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Effect of Calcium Soaps of Fatty Acids and Administration of Somatotropin on Milk Production, Preovulatory Follicular Development, and Plasma and Follicular Fluid Lipid Composition in High Yielding Dairy Cows

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The effect of fat and bovine somatotropin (bST) on preovulatory follicular hormones and lipids was evaluated by feeding cows for 150 d from parturition a control diet, a control diet plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids, or a control diet with 500 mg of bST injected every 14 d. Fourteen days after a synchronized or natural estrus, cows were injected with a PGF2 alpha analogue; 48 h later, follicular fluid from all ovarian follicles > 8 mm was aspirated. Cows fed fat or injected with bST produced more milk and milk solids than did control cows, and cows on the bST treatment lost more body condition after calving than did cows on the other treatments. Both treatments changed the proportion of estradiol-active follicles (> 400 ng of estradiol/ml of follicular fluid) and the correlation between follicular fluid estradiol concentration and the total number large follicles per cow. In follicles aspirated between 60 and 90 DIM the percentage of estradiol-active follicles was 67, 40, and 0 for cows on the control, calcium soaps of fatty acids, and bST treatments, respectively. After 90 DIM, no differences existed between treatments in the percentage of estradiol-active follicles. Estradiol concentration in follicular fluid was correlated with DIM at follicle aspiration (r = 0.51). The proportion of oleic acid in free fatty acids in plasma at 50 DIM was lower in control cows and was lower in follicular fluid of estradiol-active follicles. Both calcium soaps of fatty acids and bST had a considerable effect on follicular development and activity and the composition of fatty acids in follicles.
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Effect of Calcium Soaps of Fatty Acids and Administration
of Somatotropin on Milk Production, Preovulatory Follicular
Development, and Plasma and Follicular Fluid Lipid Composition
in High Yielding Dairy Cows
U. MOALLEM,*
,
Y. FOLMAN,* A. BOR,*
A. ARAV,* and D. SKLAN†
1
*Institute of Animal Science, Agriculture Research Organization,
The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
†Hebrew University Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot 76100, Israel
ABSTRACT
The effect of fat and bovine somatotropin (bST) on
preovulatory follicular hormones and lipids was evalu-
ated by feeding cows for 150 d from parturition a con-
trol diet, a control diet plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps
of fatty acids, or a control diet with 500 mg of bST
injected every 14 d. Fourteen days after a synchronized
or natural estrus, cows were injected with a PGF
2α
analogue; 48 h later, follicular fluid from all ovarian
follicles >8 mm was aspirated. Cows fed fat or injected
with bST produced more milk and milk solids than did
control cows, and cows on the bST treatment lost more
body condition after calving than did cows on the other
treatments. Both treatments changed the proportion
of estradiol-active follicles (>400 ng of estradiol/ml of
follicular fluid) and the correlation between follicular
fluid estradiol concentration and the total number
large follicles per cow. In follicles aspirated between 60
and 90 DIM the percentage of estradiol-active follicles
was 67, 40, and 0 for cows on the control, calcium soaps
of fatty acids, and bST treatments, respectively. After
90 DIM, no differences existed between treatments in
the percentage of estradiol-active follicles. Estradiol
concentration in follicular fluid was correlated with
DIM at follicle aspiration (r = 0.51). The proportion of
oleic acid in free fatty acids in plasma at 50 DIM was
lower in control cows and was lower in follicular fluid
of estradiol-active follicles. Both calcium soaps of fatty
acids and bST had a considerable effect on follicular
development and activity and the composition of fatty
acids in follicles.
(Key words: calcium soaps, bovine somatotropin, pre-
ovulatory follicles, fatty acids)
Received November 30, 1998.
Accepted June 14, 1999.
1
Please send correspondence to D. Sklan, Faculty of Agriculture,
PO Box 12, Rehovot, 76-100, Israel.
1999 J Dairy Sci 82:2358–2368 2358
Abbreviation key: BCS = body condition score,
CSFA = calcium soaps of fatty acids, E
2
= estradiol-
17β, E
2
-A = estradiol active, E
2
-I = estradiol inactive,
E
2
-LA = estradiol less active, P
4
= progesterone.
INTRODUCTION
The enhanced negative energy balance associated
with increased milk production depresses the fertility
of high yielding dairy cows (4). In our previous study,
cows treated with somatotropin (Sometribove, Mon-
santo Co., St Louis, MO) in early lactation produced
5 to 6 kg/d more milk than did control cows during the
first 150 DIM (22). This increase in production was
accompanied by a severe negative energy balance and
also by lower fertility in comparison with control cows.
Most of the trials with bST have been carried out from
60 DIM or later, and in some studies, but not in others,
lower reproductive performance of cows treated with
bST was reported (5, 7, 8, 9, 23, 32).
In our previous study (22), feeding calcium soaps
of fatty acids (CSFA) decreased, to some extent, the
negative effects of enhanced milk yield on reproductive
performance. The CSFA fed to cattle have been re-
ported to influence ovarian dynamics by increasing the
diameter of the preovulatory follicles and by changing
follicle turnover (1, 31). These effects of CSFA con-
sumption on reproductive function could be achieved
either through improving the energy balance of the
cows or by the direct influence of lipid components
on the reproductive system and especially developing
follicles in ovaries.
The objectives of this experiment were to character-
ize the preovulatory follicles and their steroidogenic
capacity as influenced by hormonal (bST) and nutri-
tional (CSFA) treatments, which affect milk yield and
energy balance. Specifically, the objectives were 1) to
investigate the effect of CSFA or bST on preovulatory
follicular development and 2) to study the effect of
CSFA or bST on lipid composition in the follicular fluid
FAT AND BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON FOLLICULAR HORMONES 2359
TABLE 1. Ingredients and nutrients of the control diet.
Composition % of DM
Corn grain 21.7
Barley grain 10.9
Soybean meal 4.4
Rapeseed meal 4.4
Sunower meal 3.2
Gluten feed 1.3
Cottonseed 6.8
Wheat silage 8.0
Corn silage 19.8
Wheat bran 6.9
Citrus pulp 3.6
Pea hay 3.1
Oats hay 3.1
NPN (mixture)
1
0.5
Soybean oil 0.1
Salt/calcium 1.6
Fish meal 0.4
Vitamins and minerals
2
0.018
Nutrients
NE
L
3
(Mcal/kg) 1.72
CP 17.2
RUP
4
5.3
ADF 17.3
NDF 31.2
P 0.46
Ca 0.80
1
Contained 80% urea and 20% ammonium sulfate.
2
Contained 20,000,000 IU of vitamin A/kg, 2,000,000 IU of vitamin
D/kg, 15,000 mg of vitamin E/kg, 6000 ppm of Mn, 6000 ppm of Zn,
2000 ppm of Fe, 1500 ppm of Cu, 120 ppm of I, 50 ppm of Se, and
20 ppm of Co.
