real world conditions.
... Hill and Vingren [7] described that in moderately active women and men, the MAOD estimated in running is greater compared with cycling possibly due to the greater muscle mass that is active during running. In addition, Billat and co-workers [8] reported that the _ VO 2 slow component is higher during cycling compared with running, which alters the linear intensity-_ VO 2 relationship and consequently, MAOD determination. Thus, it is possible to infer the effect of muscle mass on MAOD assessment. ...
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The purpose of this study was to verify whether the exercise modality (i.e., running and cycling) alters the magnitude of “anaerobic” capacity estimated by a single supramaximal effort (AC[La]+EPOCfast). Fourteen healthy men (age: 26±9 years) underwent a maximum incremental test and a supramaximal effort to exhaustion at 115% of the intensity associated with maximal oxygen uptake to determine the AC[La]+EPOCfast (i.e., the sum of both oxygen equivalents from the glycolytic and phosphagen pathways), performed on both a treadmill and cycle ergometer. The maximal oxygen uptake during running was higher (p = 0.001; large effect size) vs. cycling (48.9±3.9mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ vs. 44.8±5.5mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ respectively). Contrarily, the oxygen equivalent from the glycolytic metabolism was not different between exercise modalities (p = 0.133; small effect size; running = 2.35±0.48 L and cycling = 2.18±0.58 L). Furthermore, the “anaerobic” capacity was likely meaning fully (3.65±0.70 L) and very likely meaningfully (949.1±5.7 mL·kg⁻¹) greater in running than cycling (3.81±0.71 L and 52.0±8.1 mL·kg⁻¹). Additionally, the contribution of the phosphagen metabolism was higher (p = 0.001; large effect size) for running compared to cycling (1.6±0.3 L vs.1.3±0.3 L respectively). Therefore, the “anaerobic” capacity estimated by the sum of both oxygen equivalents from the glycolytic and phosphagen pathways during a supramaximal effort is influenced by exercise modality and is able to identify the difference in phosphagen metabolic contribution, based on the methodological conditions of this study.
... A further study in a similar subject population failed to observe a significant difference in MFO, but did observe a greater Fat max during running (Chenevière et al., 2010). The reason for this disparate result in terms of MFO is not easily discernible, but could be related to between-study differences indirect calorimetry (analysis of 1 vs. 2 min of expired gases per 3min stage), given the greater VO 2 slow component during cycling (Billat et al., 1999). It is therefore recommended that the exercise modality in which Fat max tests are performed be considered when between-study and intra-individual comparisons are made, and by those preparing for multi-modal endurance competitions such as triathlons. ...
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Using a short-duration step protocol and continuous indirect calorimetry, whole-body rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation can be estimated across a range of exercise workloads, along with the individual maximal rate of fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity at which MFO occurs (Fatmax). These variables appear to have implications both in sport and health contexts. After discussion of the key determinants of MFO and Fatmax that must be considered during laboratory measurement, the present review sought to synthesize existing data in order to contextualize individually measured fat oxidation values. Data collected in homogenous cohorts on cycle ergometers after an overnight fast was synthesized to produce normative values in given subject populations. These normative values might be used to contextualize individual measurements and define research cohorts according their capacity for fat oxidation during exercise. Pertinent directions for future research were identified.
... ; Moreira-da-Costa, Russo, Picarro, Silva, Leite-de-Barros-Neto,Tarasantchi et al., 1984;De Vito, Bernardi, Sproviero, Figura, 1995;Billat, Mille-Hamard, Petit, Koralsztein, 1999; Galy, Hue, Boussana, Peyreigne, Couret, LeGallais et al., 2003;Millet & Bentley, 2004).Kohrt et al. (1989)conducted a 6 to 8 month longitudinal investigation of 14 moderately trained LD triathletes. The researchers quantified V ̇ O 2 max and the LT in both cycling and running. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a Tabata exercise program as an alternative for firefighters whose working environment makes it difficult to manage physical fitness. The Tabata exercise program, in which 16 people participated, led to increased muscle mass and reduced weight and body fat, which not only improved the health of the firefighters but also improved their cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle endurance, and muscle strength, which are essential elements during firefighting emergency relief activities. On the basis of these results, it is believed that developing and providing guidelines for scientific and systematic exercise programs to firefighters will lead to better work capability during fire and disaster situations.
