Analysis of Blood Clotting Factor Activities in Canine Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ Disease
Legg-Calve-Perthes' (LCP) disease is a noninflammatory aseptic necrosis of the femoral head and neck in small-breed dogs. The etiology of the disease is not known, but ischemia resulting from vascular compression or occlusion has been proposed. A latent ischemic phase during development of the femoral epiphysis seems to be responsible for the onset of the typical clinical features of LCP disease. Ischemia might result from insufficient oxygen supply either caused by a reduced number of afferent arterial vessels or an occlusion of the efferent venous vessels by thrombosis. In humans, LCP disease has been linked to hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis caused by deficiencies of protein C, protein S, or resistance to activated protein C. To determine whether canine LCP disease is caused by similar deficiencies, we determined protein C, protein S, activated protein C, factor II, factor V, factor VIII:C, and AT III activities in plasma samples of 18 dogs with clinically and histopathologically verified LCP disease. All dogs had normal plasma activities of these factors, indicating that in these dogs LCP disease was not caused by deficiencies of the analyzed blood clotting factors.
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- "Many factors can predispose to femoral head ischaemia and osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurs spontaneously in hypertensive rats (Kikkawa et al., 2000), and has been associated with hypercoagulability disorders in humans, but not in dogs (Mickelson et al., 1981;Brenig et al., 1999). Steroid-induced osteonecrosis is a side-effect in up to 50% of human patients treated with long-term corticosteroids (Boss & Misselevich, 2003), a side-effect thought to be the result of changes in lipid mobilization and storage. "
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ABSTRACT: A juvenile, male, yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) with abnormal stance and decreased mobility was captured, held in captivity for approximately 6 weeks, and euthanized due to continued clinical signs. Radiographically, there was bilateral degenerative joint disease with coxofemoral periarticular osteophyte formation. Grossly, the bird had bilaterally distended, thickened coxofemoral joints with increased laxity, and small, roughened and angular femoral heads. Histologically, the left femoral articular cartilage and subchondral bone were absent, and the remaining femoral head consisted of trabecular bone overlain by fibrin and granulation tissue. There was no gross or histological evidence of infection. The historic, gross, radiographic, and histopathologic findings were most consistent with bilateral aseptic femoral head degeneration resulting in degenerative joint disease. Although the chronicity of the lesions masked the initiating cause, the probable underlying causes of aseptic bilateral femoral head degeneration in a young animal are osteonecrosis and osteochondrosis of the femoral head. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral coxofemoral degenerative joint disease in a penguin.
Available from: vet.sagepub.com
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ABSTRACT: Animal models of osteonecrosis of the femoral head are indispensable to the understanding of successful treatment modalities for avascular necrosis of the femoral head in adults and in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Many of these models adequately reflect the current "vascular deprivation" theory regarding the etiology of the disease. In addition to spontaneous occurrence, surgical- and corticosteroid-induced models are suitable, common experimental ones. Osteonecrosis of spontaneously hypertensive rats appears to be due to defective bone formation and compression of the arteries entering the femoral head at its lateral facets by daily weight-bearing loads. Successful modeling of surgical-induced femoral capital necrosis can be a challenge in animals with a dual epiphyseal blood supply. High doses of corticosteroids are a pivotal risk factor in the development of osteonecrosis. The pathogenesis of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis likely resides in reduced blood flow. Steroids may reduce blood flow by numerous mechanisms, including marrow adipocytic hypertrophy leading to sinusoidal compression, venous stasis and, eventually, obstruction of the arteries, and arterial occlusion by fat emboli and lipid-loaded fibrin-platelet thrombi. Other, less common varieties of osteonecrosis include those secondary to endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation, immune reactions, immoderately low or high temperatures, and high-impact-related injuries. Common to these diverse forms of osteonecrosis are fibrin thrombi clogging arterioles and small arteries.
Available from: Katerina Adamama-Moraitou
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ABSTRACT: The buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and intraoperative bleeding score (IBS) of 38 dogs that underwent orthopaedic surgical procedures and received meloxicam orally and/or parenterally were measured. Fourteen of the dogs (group A) received a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg meloxicam at premedication, 18 dogs (group B) received 0.1 mg/kg meloxicam orally daily for five days followed by a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg meloxicam preoperatively, and six dogs (group C) received 0.5 ml of normal saline subcutaneously at premedication. No statistically significant differences among the groups were detected in relation to the mean (SD) values of BMBT, PT and IBS before and after the surgery, or in the values of APTT in group A. In group B there was a small but significant increase in APTT after the surgery, but all the measurements were within the normal range for dogs.
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