3
Calculated using NRC (24) values.
of preovulatory follicles and the possible relationship
with steroidogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fifty-four multiparous Israeli-Holstein cows of the
Bet Dagan (Israel) experimental farm were assigned
to three treatments. The cows were kept in covered,
loose pens with adjacent pen yards. The cows were
weighed, and body condition was determined 1 wk be-
fore expected parturition. Cows were blocked ac-
cording to parity, date of parturition, body weight,
body condition score (BCS), and daily FCM yield dur-
ing the rst 150 d of the previous lactation into the
following three treatments: 1) control, fed the diet de-
scribed in Table 1; 2) CSFA, fed the control diet plus
0.55 kg of calcium soaps of fatty acid per cow per d
from parturition to 150 DIM (chemical composition of
CSFA: 47.4% palmitic acid, 5.2% stearic acid, 33.3%
oleic acid, 6.0% linoleic acid, and 8.1% calcium; Koffolk
Inc., Petach Tikva, Israel); 3) bST, fed the control diet
and injected subcutaneously with 500 mg of Zn-Some-
tribove every 14 d from 10 to 150 DIM. Groups were
lled within a 12-wk period, and the experiment was
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
carried out with cows calving between October and De-
cember.
All feeds were mixed and fed once daily from a mix-
ing wagon. Orts were removed and weighed daily.
Cows were milked three times daily, and milk yield
was recorded electronically. Milk composition was de-
termined from a composite of three consecutive milk-
ings every 2 wk until 150 DIM and then monthly until
the end of lactation. Fat, protein, and lactose determi-
nations of milk were carried out with infrared analysis.
From parturition, cows were weighed three times daily
after every milking with an automatic electronic scale.
The BCS on a 5-point scale was determined by one
experienced technician weekly from parturition to 200
DIM (6).
Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein
at 09:30 h every 2 d from 10 DIM into heparinized
vacutainers (Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Systems
Europe, Cowley, England) that were placed on ice,
centrifuged, and stored at 18°C until analysis.
Clusters of cows were given a single injection of 625
ng of the PGF
2α
analogue cloprostenol (Estrumate,
Coopers Animal Health Ltd., Berkhamsted, England)
commencing after 50 DIM to facilitate estrus detec-
tion. The interval from parturition to the rst PGF
2α
injection was 68.7 ± 10, 70.1 ± 13, and 70.0 ± 8din
the control, CSFA, and bST groups, respectively. After
the PGF
2α
injection, cows were visually observed for
signs of estrus for 30 min twice daily. Cows were re-
garded as being in estrus if they manifested standing
estrus or mounted other cows that were not in estrus.
In addition, estrus was detected by measuring, with a
pedometer, the number of steps taken by cows between
milkings (Computerized Dairy Management Systems,
S.A.E. AFIKIM, Akim, Israel). Whenever the number
of steps was 90% greater than the mean number of
steps during the previous 10 d, the cow was regarded
as being in estrus.
Thirteen cows that manifested estrus (7 control, 3
bST, and 3 CSFA), when a cluster of PGF
2α
-treated
cows were detected in estrus, were added to these clus-
ters without receiving the rst PGF
2α
injection. Cows
that manifested estrus were allotted into a group
scheduled for aspiration of follicular uid. Fourteen
days following estrus, cows were given a rst or second
PGF
2α
injection to cause luteolysis and enable preovu-
latory follicular development. Forty-eight hours fol-
lowing the injection, aspiration of follicular uid was
carried out. Cows that were not detected in estrus
following a PGF
2α
injection were given another PGF
2α
injection with the next cluster of cows. Within 5 mo,
eighteen clusters of cows were treated. As a result of
this procedure, the aspiration of follicular uid was
carried out between 65 and 139 DIM, depending upon
MOALLEM ET AL.2360
the DIM when cows were seen in estrus and whether
cows responded to the rst PGF
2α
injection.
Ovaries of cows were viewed by ultrasonography,
and follicular uid was aspirated from follicles that
were 8 mm. The aspiration was by the ovum pickup
procedure (25), and needles were changed between
cows (Scanner 200; Pie Medical, The Netherlands).
Cows were given local anesthesia with 5 ml of 2%
lidocaine HCL injected epidurally between the last
sacral and rst caudal vertebrae. Each follicle was
aspirated into a single calibrated tube where the vol-
ume of follicular uid was determined. The uid was
centrifuged and stored at 18°C until analysis. Sev-
enty-nine follicles were successfully aspirated from 46
cows out of the 54 that were included in the experi-
ment. In 5 cows, the anatomic structure of the repro-
ductive tract or the behavior of the cows did not enable
the aspiration of follicles, and 3 cows were not detected
in estrus.
Progesterone (P
4
) concentration in plasma and fol-
licular uid was determined by radioimmunoassay as
previously described (30); estradiol-17β (E
2
) was also
determined (3). Lipids were extracted (10), and lipid
classes were separated by thin layer chromatography
and quantitated as previously described (30). Priority
was given to hormonal determinations, and in some
cases, insufcient material was aspirated for lipid
analyses. Concentration and composition of NEFA in
plasma were determined at 50 DIM and at 2 d before
follicle aspiration. Initiation of P
4
cyclicity was dened
as 5 d prior to the time when plasma P
4
concentrations
rst reached 1 ng/ml after parturition.
Follicles were regarded as E
2
active (E
2
-A)orE
2
less active (E
2
-LA) whenever the E
2
(nanograms per
milliliter)/P
4
(nanograms per milliliter) ratio in follicu-
lar uid was >1. Follicles were regarded as E
2
-inactive
(E
2
-I) whenever the E
2
/P
4
ratio was <1 (13). When the
frequency distribution of E
2
concentrations in 33 E
2
-
A dominant follicles was examined, it appeared that
the distribution was not normal, and that two separate
populations could be discerned. After logarithmic, x
2
and x
0.2
transformations of E
2
concentrations were car-
ried out, the boundary between the two populations
was within the range of 403 to 441 ng of E
2
/ml of
follicular uid. We subsequently termed the two popu-
lations as E
2
-A and E
2
-LA. Thus, 25 cows with E
2
con-
centrations >400 ng/ml in follicular uid had E
2
-A folli-
cles, and 8 cows with E
2
concentrations of <400 ng/ml
had E
2
-LA follicles. The classication of E
2
-A follicles
into two categories of more and less active enabled
further clarication of the effects of CSFA and bST
treatments on follicular development and E
2
syn-
thesis.
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
TABLE 2. Mean milk and milk solids production during the rst 150
d of lactation.
Control
1
CSFA bST
(n = 18) (n = 18) (n = 18) SEM
Milk, kg/d 39.7
c
42.5
b
44.0
a
0.5
Fat, % 3.18 3.25 3.19 0.05
Fat, kg/d 1.27
b
1.39
a
1.39
a
0.02
Protein, % 2.98
a
2.92
b
2.92
b
0.03
Protein, kg/d 1.18
c
1.24
b
1.28
a
0.01
3.5% FCM, kg/d 37.8
b
40.9
a
41.9
a
0.5
a,b,c
Means within a row without a common superscript differ (P <
0.05).
1
Control, fed the control diet; CSFA, fed the control diet plus 0.55
kg/d of calcium soapsoffattyacids; and bST, control diet plus adminis-
tration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/
14 d.
Statistical Analysis
Continuous variables were analyzed by ANOVA in
which the three treatments were the sources of varia-
tion using the general linear models procedure of SAS
(29) as previously described (22). Frequency data were
examined using the CATMOD procedure of SAS (29).
Least squares means and adjusted standard errors are
presented in the tables. Signicance was at P < 0.05
unless otherwise stated.