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Objective: To analyze the anthropometric and physiological profile of portuguese triathletes and evaluate the parameters of isokinetic muscle strength in the lower limbs. Methods: 12 male senior athletes (30.3 ± 3.8 years, 70.2 ± 4.4 kg, 177.5 ± 5.4 cm, 22.3 ± 0.6 and 6.7 ± BMI 1.9%). We evaluated the vertical jump (SCM and SE), lactic anaerobic power (Wingate Test), muscle strength on an isokinetic dynamometer (angular velocity 90 °/s and 360 °/s) and maximal aerobic power (treadmill protocol). We used descriptive statistics, Student t test for repeated measures and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: We found correlation between the body mass of triathletes and average power (r = 0.57, p = 0.05) and maximum (r = 0.59, p = 0.04) obtained in the Wingate test. The average power (relative to body mass) correlated with the values of peak torques concentric knee joint at 90 ° / s (r = 0,683, p = 0.014) and 360 °/s (r = 0,622, p = 0.031). The triathletes revealed differences of 5.5% (p = 0.000) in the ratio I/Q to 360 º/s and 7.3% (p = 0.001) and 9.9% (p = 0.002) in concentric peak torque at 90 º/s and 360 °/s, respectively. Conclusion: Portuguese triathletes have a similar profiles to those of international triathletes and show differences in parameters and isokinetic muscle strength in the lower limbs. Keywords: .athletes, triathlon, anaerobic power, aerobic power, dynamometer.
Article
Aerobic exercise has long been considered as one of the major means for thepromotion of health and well-being of the populations. Improvements on bodycomposition, self-esteem and functional capacity are some of the benefits generallyassociated to this type of exercise.In order to reach those goals, an adequate exercise prescription is desirable and itusually involves specific recommendations for training variables. Several exercise andphysical activity guidelines have been proposed by leading organizations, as theAmerican College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) or the American Heart Association(AHA), regarding aerobic exercise volume, frequency and/or intensity. However, thelatter is known to be influenced by exercise mode selection. For example, recordedmaximal heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake have consistently been lower in cyclingwhen compared to running, for a given subject. Considering the different type andnumber of aerobic activities (e.g. running, swimming) and ergometers (e.g. treadmill,stationary bicycle), one must take exercise mode into account for an accurate and safeprescription of exercise intensity.The purpose of the present work is to perform a literature review on studiescomparing different modes of aerobic exercise and 1) to analyze and discuss theirphysiological characteristics and implications on exercise prescription regarding maximalheart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, ventilatory threshold and energy expenditure and 2)to compare standard exercise intensity categories (moderate, hard, etc.) and target zones(lipolytic, glycolytic) in different exercise modes. The aim of this review is to providespecific suggestions regarding intensity adjustments in various exercise modes, in order to improve the effectiveness of individualized exercise prescriptions. Recommendations for exercise and physical activity based on clinical and scientific evidence made their debut in the 1960's, with the publication of the "President's Council on Physical Fitness" [1]. Latter, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) issued their first"Guidelines for Graded Exercise Testing and Exercise Prescription" [2] and their earliest position statement regarding the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults [3]. This had a major impact on the physical activity and exercise fields. Since then, several renowned institutions have issued specific exercise recommendations intended to promote the health and well-being of the populations. Some of these institutions include the US Surgeon General, National Institutes of Health, World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of Medicine, and the American Heart Association [4]. There are many variables critical to a comprehensive aerobic exercise prescription. These generally include duration or frequency but also intensity, which is of special relevance for this chapter. This indicator encompasses detailed categories that range from "very light" to "maximal", and is based on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), rate of perceived exertion or metabolic equivalents (MET's) [5]. Exercise mode is also considered for exercise prescription and it relates to the specific exercise activity that is selected. Today, individuals are able to perform an endless number of different activities thanks to the many sports and ergometers available. However, physiological responses seem to differ in distinct exercise modes. For example, it is long known that VO2max and HRmax have consistently been lower in cycling when compared to running, for a given active subject and furthermore, even the percentage of VO2max or HRmax at which the ventilatory threshold (VT) occurs seems to be different among exercise modes [6]. It is believed that these physiological differences are due to the quantity and quality of muscle mass that is recruited [7, 8], type of muscle contraction [9, 10], training specificity [11, 12], venous return, postural position, peripheral and central factors [13, 14], neural stimulation [15], and muscle contraction pattern [16]. In this sense, the definition and categorization of intensity, whether in absolute or relative terms, should be addressed considering the exercise mode that is elected. However, this is not the case in current guidelines endorsed by the different health and fitness organizations. Here, we address the characteristics of several exercise modes, present dataconcerning VO2max, HRmax and VT, and provide specific suggestions regarding intensity adjustments in various exercise modes, in order to improve the effectiveness of individualized exercise prescriptions.
