A Bone marrow biopsy technique suitable for use in neonates
Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia are common among neonates in intensive care units. Bone marrow aspirations are sometimes performed as part of their evaluation. However, marrow biopsies have not been reported from living neonates. Since architecture and cellularity cannot generally be accurately assessed from marrow aspirates, we devised a biopsy technique which we successfully applied to five cytopenic neonates (three with severe persistent thrombocytopenia and two with idiopathic neutropenia). This technique used a 19 gauge, half-inch Osgood needle to obtain bone marrow clots from the tibias of small preterm neonates which enabled the assessment of marrow cellularity and architecture. On the basis of our initial experience we have ceased using the traditional bone marrow aspiration technique in neonates and now use this technique exclusively.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the immaturity of the hematopoietic system at birth and different oxygenation and immune response needs of the growing organism, the bone marrow composition at birth and early infancy differs as compared to older children and adults. These age-related differences, while generally recognized, are not well known to the world of hematopathology. The purpose of this article is to address the current limitation of the literature by reviewing the bone marrow ontology, its composition at birth, and the changes occurring during early infancy, and to compare these findings to adults. The review also provides a useful framework for bone marrow examination in children.
- "The iliac crest is the most frequent BM sampling site in children. In newborns and neonates, conventional BM biopsies may be difficult to perform, so alternative techniques, such as obtaining marrow clot sections, can be successfully utilized [17, 18]. The BM particles in clot sections contain preserved marrow architecture, so that they provide information on the overall BM cellularity and the number and morphology of megakaryocytes . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Examination of the bone marrow biopsy and aspirate allows diagnosis and assessment of various conditions such as primary hematologic and metastatic neoplasms, as well as nonmalignant disorders. Despite being performed for many years, according to many different protocols, the procedure still remains painful for the majority of patients. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of pain reduction measures in the bone marrow biopsy and aspiration.
- "However, there are little available data on that topic. In infants younger than 1 year, the tibia is sampled, and the procedure is done under general anesthesia [4, 40]. The BMBA from the posterior iliac crest typically takes approximately 10–30 min, and the patient is usually released home after an additional hour of observation to exclude any immediate local complications. "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia is a very frequent problem among sick neonates, affecting up to 35% of all infants admitted to the NICU. Although multiple clinical conditions have been causally associated with neonatal thrombocytopenia, the cause of the thrombocytopenia is unclear in up to 60% of affected neonates. This article provides neonatologists with a practical approach to the thrombocytopenic neonate, with an emphasis on conditions that could be life-threatening or could have significant implications for further pregnancies. An overview of the current therapeutic modalities is also presented, including a discussion of the possible use of recombinant thrombopoietic cytokines to treat certain groups of thrombocytopenic neonates.