RESULTS
Production of Milk and Milk Solids
The group mean DMI during the rst 150 DIM was
24.0 ± 1.7, 23.3 ±2.3, and 24.7 ± 2.4 kg/d for the control,
CSFA, and bST groups, respectively. Milk, fat, and
protein yields during the rst 150 DIM are shown in
Table 2. Cows fed CSFA and cows treated with bST
produced 2.8 and 4.3 kg/d, respectively, more milk
than did control cows. The milk protein percentage
was higher in control cows than in the other treat-
ments, but cows fed CSFA or treated with bST pro-
duced 5.1 and 8.5% more protein, respectively, than
did control cows. The FCM and fat yields of cows were
enhanced by CSFA and bST.
BW and BCS Changes
The BW changes from parturition until 180 DIM are
shown in Figure 1. The minimum BW was attained
later after calving for cows treated with bST than for
cows on the other treatments (P < 0.05). Cows on the
CSFA treatment lost slightly more BW than did cows
on the other treatments. Cows began gaining BW after
20, 30, and 48 DIM on control, CSFA, and bST treat-
ments, respectively. By 120 DIM, control and CSFA
cows had returned to their calving weights, whereas
FAT AND BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON FOLLICULAR HORMONES 2361
Figure 1. Changes in BW (top panel) and body condition score
(BCS) (bottom panel; 5-point scale where 1 = very thin to 5 = very
fat) during 180 DIM. Treatments were control (), control plus 0.55
kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids (), and control diet plus adminis-
tration of 500 mg of bST (Zn-Sometribove; Monsanto Co., St. Louis,
MO)/14 d ().
bST cows returned to their parturition weights only
at 140 DIM. Changes in BCS are shown in Figure 1
and in Table 3. Cows on the bST treatment lost a
maximum of 1.10 U of BCS after calving compared
with 0.75 and 0.69 U for the CSFA and control cows,
respectively (P < 0.02). The minimum BCS of bST-
treated cows was attained 11 to 12 d later than for
cows of the other two groups, but this difference was
not statistically signicant.
Frequency of Appearance of E
2
-A
and E
2
-I Follicles
The P
4
concentrations in plasma following the rst
PGF
2α
injection or spontaneous estrus until 7 d after
aspiration are shown in Figure 2. During the 6 to 7 d
after aspiration, P
4
concentration in plasma did not
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
increase, indicating that corpora lutea had not devel-
oped following follicle aspiration.
Seventy-nine follicles larger than 8 mm in diameter
were aspirated from 46 cows. Twenty-four cows had,
at the time of aspiration, one E
2
-A follicle; 8 cows had
one E
2
-LA follicle; and 1 cow had one E
2
-A and one E
2
-
LA follicle. In 13 cows, all of the follicles >8 mm were
E
2
-I. The proportion of cows that had only E
2
-I follicles
was similar among treatments and ranged between 25
to 33% (Table 4). In the control group, all 4 cows with
E
2
-I follicles that were >8 mm had only one >8mm
follicle per cow, whereas in the CSFA and bST treat-
ments, 2 out of 4 cows and 3 out of 5 cows had two or
more E
2
-I follicles >8 mm per cow. Among cows that
had E
2
-A or E
2
-LA follicles, the proportion of cows that
had two or more follicles >8 mm was 82, 50, and 60%
for cows of the control, CSFA and bST groups, respec-
tively (P < 0.03 for control vs. bST and P < 0.12 for
control vs. CSFA). The data in Table 4 indicate that
the E
2
concentration in the follicular uid of the E
2
-A
and E
2
-LA follicles was signicantly correlated with
the total number of follicles >8 mm in the ovaries of
cows on the CSFA and bST treatments but not for
cows on the control treatment. This correlation was
negative in the CSFA treatment and positive in the
bST treatment. The following data are an illustration
of this opposite relationship between the E
2
concentra-
tion in follicular uid and the number of follicles. All
6 cows in the control and bST groups with E
2
concen-
trations >1200 ng/ml in the follicular uid had two or
three follicles >8 mm in their ovaries. All 5 cows in
the CSFA group with similar E
2
concentrations in the
follicular uid had only one follicle >8 mm in their
ovaries.
Cows in the control and bST groups that had an E
2
-
A follicle had more follicles >8 mm than did cows of
the same treatments that had E
2
-I or E
2
-LA follicles
(Table 5). The opposite was true of the CSFA group.
In the control and bST groups, 80% or more of the
cows with E
2
-A follicles had two or more follicles >8
mm in contrast with only 33% of cows in the CSFA
group (P < 0.02).
Among the 21 cows from which follicles were aspi-
rated between 60 to 90 DIM, the proportion of cows
with E
2
-A follicles was 67 (6/9), 40 (2/5), and 0% (0/
7) (P < 0.02) for the control, CSFA, and bST groups,
respectively (Figure 3). The proportion of follicles aspi-
rated 60 to 90 DIM that were classied as E
2
-LA was
11, 40, and 57% for the same groups, respectively.
Thus, out of 8 cows that had E
2
-LA follicles, 7 had
aspirations before 90 DIM, and 6 of these were in the
CSFA and bST groups. The proportion of cows with
E
2
-A follicles was similar among treatments when as-
piration occurred later than 90 DIM (Figure 3.). After
MOALLEM ET AL.2362
TABLE 3. Mean changes in body condition score after parturition of cows with aspirated follicles.
Control
1
CSFA
(n = 15) (n = 16) bST (n = 15) SEM
BCS at parturition 3.15 3.14 3.19 0.13
Minimum BCS after parturition 2.46
a
2.39
a
2.09
b
0.10
DIM to minimum BCS 60.0 60.8 72.1 5.6
DIM to initiation of P
4
2
cyclicity 28.3 29.4 28.2 3.0
DIM at aspiration 89.0 98.5 93.2 4.1
BCS on day of aspiration 2.65
a
2.56
a
2.23
b
0.10
BCS at parturition
BCS on day of aspiration 0.50
b
0.59
b
0.96
a
0.10
a,b
Means within a row without common superscripts differ (P < 0.05).
1
Control, fed the control diet; CSFA, fed the control diet plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids;
and bST, control diet plus administration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/14
d.
2
P
4
= Progesterone.
90 DIM, only 1 of 25 cows had an E
2
-LA follicle. The
follicles of control cows were aspirated earlier postpar-
tum (Table 6) than were follicles of other cows; follicles
from 60% of control cows versus 42% of cows on the
other two treatments were aspirated 60 to 90 DIM.
Despite the early aspiration of follicles from control
cows, the proportion of E
2
-A follicles during the whole
experiment was 67% (10/15), 56% (9/16), and 40% (6/
15) for the control, CSFA, and bST treatments, respec-
tively. Across treatments, 13 out of 21 (62%) cows
whose follicles were aspirated at <90 DIM did not have
E
2
-A follicles versus 8 of 25 (32%) cows aspirated after
90 DIM (P < 0.05).
Hormone Concentrations in Follicular Fluid
Across all treatments, the concentrations of andro-
stenedione and E
2
, but not that of P
4
, in follicular uid
Figure 2. Plasma progesterone concentration before and after folli-
cle aspiration. Treatments were control; control plus 0.55 kg/d of
calcium soaps of fatty acids (CSFA); and bST, control diet plus admin-
istration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/
14 d. Day 0 = day of follicle aspiration.