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The purpose of this study was to clarify the reason for the difference in the preferred cadence between cyclists and noncyclists. Male cyclists and noncyclists were evaluated in terms of pedal force, neuromuscular activity for lower extremities, and oxygen consumption among the cadence manipulation (45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 rpm) during pedaling at 150 and 200 W. Noncyclists having the same levels of aerobic and anaerobic capacity as cyclists were chosen from athletes of different sports to avoid any confounding effect from similar kinetic properties of cyclists for lower extremities (i.e., high speed contraction and high repetitions in prolonged exercise) on both pedaling performance and preferred cadence. The peak pedal force significantly decreased with increasing of cadence in both groups, and the value for noncyclists was significantly higher than that for cyclists at each cadence despite the same power output. The normalized iEMG for vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles increased in noncyclists with rising cadence; however, cyclists did not show such a significant increase of the normalized iEMG for the muscles. On the other hand, the normalized iEMG for biceps femoris muscle showed a significant increase in cyclists while there was no increase for noncyclists. Oxygen consumption for cyclists was significantly lower than that for noncyclists at 105 rpm for 150 W work and at 75, 90, and 105 rpm for 200 W work. We conclude that cyclists have a certain pedaling skill regarding the positive utilization for knee flexors up to the higher cadences, which would contribute to a decrease in peak pedal force and which would alleviate muscle activity for the knee extensors. We speculated that pedaling skills that decrease muscle stress influence the preferred cadence selection, contributing to recruitment of ST muscle fibers with fatigue resistance and high mechanical efficiency despite increased oxygen consumption caused by increased repetitions of leg movements.
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Development of lactic acidosis is essential in performance of heavy work. H+, locally produced with lactate during inadequate O2 flow to tissues, raises capillary PO2 and facilitates O2 diffusion to mitochondria. This provides feedback control when there is imbalance between O2 requirement and supply.
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VØLLESTAD, N.K. & BLOM P.C.S. 1985. Effect of varying exercise intensity on glycogen depletion in human muscle fibres. Acta Physiol Scand125, 395–405. Received 15 December 1984, accepted 30 April 1985. ISSN 0001–6772. Institute of Muscle Physiology, Oslo, Norway.Glycogen depletion of muscle fibre types I, II A, IIAB and IIB was studied during bicycle exercise at 43% (π= 5), 61% (π= 7) and 91% (π= 5) of Vo2 max Glycogen content in individual fibres from vastus lateralis muscles was quantified as optical density of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. After 60 min at the lowest intensity, glycogen depletion was observed in almost all type I fibres and in about 20% of type IIA fibres. After 60 min exercise at 61 % of Vo2max, glycogen breakdown was observed in all type I fibres and in about 65% of type IIA fibres. During the first part of exercise at 91% of Vo2 max, glycogen breakdown was observed in all type I and IIA and in about 50% of type IIAB and IIB fibres. Muscle lactate concentration increased during the first 5 min of exercise at 91% of Vo2max to 15 mmol kg-1 (w/w) and remained thereafter at this level. From start of exercise the average rates of glycogen depletion in type I fibres were about 1.0,2.0 and 4.3 mmol glucosyl units kg-1 (w/w) min-1 at 43%, 61 % and 91 % of Vo2max The depletion rates were almost constant with time at the two lower intensities. The results indicate that the number of fibres activated from the start increase gradually in response to increased exercise intensity. The rates of glycogen depletion in type I fibres suggest a progressive tension output of these fibres with increasing intensity.
