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Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Conceptual Clarification and Empirical Synthesis



Goals are central to current treatments of work motivation, and goal commitment is a critical construct in understanding the relationship between goals and task performance. Despite this importance, there is confusion about the role of goal commitment and only recently has this key construct received the empirical attention it warrants. This meta-analysis, based on 83 independent samples, updates the goal commitment literature by summarizing the accumulated evidence on the antecedents and consequences of goal commitment. Using this aggregate empirical evidence, the role of goal commitment in the goal-setting process is clarified and key areas for future research are identified.
... There is a strand of literature that focuses on performance metrics as internal mechanisms that affect goal commitment that, in turn, influences other variables such as employee performance or satisfaction at work(Berry et al., 2009;Wentzel, 2002). In addition, a number of studies shows that goal commitment has prominent positive effects on performance(Klein et al., 1999). ...
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We examine whether the quality of performance metrics affects informal peer monitoring and, in turn, goal commitment. By fostering performance‐oriented behaviours, performance metrics drive managers to involve themselves in learning and improvement efforts, building a fertile atmosphere for informal peer monitoring. We argue that the quality of performance metrics is positively associated with direct peer monitoring and negatively linked to indirect peer monitoring. Subsequently, we postulate that direct (indirect) peer monitoring is positively (negatively) associated with goal commitment. We use partial least squares (PLS) to analyse survey data from store managers in a large retail firm. Results provide overall support for our hypotheses.
... Voraussetzung, um diese Fragen beantworten zu können, ist es, das eigene Vorwissen und die eigenen Handlungskompetenzen in Bezug auf inklusionspädagogische Fragestellungen reflektieren zu können (Stichwort: Reflexionskompetenz). Unter der Selbstwirksamkeit wird die Überzeugung einer Lehrperson, wie gut es ihr gelingt, effektiv zu unterrichten, verstanden (Kunter & Pohlmann 2015 (Pröbstel 2008). Wichtig ist zudem, dass die Zielvereinbarung partizipativ getroffen wird (Klein et al. 1999). Auch die Erfolgserwartung und die Attraktivität der Ziele spielen wichtige Rollen (Hollenbeck & Klein 1987). ...
Grundlagen und Ideen für die inklusive Schule Vor dem Hintergrund eines inklusiven Schulsystems werden verschiedene Themenkomplexe für die Arbeit im inklusiven Setting dargestellt. Lehramtsstudent*innen, Lehrer*innen und Schulleiter*innen sowie in der Lehrer*innenbildung Tätige erhalten damit ein Fundament für einen theoretischen Diskurs und Anregungen für die schulische Praxis in einer inklusiven Schule.
... Unlike resource availability, motivation does not act on the pool of available resources but changes the extent to which resource loss impacts behavior. While resource depletion typically heightens a person's tendency to conserve resources from any further loss (Halbesleben et al. 2014), motivation for task completion weakens this tendency so that performance decline is less likely (Halbesleben et al. 2014;Klein et al. 1999;Muraven and Slessareva 2003). ...
Research indicates that a customer’s service experience is shaped by their past experiences with the firm. However, the extent to which past experiences with customers shape frontline service employees’ delivery of services has not been examined. We propose that the analysis of service encounters as discrete, independent units ignores possible linkages between customer experiences via frontline employees. Adopting a resource spill-over perspective across two studies, we find that employees’ experience of customer mistreatment compromised their subsequent service delivery. Using an experiment in Study 1, we find that these effects are mediated by changes in the employee’s self-control capacity. Using a field sample in Study 2, we find that these effects are moderated by the employee’s dispositional self-control capacity and their motivation to commit to display rules. Our findings show how service encounter outcomes can be shaped by distal service events and call for a more holistic understanding of the forces that shape service encounter outcomes. In particular, by highlighting the potential consequences, our findings challenge conventional work protocols that compel employees to persevere despite their experience of mistreatment. By detailing the mediating and moderating mechanisms of mistreatment spill-over in service organizations, we highlight the recovery mechanisms and practices that enable FLEs to remain resilient despite negative encounters with customers.
... Bei der Zielbindung (Goal Commitment) besteht ein positiver Effekt auf die Leistung, wenn die Notwendigkeit zur Zielsetzung nachvollzogen wird und Partizipation bei der Zielfestlegung vorliegt, denn fremdgesetzte und selbstgesetzte Ziele unterscheiden sich in ihrem Anreizwert (Wagner, 1994). Eine affektiv starke Verbundenheit mit einem Ziel begünstigt das Leistungsverhalten (Klein, Wesson, Hollenbeck & Alge, 1999). Weitere Motivatoren können sich begünstigend auf die Zielbindung auswirken. ...
... As such, they may be useful for self-monitoring of team members' behaviors towards achieving team goals. When members are involved in setting team goals, they will adhere to those goals more closely and internalize them (Klein, Wesson, Hollenbeck, & Alge 1999;Locke & Latham, 2013;Locke, Latham & Erez, 1988;Tubbs, 1986). Indeed, goal effects are enhanced by having people write at length about them (Locke & Latham, 2019). ...
... Extant literature defines commitment as "a volitional psychological bond reflecting dedication to and responsibility for a particular target" (Klein, Molloy, and Brinsfield, 2012: 137). While most existing work addresses questions related to organizational commitment-i.e., the psychological bond between an organization and its members-researchers have recently explored the nature of commitment in relation to several different targets, such as goals (Klein, Wesson, Hollenbeck, and Alge, 1999), change (Hill, Seo, Kang, and Taylor, 2012;Meyer and Hamilton, 2013), and projects (Hoegl, Weinkauf, and Gemuenden, 2004). Scholars have classified these forms of commitment as "action commitments" (Meyer and Anderson, 2016;Neubert and Wu, 2012), stressing their temporary nature in opposition to more durable forms of entity commitment. ...