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
of E
2
-A follicles signicantly increased between 60 and
139 DIM (Figure 4). The concentration of P
4
in follicu-
lar uid, but not that of E
2
, was signicantly higher
in CSFA cows than in the other two treatments (Table
6). The volume of follicular uid and the amount of
P
4
and of E
2
in follicular uid aspirated from cows
supplemented with CSFA was also signicantly higher
than in control or bST-treated cows (Table 6).
NEFA Concentrations and Composition in Plasma
The total concentration of NEFA in plasma at 50
DIM and 2 d before aspiration was similar among all
treatments (Table 7). However, the composition of
NEFA in plasma was signicantly different between
treatments both at 50 DIM and before aspiration. Con-
trol cows had a higher proportion of palmitic acid
(C
16:0
) and a lower concentration of stearic (C
18:0
) and
oleic (C
18:1
) acids than did cows of the other two groups.
The CSFA-fed cows had at 50 DIM a higher proportion
of linoleic acid (C
18:2
) than did the other two treat-
ments, whereas before follicle aspiration, bST cows
had the highest proportion of C
18:2
.
Across all treatments, the proportion of C
18:1
in
plasma at 50 DIM was 17.5 ± 1.1% in cows that had
only E
2
-I or E
2
-LA follicles compared with 14.1 ± 1.0%
in cows with E
2
-A follicles (P < 0.03). No signicant
differences were found in proportions of other fatty
acids in plasma between cows that had only E
2
-I or
E
2
-LA follicles and cows that had E
2
-A follicles.
Concentrations and Fatty Acid Composition
of Lipid Fractions in Follicular Fluids
In follicular uid of all aspirated follicles, the total
concentrations of NEFA and of fatty acids in phospho-
lipids and cholesterol esters were similar among treat-
ments (data not shown). In the phospholipid fraction,
control cows had a lower proportion of C
18:1
than did
FAT AND BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON FOLLICULAR HORMONES 2363
TABLE 4. Number of follicles >8 mm in ovaries of cows with different estradiol (E
2
) concentrations (nanograms
per milliliter) in follicular uid of the dominant follicle.
E
2
active and less active
E
2
inactive 0600 6011200 >1201
Treatment n X
1
n X
1
n X
1
n X
1
r
2
Control
3
4 1.0 3 2.00 4 2.00 4 2.00 0.12
CSFA 4 2.0 3 2.33 4 1.75 5 1.00 0.80**
bST 5 1.6 4 1.25 4 2.00 2 2.50 0.62*
SEM 0.31 0.37 0.36 0.10
1
Number of follicles>8 mm per cow.
2
Correlation coefcient (r) between E
2
concentration in follicular uid and number of follicles >8mmin
cows that had an E
2
-active or E
2
-less active follicle.
3
Control, fed the control diet; CSFA, fed the control diet plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids;
and bST, control diet plus administration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/14
d.
*P < 0.05.
**P < 0.005.
those on bST treatment and a higher proportion of
C
18:2
than did cows on CSFA treatment. The CSFA fed
cows had a higher proportion of C
18:0
than did cows
that were administered bST. There were no signicant
differences between treatments in the composition of
NEFA and in the composition of fatty acids in the
cholesterol ester fraction. The content and composition
of fatty acids in follicular uid of E
2
-A and E
2
-I or E
2
-
LA follicles is compared in Table 8. The phospholipid
fraction was at a higher concentration in the E
2
-A
follicles; in the two other lipid fractions, the concentra-
tions were similar in both classications of follicles.
In the NEFA fraction, the proportion of palmitic acid
was higher and the proportion of oleic and linoleic
acids was considerably lower in E
2
-A follicles in com-
parison with E
2
-I and E
2
-LA follicles.
Correlations Among Follicular Fluid,
Fatty Acids, and Reproductive Hormones
Correlation coefcients between some fatty acids in
follicular uid and plasma (50 DIM) and follicular uid
TABLE 5. Mean number of follicles >8 mm in cows with different
follicular estradiol (E
2
) activities.
E
2
active E
2
inactive or less active
Treatment
1
n Xn X
Control 10 2.00
a,x
5 1.20
b,y
CSFA 9 1.33
b,y
7 2.14
a,x
bST 6 2.16
x
9 1.44
y
SEM 0.21 0.26
a,b
Means within a row without common superscripts differ (P <
0.05).
x,y
Within a column, number of follicles >8 mm for control and bST
groups differ from the CSFA group (P < 0.02).
1
Control, fed the control diet; CSFA, fed the control diet plus 0.55
kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids; and bST, control diet plus adminis-
tration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/
14 d.
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
hormone concentrations are shown in Table 9. In follic-
ular uid, the proportions of C
18:1
and C
18:2
were nega-
tively correlated with E
2
. In contrast, plasma (50 DIM)
C
18:2
correlated positively with E
2
in follicular uid.
Oleic acid in follicular uid and C
18:2
in plasma were
positively correlated with DIM. Also, at follicle aspira-
tion, E
2
and androstenedione concentrations in follicu-
Figure 3. Proportion of cows with E
2
-active (E
2
-A) follicles among
>8 mm dominant follicles at time of aspiration. Treatments were
control; control plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids (CSFA);
and bST, control diet plus administration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove
(Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/14 d.
MOALLEM ET AL.2364
TABLE 6. Mean concentrations and content of estradiol (E
2
), progesterone (P
4
), and androstenedione and
E
2
/P
4
ratio in follicular uidofE
2
-active follicles.
Control
1
CSFA bST
(n=10) (n=9) (n=6) SEM
DIM at aspiration 90
b
107
a
106
a
6.0
Estradiol-17β, ng/ml 1218.9 1396.6 1029.3 191.6
Progesterone, ng/ml 33.0
b
55.4
a
30.0
b
6.3
Androstenedione, ng/ml 59.1 53.7 60.6 14.0
E
2
/P
4
43.9 33.0 42.6 10.3
Follicular uid, ml 2.07
b
3.14
a
1.28
b
0.6
P
4
content of follicular uid, ng 68.3
b
173.9
a
38.4
b
36.5
E
2
content of follicular uid, ng 2525.1
b
4385.3
a
1317.4
b
621.6
a,b
Means within a row without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1
Control, fed the control diet; CSFA, fed the control diet plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids;
and bST, control diet plus administration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/14
d.
lar uid were positively correlated with DIM. Other
correlations were not statistically signicant.
DISCUSSION
In this study, we have shown that both bST and
CSFA enhance milk yield while affecting follicular dy-
namics and follicular fatty acid concentrations. The
increase in milk yield, following CSFA feeding and bST
administration, found here was slightly lower than in
Figure 4. Mean concentrations of progesterone (P
4
), androstenedi-
one, and estradiol-17β (E
2
) and the E
2
/P
4
ratio in follicular uid of
25 E
2
-active follicles of all treatments at different DIM of aspiration.
a,b,c
Means without common superscripts differ (P < 0.05). The left
axis is progesterone and androstenedione concentrations and the E
2
/
P
4
ratio, and the right axis is the estradiol concentration.
