Article

Physical Exercise and Psychological Well-Being: A Population Study in Finland

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Abstract

Regular physical exercise has been characterized as a positive health behavior having physiological benefits. It may also yield psychological benefits. The purpose of the present study was therefore to explore the association between physical exercise frequency and a number of measures of psychological well-being in a large population-based sample. A total of 3403 participants (1856 women and 1547 men) of the Finnish cardiovascular risk factor survey, ranging in age between 25 and 64, completed questionnaires. Besides answering questions concerning their exercise habits and perceived health and fitness, the participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Scale, the Cynical Distrust Scale, and the Sense of Coherence inventory. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that individuals who exercised at least two to three times a week experienced significantly less depression, anger, cynical distrust, and stress than those exercising less frequently or not at all. Furthermore, regular exercisers perceived their health and fitness to be better than less frequent exercisers did. Finally, those who exercised at least twice a week reported higher levels of sense of coherence and a stronger feeling of social integration than their less frequently exercising counterparts. The results indicate a consistent association between enhanced psychological well-being, as measured using a variety of psychological inventories, and regular physical exercise.

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... Costigan et al. (2019) found that only vigorous physical activity was associated with wellbeing among adolescents. Besides intensity, two-related aspects can also have positive consequences: higher frequency of practice (Hassmén et al., 2000;Jiang et al., 2021) and the higher volume of physical activity (Sagatun et al., 2007;Bell et al., 2019) both lead to better affective benefits. 2 1 We have to mention that it is not only related to organized sports, but also any sort of physical activities. 2 Hassmén et al. (2000) found that practicing regular physical activity (two to three times a week) decreased negative affect (depression, anger, and stress) but also increased wellbeing compared to practicing less frequently. ...
... Besides intensity, two-related aspects can also have positive consequences: higher frequency of practice (Hassmén et al., 2000;Jiang et al., 2021) and the higher volume of physical activity (Sagatun et al., 2007;Bell et al., 2019) both lead to better affective benefits. 2 1 We have to mention that it is not only related to organized sports, but also any sort of physical activities. 2 Hassmén et al. (2000) found that practicing regular physical activity (two to three times a week) decreased negative affect (depression, anger, and stress) but also increased wellbeing compared to practicing less frequently. Moreover, in a recent study, Jiang et al. (2021) found that children and adolescents who practiced training sessions three to five times per week have a better mental health compared to those who practice only once a week. ...
... Teens in athletics clubs participate in competitions which reflect a high level of motivation (Gernigon, 1998), contributing to positive affects (Pekrun et al., 2002). To perform well in athletics, frequent and regular practice (at least three training sessions per week) are required, also adding a tremendous amount of wellbeing benefits (Hassmén et al., 2000). Athletics appear to accumulate multiple sources of affective benefits, such as the possibility to autonomously choose achievement goals; regular, frequent, and intense practice; and an outdoor environment. ...
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Article
Prior studies extensively examined the way sports club membership can lead to beneficial affective outcomes. Prior experiments also found that team sports, intensive sports, and sports that are frequently pursued can lead to even more affective benefits. However, no prior studies examined the differences between the affective benefits of specific sports. Based on prior results, we supposed that certain sports that meet all the previously set criteria—will provide the greatest affective benefits. The present large-scale investigation examined the data of adolescents ( N = 12,849, female = 5,812, aged between 10 and 18, M age = 12.56 years, and SD age = 2.00) and aimed to fill this gap. Firstly, the results showed that—although differences in affect can be found between the lack of club membership and most of the sports club memberships—the differences between the specific sports are less striking. Secondly, the sports that are associated with the highest level of positive and the lowest level of negative affectivity are not necessarily the ones expected. Finally, adolescents who practice athletics, reported the lowest means of negative, and the highest means of positive affect. However, it did not differ significantly from the results regarding the most practiced sport in France: soccer. Our results suggest that soccer as the most practice sport among French adolescents was associated with more positive affects than the majority of the 10 most licensed members French sports practiced by teens between 2008 and 2019. All in all, being a member of a sports club is associated with affective benefits, and some specific sports clubs can have some extra benefits.
