Proteins containing the baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeats (BIR domains) have been identified in a wide range of species. BIR domain containing proteins are thought to inhibit caspases and thereby cause inhibition of apoptosis. A BIR domain containing protein has been recently identified by the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome sequencing project. However, caspase-like proteins have not been found in yeasts, suggesting that the BIR domain containing proteins might play a fundamental role in cell regulation, in addition to their well-characterized role in inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, we have characterized Pbh1p, an S. pombe BIR domain containing protein. Construction and analysis of a null mutant in pbh1+ revealed that pbh1+ is essential for cell viability. Moreover, cells devoid of Pbh1p are defective in chromosome condensation and chromosome segregation. Thus, proper chromosome segregation requires the function of Pbh1p. Over-production of Pbh1p led to abnormalities in mitosis and cytokinesis, suggesting that the levels of Pbh1p are important for regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis.
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"In fact, Pbh1p is essential for yeast viability. Cells devoid of Pbh1p are defective in chromosome condensation and chromosome segregation (Rajagopalan and Balasubramanian, 1999). Functional Pbh1p was shown to be essential for localization of the S. pombe aurora kinase homolog Aim1p, a protein essential for mitosis, to the kinetochores and the spindle midzone, which indicates the importance of Pbh1p for multiple processes during mitosis in S. pombe (Rajagopalan and Balasubramanian, 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pbh1, from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat (BIR) domain-containing protein. Its unique encoding gene was previously found to be regulated by nitric oxide and nitrogen starvation. In the current work, the Pbh1-lacZ fusion gene was used to elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the pbh1 gene under various carbon sources. When fermentable carbon sources, such as glucose (at a low concentration of 0.2%), sucrose (2.0%) and lactose (2.0%), were the sole carbon source, the synthesis of beta-galactosidase from the Pbh1-lacZ fusion gene was reasonably enhanced. However, the induction by these fermentable carbon sources was abolished in the Pap1-negative S. pombe cells, implying that this type of induction of the pbh1 gene is mediated by Pap1. Ethanol (2.0%), a nonfermentable carbon source, was also able to enhance the synthesis of beta-galactosidase from the fusion gene in wild-type cells but not in Pap1-negative cells. The results indicate that the S. pombe pbh1 gene is up-regulated under metabolic oxidative stress in a Pap1-dependent manner.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · The Journal of Microbiology
"The Schizosaccharomyces pombe ( S. pombe ) homolog of Survivin, Bir1p (also known as Pbh1p/Cut17p) has previously been shown to be important for chromosome condensation , segregation and spindle elongation during mitosis (Samejima et al . 1993; Rajagopalan & Balasubramanian 1999, 2002; Uren et al . 1999; Morishita et al . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the BIR-domain containing Survivin family of proteins have been identified in a variety of eukaryotes and are known to play important roles in the regulation of mitosis. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of Survivin, Bir1p, is essential for chromosome condensation and spindle elongation and integrity. Bir1p, a nuclear protein, resides at the kinetochores in metaphase and anaphase A and spreads to the spindle mid-zone in anaphase B. Here we show that this relocation requires Cdk (Cyclin dependent kinase) inactivation and intact microtubules. With the aid of a kinesin mutant, klp5Delta, we also show that completion of anaphase A is vital for effecting Bir1p re-location to the spindle mid-zone. Although minimal exchange of Bir1p sub-units occurs between the spindle and the nucleoplasm, the protein redistributes laterally within the mid-zone region. Bir1p dynamics therefore significantly differs from that of tubulin on an anaphase B spindle, which is loaded at the plus ends of growing microtubules and shows no lateral redistribution within the spindle. Thus, Bir1p, and possibly its associated proteins, might organize a dynamic mid-zone region that helps spindle elongation and maintenance.
"The C. elegans survivin homolog BIR-1 has been reported to play essential roles in cytokinesis (Fraser et al., 1999). Like Ark1p, the fission yeast survivin homolog Bir1p (Pbh1p/Cut17p) is an essential mediator of chromosome segregation (Samejima et al., 1993; Rajagopalan and Balasubramanian, 1999; Uren et al., 1999; Figure 1. ark1 ϩ is essential for chromosome segregation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chromosomal passenger proteins aurora-B, survivin, and inner centromere protein (INCENP) have been implicated in coordinating chromosome segregation with cell division. This work describes the interplay between aurora, survivin, and INCENP orthologs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and defines their roles in regulating chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. We describe the cloning and characterization of the aurora-related kinase gene ark1(+), demonstrating that it is an essential gene required for sister chromatid segregation. Cells lacking Ark1p exhibit the cut phenotype, DNA fragmentation, and other defects in chromosome segregation. Overexpression of a kinase-defective version of Ark1, Ark1-K147R, inhibits cytokinesis, with cells exhibiting an elongated, multiseptate phenotype. Ark1p interacts physically and/or genetically with the survivin and INCENP orthologs Bir1p and Pic1p. We identified Pic1p in a two-hybrid screen for Ark1-K147R interacting partners and went on to map domains in both proteins that mediate their binding. Pic1p residues 925-972 are necessary and sufficient for Ark1p binding, which occurs through the kinase domain. As with Ark1-K147R, overexpression of Ark1p-binding fragments of Pic1p leads to multiseptate phenotypes. We also provide evidence that the dominant-negative effect of Ark1-K147R requires Pic1p binding, indicating that the formation of Ark1p-Pic1p complexes is required for the execution of cytokinesis.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Molecular Biology of the Cell