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
our previous report (22). Feed intake was similar in
both studies, whereas BCS at calving was somewhat
higher in the present study. Cows of the bST group
lost almost twice as much body condition between calv-
ing and follicle aspiration as did control cows (Table
3). As in our previous study, cows treated with bST
began to gain BW later and more slowly than did cows
of other treatments, and, therefore, they reached their
calving BW later in lactation. This greater BCS and
BW loss, together with the increase in milk yield and
similar DMI, may be considered an indication of a
more negative energy balance in cows of the bST group.
In contrast, cows fed CSFA lost a similar amount of
body condition as did control cows, despite increased
milk yield and somewhat lower feed intake.
Effects of CSFA and bST
on Follicular Development
The characteristics and numbers of follicles indi-
cated that CSFA and bST treatments considerably af-
fected follicular dynamics during the estrous cycle.
However, because sequential ultrasonographic de-
scription of the ovaries was not carried out in the pres-
ent study, the following discussion can only be of a
speculative nature.
The data shown in Tables 4 and 5 raise the possibil-
ity that feeding CSFA delayed or prevented follicle
turnover in some cows. Therefore, the dominant folli-
cles became older and larger (Table 6) and contained
greater amounts of E
2
in follicular uid. This nding
may explain why only 36% of the E
2
-A cows fed CSFA
had two or more >8 mm follicles as compared with 80%
or more in the other two groups. Older, or perhaps
rst wave, follicles produced more E
2
as they were
larger and, therefore, had a greater mass of theca and
granulosa cells, as suggested by Bigelow and Fortune
(2). The younger, second wave, follicles produced less
FAT AND BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON FOLLICULAR HORMONES 2365
TABLE 7. Mean composition (percentage) of NEFA in plasma at 50 DIM and at 2 d before follicle aspiration.
C
16:0
C
16:1
C
18:0
C
18:1
C
18:2
C
18:3
C
20:4
Total (µM)
n
50 DIM
Control
1
15 46.4
a
0.2 30.1
b
11.8
b
9.4
b
0.9
a
1.2
a
159.3
CSFA 16 34.6
c
0 34.2
a
17.6
a
12.9
a
0.6
b
0
b
151.7
bST 15 39.7
b
0 32.4
b
17.4
a
9.6
b
0.9
a
0
b
124.8
SEM 1.4 0.4 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.1 0.4 14.3
2 d before aspiration
Control 15 46.9
a
0.1 29.5
b
11.7
b
10.5
b
0.7 0.6 156.9
CSFA 16 36.6
b
0 34.7
a
17.7
a
10.4
b
0.6 0 143.0
BST 15 37.8
b
0 31.1
b
16.9
a
13.1
a
1.2 0 129.2
SEM 1.8 0 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.3 0.2 14.0
a,b,c
Within a column means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1
Control, fed the control diet; CSFA, fed the control diet plus 0.55 kg/d of calcium soaps of fatty acids;
and bST, control diet plus administration of 500 mg of Zn-Sometribove (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO)/14
d.
E
2
, hence the negative correlation between number of
follicles and follicular uid concentration of E
2
in this
treatment (Table 4). It was previously reported that
feeding CSFA increased both the number and size of
medium-sized and large follicles (31). Lucy et al. (18,
19) reported that CSFA specically increased preovu-
latory follicular size irrespective of its effect on energy
balance. The considerable increase in the volume of
follicular uid of the CSFA-treated cows in the present
study (Table 6) was in agreement with those results.
The higher concentration of P
4
in the follicular uid
of cows fed CSFA (Table 6) was similar to that found
in the study by Ryan et al. (28), who reported a greater
concentration of P
4
in the follicular uid of beef cows
fed soybean oil. It was also previously reported that
feeding cows with CSFA increased cholesterol concen-
tration in plasma (22) and follicular uid (33). The
increased P
4
concentration in follicular uid was possi-
bly the result of the higher concentration of cholesterol
TABLE 8. Mean composition (percentage) of NEFA and fatty acids in phospholipids and cholesterol esters
in follicular uids of estradiol (E
2
)-active (E
2
-A), E
2
-inactive (E
2
-I), and E
2
less active (E
2
-LA) follicles of all
treatments.
C
16:0
C
16:1
C
18:0
C
18:1
C
18:2
C
18:3
C
20:4
Total (ng/mL)
n
NEFA
E
2
-A 23 37.9
a
2.6 16.7 22.9
b
18.1
b
1.0 0 228.2
E
2
-I and E
2
-LA 33 31.0
b
1.2 14.7 26.0
a
26.1
a
3.4 0 242.3
SEM 2.5 1.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.6 0 26.1
Phospholipids
E
2
-A 23 19.5 0.6 26.4
a
18.5 31.5 0.8 2.5 556.3
a
E
2
-I and E
2
-LA 33 19.9 0.6 23.6
b
19.8 31.7 1.1 3.2 447.2
b
SEM 0.7 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.4 25.2
Cholesterol esters
E
2
-A 23 16.7 1.6 12.6 4.8 56.4 7.2 0.6 572.3
E
2
-I and E
2
-LA 33 14.7 1.5 13.7 5.2 55.4 8.8 0.8 579.5
SEM 1.2 0.3 1.0 1.0 1.8 1.3 0.3 43.2
a,b
Within a column means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
precursor (11, 27, 34) and a prolonged life span of
dominant follicles (26) in a signicant proportion of
CSFA-fed cows.
In the bST treatment, in contrast, E
2
concentration
was positively correlated with the number of >8mm
follicles (Table 4). This nding may suggest that fol-
lowing luteolysis, E
2
production was enhanced in
young follicles in cows with follicle turnover but was
impaired in older follicles in cows with less follicle
turnover. The older follicles in bST-treated cows possi-
bly were inuenced by an earlier, more pronounced
negative energy balance. These follicles might have
had a reduced ability to produce E
2
during the preovu-
latory period compared with follicles of the same age
in control cows. It is also possible that the late appear-
ance of the rst postpartum estrus and the rst post-
partum AI previously reported (22) in bST treated
cows was a result of this reduction in E
2
synthesis.
MOALLEM ET AL.2366
TABLE 9. Correlation coefcients between NEFA (percentage) in follicular uid (FF) and plasma (50 DIM)
and concentrations of hormones in FF of 25 estradiol (E
2
)-active follicles of all treatments.
Item 18:1 (FF) 18:2 (FF) 18:1 (Plasma) 18:2 (Plasma) DIM
Estradiol in FF 0.46** 0.36* 0.30 0.31* 0.51***
Androstenedione
in FF 0.26 0.29 0.18 0.27 0.44**
E
2
/P
4
in FF 0.39** 0.28 0.29 0.19 0.30
DIM 0.46** 0.30 0.06 0.45**
*P < 0.05.
**P < 0.01.
***P < 0.001.
The results of the present and previous studies indi-
cated that high yielding dairy cows fed CSFA had, in
most cases, similar BW and BCS proles and similar
or slightly improved conception rates compared with
control cows (22, 30, 31). The effects on follicular devel-
opment caused by CSFA reported in the present study
probably describe a similar situation to previous re-
ports (22, 30) in which CSFA did not signicantly
change conception rates. However, administration of
bST early postpartum considerably affected BW and
BCS proles and signicantly reduced conception
rates (22).
