The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders

University of California, Irvine 92717, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 01/2000; 29(6):439-84.
Source: PubMed


The Child Neurology Society and American Academy of Neurology recently proposed to formulate Practice Parameters for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Autism for their memberships. This endeavor was expanded to include representatives from nine professional organizations and four parent organizations, with liaisons from the National Institutes of Health. This document was written by this multidisciplinary Consensus Panel after systematic analysis of over 2,500 relevant scientific articles in the literature. The Panel concluded that appropriate diagnosis of autism requires a dual-level approach: (a) routine developmental surveillance, and (b) diagnosis and evaluation of autism. Specific detailed recommendations for each level have been established in this document, which are intended to improve the rate of early suspicion and diagnosis of, and therefore early intervention for, autism.

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    • "Other studies, which have examined other expressive language skills, for instance, expressing relations such as big and little, correctly producing grammatical morphemes for plurals and verb tenses, and using rising intonation when asking questions, have also reported that autistic children are less skilled than typically developing children (Fulton & D'Entremont, 2013; Hudry et al., 2010; Sigman & McGovern, 2005; Sutera et al., 2007; Vanvuchelen et al., 2011; Walton & Ingersoll, 2013). That young, autistic children are often characterized by smaller expressive vocabularies should be of little surprise given that delays in the number of words and phrases children are saying are some of the most notable 'red flags' for autism (Baird et al., 2003; Filipek et al., 1999). Delays in early expressive language are also the primary concern that motivates parents to seek diagnostic evaluation of their children (Agin, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal language development used to define autism, but no longer does. Indeed, language development no longer even figures into contemporary diagnostic criteria, although early delays in language often lead to parents' concerns. In this chapter, we review recent empirical research on language development in autism. To paint a contemporary picture, we restrict our review to studies published in the 21 st century. We conclude that language development in autism is often delayed, but not deviant; that a delay in language development is not unique to autism; and that language development in autism is remarkably heterogeneous.
    Full-text · Chapter · Sep 2015
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    • "Another important aspect of those with any ASD diagnosis is that a significant number of children diagnosed with an ASD experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills.[67] Many parents report that their child was developmentally normal until sometime after birth, typically 15-24 months, at which time the child began to regress or deteriorate.[89101112] The reported incidence of regression in autism varies in different studies from 15 to 62% of the cases.[671314] "
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    ABSTRACT: Research indicates that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience a developmental regression. The study examined the percentage of children with autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), ASD, and Asperger syndrome (AS) who were considered to be delayed (D), regressed (R), or delayed and later regressed (DR) and examined any relationship with autism severity, time of onset, factors associated with onset, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, race, age, and gender. The study reviewed developmental and medical information based on parental reports of 135 children with a diagnosis of autism, PDD, ASD, or AS. The number of children in the D group was 53 (39.2%) with 19 (14.1%) in the DR group and 63 (46.7%) in the R group. Thus, 82 children (60.7%) were reported to have R. In regard to onset of symptoms, there was a significant difference between the D and R groups as well as between the DR and R groups. The analyses showed that there was no significant relationship between age, gender, race, severity, or GI symptoms and membership in any group; D, DR, or R. The majority of parents reported that the regression was preceded by or was associated with vaccinations (57.3%) or another medically related event (11.0%). The findings are consistent with previous research and reinforce our understanding of regression in those children with an ASD diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · North American Journal of Medical Sciences
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    • "The prevalence of autism in children is approaching 1%, or approximately 1 in 110 children [2]. Although autism can be diagnosed as young as 18 months of age [3], the symptoms of this disorder last throughout an individual's lifetime. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods: Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results: All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions: Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Scientific World Journal
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