Article
Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. quadriceps femoris of man immediately after termination of dynamic and isometric exercise. These were analyzed for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-phosphate (AMP), phosphorylcreatine (PC), creatine, pyruvate and lactate. Regardless of type, intensity, and duration of the preceding exercise, a general pattern of the relation between high-energy phosphates and lactate content could be observed. PG showed a nonlinear relationship to the muscle lactate content. The ratio of ATP to ADP appeared to decrease linearly when lactate content increased. The relationships are believed to be the consequence of a steady-state condition where muscle pH is one of the major determining factors.
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1. The mechanical power spent to accelerate the limbs relative to the trunk in level walking and running, W(int), has been measured at various ;constant' speeds (3-33 km/hr) with the cinematographic procedure used by Fenn (1930a) at high speeds of running.2. W(int) increases approximately as the square of the speed of walking and running. For a given speed W(int) is greater in walking than in running.3. In walking above 3 km/hr, W(int) is greater than the power spent to accelerate and lift the centre of mass of the body at each step, W(ext) (measured by Cavagna, Thys & Zamboni, 1976b). In running W(int) < W(ext) up to about 20 km/hr, whereas at higher speeds W(int) > W(ext).4. The total work done by the muscles was calculated as W(tot) = W(int) + W(ext). Except that at the highest speeds of walking, the total work done per unit distance W(tot)/km is greater in running than in walking.5. The efficiency of positive work was measured from the ratio W(tot)/Net energy expenditure: this is greater than 0.25 indicating that both in walking and in running the muscles utilize, during shortening, some energy stored during a previous phase of negative work (stretching).6. In walking the efficiency reaches a maximum (0.35-0.40) at intermediate speeds, as may be expected from the properties of the contractile component of muscle. In running the efficiency increases steadily with speed (from 0.45 to 0.70-0.80) suggesting that positive work derives mainly from the passive recoil of muscle elastic elements and to a lesser extent from the active shortening of the contractile machinery. These findings are consistent with the different mechanics of the two exercises.
Article
In isometric contractions of the plantar flexors (5-40% of maximal tension, Tmax), VO2 is linearly related to the force exerted, averaging 2 ml/min-kg of tension. At tension levels above 5% Tmax the lactic acid contribution to the overall energy demand is constant at about 20%. Therefore, up to at least 40% Tmax,-muscle blood flow is not totally occluded, though it is impaired even at low force levels. Below 5% Tmax no lactic acid (LA) accumulates in blood. The energy required for the development of the tension is linearly related to the force exerted up to 33% Tmax, thereafter increasing disproportionately. In the transition from rest to static contractions of the plantar and forearm flexors (30 and 40% Tmax, respectively) VO2 increases initially to 200% of the controls, leveling off later at 150%. During recovery, VO2 increases up to 200% of the initial resting level, due to the payment of a large O2 debt, decreasing then with a t 1/2 of about 30 s. The glycolytic component is relatively more important in isometric contractions of the forearm than of the plantar flexors. No LA accumulates in static contractions of the plantar flexors of 5-10 s duration interrupted by equal pauses.
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There are at least 5 metabolic causes of fatigue, a decrease in the phosphocreatine level in muscle, proton accumulation in muscle, depletion of the glycogen store in muscle, hypoglycaemia and an increase in the plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/branched-chain amino acids. Proton accumulation may be a common cause of fatigue in most forms of exercise and may be an important factor in fatigue in those persons who are chronically physically inactive and also in the elderly: thus, the aerobic capacity markedly decreases under these conditions, so that ATP must be synthesized by the much less efficient anaerobic system. A marked increase in the plasma fatty acid level, which may occur when liver glycogen store is depleted and when hypoglycaemia results, or during intermittent exercise when the rate of fatty acid oxidation may not match the mobilisation of fatty acids, could be involved indirectly in fatigue. This is because such an increase in the plasma level of fatty acids raises the free plasma concentration of tryptophan, which can increase the entry of tryptophan into the brain, which will increase the brain level of 5-hydroxytryptamine: there is evidence that the latter may be involved in central fatigue. In this case, provision of branched-chain amino acids in order to maintain the resting plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/branched-chain amino acids should delay fatigue--there is prima facie evidence in support of this hypothesis. This hypothesis may have considerable clinical importance.