DIM and E
2
Production
The large difference between the proportion of E
2
-
A follicles aspirated 60 to 90 d after calving of control
and bST cows (Figure 3) could be explained by the
greater negative energy balance of cows in the bST
group as indicated by the greater loss of body condition
(Table 3 and Figure 1). Negative energy balance has
been previously shown to adversely affect follicular
development (19, 20), whereas bST administered later
in lactation did not have such an effect. In cows treated
with bST after 60 DIM, the start of the second follicular
wave and the rise of E
2
levels following PG administra-
tion began earlier in the estrous cycle in comparison
with controls (16, 17). The levels of E
2
were higher in
bST-treated cows than in controls (18). The higher
levels of E
2
that were found in nonlactating versus
lactating cattle (19) might also have been the result
of a greater negative balance in lactating cows. Thus
in this study, the similarity in the proportion of E
2
-A
follicles after 90 DIM (Figure 3) and the gradual in-
crease in the follicular uid concentration of E
2
be-
tween 60 and 139 d after calving (Figure 4) might
have been the result of improved energy balance in all
groups and, in particular, in bST-treated cows after
90 DIM. The data in Figure 1 show that BCS began
increasing between 60 to 75 DIM, whereas the increase
in BW began earlier. Because the development of ovar-
ian follicles takes longer than 40 d (21), the effects of
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 11, 1999
negative energy balance on follicular development
may become apparent only after the period of BW and
BCS decline.
Despite the considerable differences between the
control and bST groups in follicular development and
the effect that bST treatment had on fertility (22), the
interval from calving to rst ovulation (as measured
by the rst rise in P
4
values) both in this and our
previous study (22) was similar in all groups. These
results indicated that in high yielding cows the inter-
val to rst ovulation was a poor indicator of follicu-
lar development.
Fatty Acid Composition and Follicular
Development
Changes in the composition of the lipid fractions in
plasma and follicular uid were examined, and some
signicant changes in NEFA composition in both
plasma and follicular uid were observed. The reason
for the decrease of plasma palmitic acid and increase
of oleic acid in NEFA at 50 DIM and the increase
of linoleic acid before aspiration in cows of the bST
treatment is at present not clear. Differences between
the control and the CSFA groups could be explained
by the intake of increased amounts of saturated fatty
acids, which affect plasma levels. It is interesting that
the proportion of linoleic acid increased in cows on the
bST treatment but not in other groups between 50
DIM and 2 d before aspiration. The proportion of other
fatty acids did not differ between periods.
The smaller proportion of oleic and linoleic acids
were found in the NEFA fraction of follicular uid in
E
2
-A follicles as compared with E
2
-I and E
2
-LA folli-
cles. A signicant negative correlation coefcient be-
tween these acids and the E
2
concentration in follicular
uid (Table 9) suggested that preovulatory growth was
accompanied by a decrease in these two acids and an
increase in the proportion of palmitic acid. These ef-
fects were similar to those of a previous report on the
composition of NEFA in porcine follicular uid (34). It
was also previously shown (12) that the proportion of
FAT AND BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON FOLLICULAR HORMONES 2367
linoleic acid in the NEFA fraction of bovine follicular
uid is inversely related to follicle diameter, and it
was suggested that linoleic acid may have a role in
preventing germinal vesicle breakdown in the bovine
oocyte (14, 15).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are precursors of eico-
senoids, which have extensive effects on many aspects
of the reproductive cycle. The increase in the propor-
tion of saturated fatty acids at the expense of unsatu-
rated fatty acids in follicular uid might be important
in this context. In the follicular uid, changes in the
fatty acid composition of the phospholipids between
treatments were relatively small. However, for E
2
-A
and E
2
-I, changes in the linoleic acid levels of NEFA
were marked, as were changes in phospholipid concen-
trations. These changes might have inuenced the
physiological function of these follicles.
CONCLUSIONS
Feeding CSFA or administration of bST to high
yielding dairy cows during the early postpartum pe-
riod considerably affected ovarian follicular dynamics
and estradiol production as well as fatty acid concen-
trations in follicles. Much of the early postpartum ef-
fect of bST on reproductive phenomena was through
increased milk yield, a greater loss in BCS, and a post-
partum delay in the ability of ovarian follicles to pro-
duce estradiol. These changes might have a consider-
able effect on the fertility of cows treated with bST
early postpartum.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank Ofra Kedar for the lipid analysis,
Mara Heler for hormone analysis, and the staff of the
experimental farm at Bet Dagan (Israel) for their coop-
eration and technical assistance.
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22:141147.
... The results also showed a significant decrease (P≤0.01) on a silent estrus rate, on goats in the third group T3 which was given Omega-3 by 40 ml as silent estrus rate was 20% compared to the group T1 and T2 at a rate of 40% each, and the significant decrease in The missed rate of goats who gave 40 ml of omega-3 to the significant omega-3 effect on increasing the concentration of ovulation hormone LH and estrogen in ruminants [21]. Table 4 also shows that giving omega-3 at a rate of 40 ml has led to a significant improvement (P≤0.01) in the number of births per abdominal 1.20 and outperformed both groups T1 and T2 as it reached 0.70 and 1.0 respectively, and the increase in the number Born in one abdomen until giving omega-3 has improved the development of follicles through the metabolism of hormones and their effect on the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus, this in turn stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH hormones from the frontal lobe of the pituitary gland in addition to the positive effect of Omega-3 in increasing Preparation and size of large follicles and by outcome leads to improvement in the volume of births per abdomen in goats [22][23][24]. The results indicated that there was no effect of omega-3 administration on the gestation period of the three groups of Cypriot goats, as the gestation period was 146, 149 and 149 days for group T1, T2 and T3, respectively. ...
... According to the selection criteria, the cows' FF in the PEB-E group was collected 1 day before follicle ovulation, and the cows' FF in the NEB-A group was collected 55-60 days after calving. According to the research method of Moallem et al. (1999), the FF from the two groups was collected using a B-ultrasound instrument (SSD-500; Aloka, Japan) with a 5.0-MHz vaginal sector scanning probe and collection needle to adjust the negative pressure of the vacuum pump to 60-75 mm Hg according to the needs of the cow FF collection. The FF was centrifuged at 3000 Â g for 15 min, and the supernatant was aspirated and stored at À80 C. ...
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Negative energy balance (NEB) is an important risk factor for the dairy cow’s anoestrus. The purpose of the experiment is to screen out differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the follicular fluid (FF) of cows with anoestrus caused by NEB and oestrus from positive energy balance (PEB). NEB and PEB holstein cows were selected 14–21 days postpartum according to the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) and glucose (Glu). Based on the follicle diameter at 55–60 days postpartum, the two groups were assigned into the anoestrus group (NEB-A; n = 6; follicular diameter < 8 mm) and oestrus group (PEB-E; n = 6; follicular diameter: 15–20 mm). Their FF was aspirated in vivo to screen out DEPs, and analysed by bioinformatics. Five DEPs were verified by western blotting (WB). The study identified 367 proteins. Compared with PEB-E, NEB-A expressed 135 downregulated DEPs and 37 upregulated DEPs. RBP4 (retinol-binding protein 4), adiponectin B, SOD (superoxide dismutase), IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), and CRP (C-reactive protein) were verified by WB, their may have confirmed that cellular lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and cellular immune function are related to follicular development and anoestrus. • Highlights • 367 proteins identified in the Follicle fluid of dairy cows 55–60 days postpartum. • In the Negative energy balance-anoestrus group, 172 differentially expressed proteins were identified—135 upregulated DEPs and 37 downregulated DEPs. • Confirmed that postpartum Negative energy balance may affect cows’ oestrus behaviour or performance during early lactation by lipid metabolism, the IGF regulation system, and immune and complement systems.