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While it is commonly known that ideas submitted through crowdsourcing platforms need support from others to be realized, our understanding of what idea creators can do to garner this support is still limited. In this study, we argue that the behavior of idea creators on a crowdsourcing platform plays a critical role to attract support. In particular, we suggest that creators who commit their time and energy to the development and realization of others’ ideas may activate generalized exchange dynamics that result in an increased number of commitments from other peers to their own ideas—especially when these ideas are very novel or not very feasible. To test our hypotheses, we studied 1,201 participants and their behavior related to 244 ideas on the internal crowdsourcing platform of the car manufacturer Renault. Controlling for a series of relevant individual and idea characteristics, our findings confirm that creators who commit themselves to others’ ideas on the crowdsourcing platform elicit more commitments from others for their own ideas. This relationship becomes stronger for very novel and not very feasible ideas. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings that contribute to the general discussion of crowdsourcing and how idea creators can assemble a team of supporters on such platforms.
... Commitment to the goal was also considered crucial to engage in actual goal-striving by Locke and colleagues (e.g., Locke et al., 1988) or Gollwitzer and Oettingen (2011). Indeed, there is massive evidence suggesting that self-reported commitment to the goal is the central predictor of successful performance, especially in difficult tasks (Hollenbeck & Klein, 1987;Klein et al., 1999)-but we lack a mechanistic understanding how commitment works, what it does, and how it manages to translate a goal that people just have into a goal that they actively pursue and that is as sticky as Lewin (1936) and Zeigarnik (1927) were suggesting. ...
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Commonsense and theorizing about action control agree in assuming that human behavior is (mainly) driven by goals, but no mechanistic theory of what goals are, where they come from, and how they impact action selection is available. Here I develop such a theory that is based on the assumption that GOALs guide Intentional Actions THrough criteria (GOALIATH). The theory is intended to be minimalist and parsimonious with respect to its assumptions, as transparent and mechanistic as possible, and it is based on representational assumptions provided by the Theory of Event Coding (TEC). It holds that goal-directed behavior is guided by selection criteria that activate and create competition between event files that contain action-effect codes matching one or more of the criteria—a competition that eventually settles into a solution favoring the best-matching event file. The criteria are associated with various sources, including biological drives, acquired needs (e.g., of achievement, power, or affiliation), and short-term, sometimes arbitrary, instructed aims. Action selection is, thus, a compromise that tries to satisfy various criteria related to different driving forces, which are also likely to vary in strength over time. Hence, what looks like goal-directed action emerges from, and represents an attempt to satisfy multiple constraints with different origins, purposes, operational characteristics, and timescales—which among other things does not guarantee a high degree of coherence or rationality of the eventual outcome. GOALIATH calls for a radical break with conventional theorizing about the control of goal-directed behavior, as it among other things questions existing cognitive-control theories and dual-route models of action control.
Dyslexia is the most prevalent learning disability and the lack of automaticity in word recognition is one of its main characteristics. This thesis is dedicated to the gamification of in-home dyslexia remediation by focusing on the development of automaticity for children aged from five to nine years old. An extensive research on the effective principles of automaticity training, led to the creation of a novel training model for automaticity acquisition. Training for automaticity requires countless repetitions, and adherence is crucial. Gamification concept was proposed to increase motivation, engagement, and adherence. Based on the automaticity-training model, a gamification model was developed for placing each game element at its appropriate phase of automaticity acquisition. The effectiveness of this gamification model was validated by a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, an optimization model was developed to provide individualized training sessions based on the level of the learner. For estimating the difficulty level of the content, four lexical skills were modelled using artificial neural networks and linear regression. For each lexical skill, the top 10 lexical variables were identified through forward stepwise analysis. The accuracy of the models based on mean absolute error reached 90.58% for auditory word recognition, 92.08% for visual word recognition, 84.83% for spelling, and 86.98% for word decoding. Finally, based on these developments, four games were created and provided on multiple platforms. The evaluation of the usability study confirmed the viability of the intelligent system and the games scored 80% on the system usability scale.
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For several years, observable are processes of simplifying IT systems and collectivization of network services. An example is the simplification of Linux operating system, which in first versions from clumsy, based on the command line and virtually devoid of the graphical elements evolved towards an open and user friendly operating system. The same applies to the posting of data on the Internet – work in cloud computing, building web pages. In addition, it is difficult not to agree with the fact that information is now one of the key consumer goods, and dynamic scientific and technological development in the twenty-first century civilization fosters referred to as a knowledge society. These considerations seem to indicate an increase simplification of communication systems and collective web services with the idea of the knowledge society. Undoubtedly, this issue deserves deeper consideration, and this article is a contribution to reflect on the issue of dissemination and simplify the network in the perspective of the knowledge society.
Conference Paper
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Celem artykułu jest omówienie elementu wdrożenia stworzonego na podstawie analizy danych zastanych oraz badań własnych: cyklu webinariów Eksperci KMO, zrealizowanego w ramach pracy doktorskiej w roku szkolnym 2020/2021. Eksperci KMO to jedno z pięciu narzędzi transferu praktyk rozwijających kompetencje przyszłości z edukacji pozaformalnej do formalnej wykorzystywanych w sieci społeczności uczącej się programu KMO, koordynowanego przez Centrum Nauki Kopernik. Sieć, w której zaangażowani nauczyciele i uczniowie mogą rozwijać refleksyjność oraz kompetencje przyszłości zrzesza edukatorów, rodziców, instytucje działające na rzecz nauczycieli oraz samorządowe. Zgodnie z teorią społeczną Margaret Archer zaangażowana i refleksyjna społeczność KMO może oddolnie wpływać na zmianę przestarzałego i nieefektywnego systemu edukacji
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