... Follicular fluid plays a major role in the autocrine and paracrine regulation and also in the physiological, biochemical and metabolic aspects of the nuclear and cytoplasmatic maturation of the oocyte and the process of ovulation (Hafez 2000). Follicular fluid from cattle is usually collected by ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration (TVFA), when various biochemical or endocrine examinations of FF are performed (Vos et al. 1994;Kohram et al. 1998;Landau et al. 2000;Walters et al. 2002;de Castro e Paula et al. 2008;Shehab-El-Deen et al. 2010;Moallem et al. 2011). However, FF sampling for acid-base balance (ABB) and gas analysis from live animals is rarely described (Berg et al. 2003(Berg et al. , 2005Cech et al. 2007;de Castro e Paula et al. 2008;Indrova et al. 2017), perhaps due to the technical difficulties involved in FF sampling (Cech et al. 2011). ...
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The study aimed to compare differences of physiological acid-base balance (ABB) parameters in follicular fluid (FF) and venous blood (VB) and to evaluate ABB parameters in FF collected from different ovarian follicles in dairy cows and heifers. The ABB parameters (pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO 3– and base excess (BE)) in the FF of the preovulatory follicle, of the dominant follicle on the 9th day of the cycle and of the superovulatory estrous follicles were compared to VB. Similarly, the dynamics of the ABB profile in FF and VB were monitored in repeated sampling in a group of heifers stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Higher values of pH and pO 2 and lower values of pCO 2 , HCO 3– and BE were found in FF compared to VB in all experiments. Laterality of ovaries, time of sampling, ovarian activity or stimulation of the follicular development by FSH did not significantly influence ABB parameters. We found higher pH (7.392 ± 0.027 vs. 7.364 ± 0.032) and pO 2 (13.83 ± 2.20 kPa vs. 4.50 ± 0.67 kPa), lower pCO 2 (5.70 ± 0.39 kPa vs. 6.54 ± 0.61 kPa), HCO 3– (25.51 ± 1.52 mmol/l vs. 26.86 ± 2.12 mmol/l) and BE (1.14 ± 1.57 mmol/l vs. 1.95 ± 2.2 mmol/l) in FF compared to VB in all non-stimulated cows. Similar relationships between FF and VB were found in all FSH stimulated cows. The study provides as yet unknown knowledge on the physiology of follicular fluid in cattle.
... The results also showed a significant decrease (P≤0.01) on a silent estrus rate, on goats in the third group T3 which was given Omega-3 by 40 ml as silent estrus rate was 20% compared to the group T1 and T2 at a rate of 40% each, and the significant decrease in The missed rate of goats who gave 40 ml of omega-3 to the significant omega-3 effect on increasing the concentration of ovulation hormone LH and estrogen in ruminants (Zachut et al. 2011). Table 4 also shows that giving omega-3 at a rate of 40 ml has led to a significant improvement (P≤0.01) in the number of births per abdominal 1.20 and outperformed both groups T1 and T2 as it reached 0.70 and 1.0 respectively, and the increase in the number Born in one abdomen until giving omega-3 has improved the development of follicles through the metabolism of hormones and their effect on the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus, this in turn stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH hormones from the frontal lobe of the pituitary gland in addition to the positive effect of Omega-3 in increasing Preparation and size of large follicles and by outcome leads to improvement in the volume of births per abdomen in goats (Moallem et al., 1999and Mossa et al., 2007and De Veth et al., 2009). The results indicated that there was no effect of omega-3 administration on the gestation period of the three groups of Cypriot goats, as the gestation period was 146, 149 and 149 days for group T1, T2 and T3, respectively. ...
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This experiment included 27 Cypriot goats with a weight of 34-48 kg. They were randomly distributed into three groups of equal number (Nine goat in each group). The first group (T1) control group (T2) the second group was given 20 ml / Omega-3 per animal and the third group (T3) was given 40 ml / Omega-3 per animal. The results showed that there was a proper effect of treatment with omega-3 on milk production of Cypriot goats during October, November and December. The third treatment was properly superior (P≤0.05) at a rate of 1.62 ± 52.30, 1.76 ± 36.00 and 2.00 ± 33.71 kg for the first treatment (Control), which that recorded during the same months 1.80 ± 28.00, 1.10 ± 19.44 and 1.68 ± 18.90 kg, respectively. The results of the current study also indicate a significant increased (P ≤0.05) for the third treatment was given 40 ml omega-3 in the fertility rate of Cypriot goats that reached 80% compared to the control group whose fertility rate reached 60%, the results showed that the percentage of fertility increased significantly (P≤0.05) for goats in the third group to 90%, while the group T2 and T1 scored 70%, also the percentage of births improved significantly (P≤0.01) among the goats in the third group that were given 40 ml of omega-3 by a rate of 90 % Compared to the group T1 and T2 as it reached 60%. The results showed no significant effect of omega-3 on the percentage of twins, as it reached group T1 and T2 as it reached 35% compared to group T3 33%. The results indicated a significant decrease on a silent estrus percentage for goats in the third group T3 when given 40 ml of omega-3 to 20% compared to the group T2 and T1 at a rate of 40%. The results also showed a significant improvement in the number of births per abdomen among goats of the third group, which gave 40 ml of omega-3 as the rate was 1.20 compared to the groups T1 and T2 as they reached 0.70 and 1.0, respectively. The omega-3 administration of goats was not reported to have any significant effect on the pregnancy duration of three groups, it appears through the results of the study, that is giving omega-3 has significantly increased dramatically the reproductive performance and a lesser degree the productive performance of Cypriot goats in Iraq.
... The results also showed a significant decrease (P≤0.01) on a silent estrus rate, on goats in the third group T3 which was given Omega-3 by 40 ml as silent estrus rate was 20% compared to the group T1 and T2 at a rate of 40% each, and the significant decrease in The missed rate of goats who gave 40 ml of omega-3 to the significant omega-3 effect on increasing the concentration of ovulation hormone LH and estrogen in ruminants (Zachut et al. 2011). Table 4 also shows that giving omega-3 at a rate of 40 ml has led to a significant improvement (P≤0.01) in the number of births per abdominal 1.20 and outperformed both groups T1 and T2 as it reached 0.70 and 1.0 respectively, and the increase in the number Born in one abdomen until giving omega-3 has improved the development of follicles through the metabolism of hormones and their effect on the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus, this in turn stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH hormones from the frontal lobe of the pituitary gland in addition to the positive effect of Omega-3 in increasing Preparation and size of large follicles and by outcome leads to improvement in the volume of births per abdomen in goats (Moallem et al., 1999and Mossa et al., 2007and De Veth et al., 2009). The results indicated that there was no effect of omega-3 administration on the gestation period of the three groups of Cypriot goats, as the gestation period was 146, 149 and 149 days for group T1, T2 and T3, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment included 27 Cypriot goats with a weight of 34-48 kg. They were randomly distributed into three groups of equal number (Nine goat in each group). The first group (T1) control group (T2) the second group was given 20 ml / Omega-3 per animal and the third group (T3) was given 40 ml / Omega-3 per animal. The results showed that there was a proper effect of treatment with omega-3 on milk production of Cypriot goats during October, November and December. The third treatment was properly superior (P≤0.05) at a rate of 1.62 ± 52.30, 1.76 ± 36.00 and 2.00 ± 33.71 kg for the first treatment (Control), which that recorded during the same months 1.80 ± 28.00, 1.10 ± 19.44 and 1.68 ± 18.90 kg, respectively. The results of the current study also indicate a significant increased (P ≤0.05) for the third treatment was given 40 ml omega-3 in the fertility rate of Cypriot goats that reached 80% compared to the control group whose fertility rate reached 60%, the results showed that the percentage of fertility increased significantly (P≤0.05) for goats in the third group to 90%, while the group T2 and T1 scored 70%, also the percentage of births improved significantly (P≤0.01) among the goats in the third group that were given 40 ml of omega-3 by a rate of 90 % Compared to the group T1 and T2 as it reached 60%. The results showed no significant effect of omega-3 on the percentage of twins, as it reached group T1 and T2 as it reached 35% compared to group T3 33%. The results indicated a significant decrease on a silent estrus percentage for goats in the third group T3 when given 40 ml of omega-3 to 20% compared to the group T2 and T1 at a rate of 40%. The results also showed a significant improvement in the number of births per abdomen among goats of the third group, which gave 40 ml of omega-3 as the rate was 1.20 compared to the groups T1 and T2 as they reached 0.70 and 1.0, respectively. The omega-3 administration of goats was not reported to have any significant effect on the pregnancy duration of three groups, it appears through the results of the study, that is giving omega-3 has significantly increased dramatically the reproductive performance and a lesser degree the productive performance of Cypriot goats in Iraq.
... After the presence of CL was confirmed they were injected with a PGF 2α analog, and 14 to 15 d after a visible behavioral estrus they received another PGF 2α injection, followed by FF aspiration after 48 h. Forty-eight hours after the second PGF 2α administration, we performed FF aspiration as described by Moallem et al. (1999). Briefly, the cows were sedated with an intramuscular administration of 1 mL of 2% Sedaxylan (xylazine base, 20 mg/mL; Eurovet Animal Health, AE Bladel, the Netherlands) and were given a local anesthesia in the form of 5 mL of 2% lidocaine HCl (200 mg/10 mL; Esracain 2%; Rafa Laboratories, Jerusalem, Israel) injected epidurally between the last sacral and the first caudal vertebrae in the sacrococcygeal space. ...
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Three experiments were conducted with female cattle during the postpartum period and during the estrous cycle to examine the effects of diet-induced hyperlipidemia on lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) metabolism, ovarian follicular dynamics, and incidence of postpartum luteal activity. Dietary-lipid effects were examined independently of metabolizable energy intake. Feeding a high-lipid (HL) diet (8% total lipid) for the first 3 wk of the puerperium (Experiment 1) increased (p less than 0.0001) the concentration of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH), but not TG, within follicular fluid (FF) of estrogen-active (E-A) and inactive (E-I) follicles. Increases (1.4- to 1.7-fold) were similar in proportion to those observed in peripheral blood serum, but absolute concentrations were about 45% of that in serum. Greater than 95% of the cholesterol in FF was HDL-CH, with a greater (p less than 0.06) proportion of HDL-CH sequestered by E-A compared to E-I follicles. The HL diet increased (p less than 0.06) the number of medium-sized (3.1-9.9 mm) follicles present at ovariectomy 19-21 days postcalving and increased (p less than 0.03) concentrations of FF androstenedione in E-I follicles 5-fold. Granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles (Experiment 2) of heifers fed HL diets secreted 2.1- to 3.5-fold greater (p less than 0.03) quantities of pregnenolone and progesterone in vitro. Finally, feeding HL supplements to postpartum range cattle for 30 days increased (p less than 0.05) the incidence of ovarian luteal activity by 18% (Experiment 3). Shifts in lipid metabolic status modify reproductive potential in cattle, independently of dietary energy intake.
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Eighty-two lactating Holstein cows in their first, second, or third lactation received either one, three, or five concurrent i.m. injections of a unit dose (.6 g) of zinc methionyl bST (sometribove) or five doses of the vehicle. Injections were given at 14-d intervals from 60 +/- 3 d postpartum until the end of lactation or necropsy. Thirty-eight animals were continued on treatment for a 2nd yr. Sometribove did not affect the incidence of ketosis, milk fever, tetany, or pneumonia. Digestive disorders, primarily cows going off feed, were increased by bST during yr 1 only. The incidence of lameness was increased by bST in some time frames because of an increase in the 3.0-g bST group. Lameness was not associated with treatment-specific histopathologic changes or with abnormalities in cartilage or bone. Reproductive health generally was unaffected by treatment, but delayed conception and increased incidence of abortion were noted. Incidence of cystic ovaries was unaffected by bST. Pregnancy rates were decreased during the 100-d breeding interval of yr 1 but not during the 215-d interval of yr 2. The incidence of clinical mastitis was increased by bST, primarily at the 3.0-g dose. During the 2-yr study, 0, 3, 3, and 2 cows died or became moribund on 0, .6, 1.8, and 3.0 g of bST, respectively. Health issues identified for further evaluation included lameness and clinical mastitis for the 3.0-g group and early removal from the herd and decreased reproductive performance for all bST groups. Bovine somatotropin caused no treatment-specific toxic effects in dairy cows even at 3.0 g every 14 d.
Article
Thirty-two primiparous Holsteins were assigned to receive 0, 5.15, 10.3, or 16.5 mg/d recombinant bST. Treatment began between 28 and 35 d postpartum and continued until 60 d prior to next expected calving or 400 d postpartum. Metabolic hormones and metabolites were measured in blood weekly during the first 10 wk of treatment, and progesterone was measured in milk twice weekly to assess ovarian activity until conception. Milk production (305 d, actual) was 8350 +/- 562, 8348 +/- 515, 9571 +/- 515, and 9070 +/- 515 for cows given 0, 5.15, 10.3, or 16.5 mg/d and did not differ statistically. Insulin, glucose, NEFA and blood urea nitrogen were not influenced by dose of bST. However, insulin-like growth factor-I increased linearly with dose of bST. Days from parturition to first detected estrus, days open, and services per conception did not differ among groups; however, days from parturition to first service increased with dose of bST. Rate of detection of estrus decreased with dose of bST, resulting in a longer interval to first insemination. The lower rate of detection of estrus in bST-treated cows may have been associated with reduced expression of estrus. Additional statistical analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between metabolism, milk production, and reproduction over all doses of bST. There was a negative correlation between 305-d milk yield and glucose (r = -.44) and insulin (r = -.46) concentrations during 30 to 100 d postpartum. In stepwise regression analyses, insulin accounted for 21% of the variance in 305-d milk yield. Glucose and NEFA accounted for 18% of the variance in days open, and there was a negative correlation (r = -.32) between glucose and days open. Days open and milk production were not correlated.