... Studies conducted on large, age-diverse populations show a relationship between physical activity and life satisfaction. Hassmen, Koivula, and Uutela (2000) conducted a study on a sample of over 3,000 Finns and showed greater life satisfaction and lower symptoms of depression, less anxiety and anger, as well as lesser susceptibility to stress in those who did sports. Moreover, people exercising at least twice a week reported a greater sense of coherence and a stronger sense of social integration than people from comparative groups. ...
... From a public health perspective, understanding what may improve life satisfaction in older adults has significant implications for the design, implementation, and promotion of physical activity for this age group. In order to improve life satisfaction in older adults, it is necessary to develop various leisure opportunities that require dynamic physical activities, because this can relieve participants of anxiety (Brunes, Augestad, & Gudmundsdottir, 2013;De Moor, Boomsma, Stubbe, Willemsen, & de Geus, 2008;Hassmen et al., 2000), help them regain their self-esteem (McAuley et al., 2005), and help them maintain interpersonal relationships (Herbers & Meijering, 2015) with those who participate with them. It is also important to facilitate older people's access to places where such activities take place (such as a swimming pool, a cinema, a fitness center) and to increase the supportive role of local communities by organizing events, for example, family picnics and festivals. ...
Article
Physical experience has a significant effect on older adults, especially on enhancing psychological well-being. A cross-sectional survey were conducted with 120 healthy older adults (mean age 69.0 years; 67.5% female), who indicated what activities and how often they undertook and filled in the short version of WHO Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF), which measured their life satisfaction in four domains. The results show that both the frequency and the intensity of physical activities improve life satisfaction. Older adults with low activity levels rarely choose cognitive or physically demanding activities over less demanding activities. The most active older adults prefer frequent but light physical activity, social interactions and solitary entertainment. ARTICLE HISTORY
... These contests make the experience more meaningful, so they are taken seriously and with a lot of emotion [6]. In the same way that Siedentop et al. [1] commented, "the idea of the persisting team is one of the most fundamental and nonnegotiable aspects of sport education [11]. Whereas in most physical education settings, teams are formed only for the duration of a game, in sport education students not only play together but also practice skills, develop tactics, and complete administrative tasks as a team." ...
... Whereas in most physical education settings, teams are formed only for the duration of a game, in sport education students not only play together but also practice skills, develop tactics, and complete administrative tasks as a team." Researchers have additionally observed that group alliance is probably the most amazing aspect of the model [7][8][9][10][11][12]. ...
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Article
While the school sports program model is typically established in secondary schools, it has received much less attention paid to physical training at the university. In this study, 110 Chinese university students were split into six groups. One group used sport education, and the other used a more traditional teacher-directed approach. Pupils were tested on how well they could play games, how well they did, and how much they knew. All of the people got better over the course of a 16-week period. People who went to sports high school got better grades than people who did not go to sports high school. Students may be encouraged to achieve the goals of Chinese university physical education by the highlights of sport education that have been displayed to spur understudies in past investigations (for example, being important for a group, contending in a way that is formatively suitable, and taking on different jobs). PES might have the option to make a one of a kind commitment to the improvement of youngsters’ fundamental development abilities and actual capacities, which are significant antecedents to partaking in later way of life and donning proactive tasks further down the road. Interactive abilities and conduct, confidence, and preschool perspectives might benefit from outside input when they are introduced in the correct manner. At times, they can likewise assist with scholastic and mental turn of events. Audit: many of these advantages will not come from simply participating in sports. They will be influenced by the way students and their teachers, parents, and coaches who work with them work together. Physical activities that take place in environments that emphasise positive experiences, diversity, and everyone’s involvement and that are run by teachers and coaches who are committed and trained, as well as parents who are supportive and informed, can have a big impact on how these activities turn out and how likely they are to have positive effects.
... Moreover, older adults who frequently participated in leisure activities were more likely to be satisfied with their lives and less likely to be depressed than those who had little to no involvement in leisure activities (Dupuis, 2008;Heo, Ryu, Yang, & Kim, 2018;Kim, Chun, Heo, Lee, & Han, 2016). Particularly, adults who exercised at least twice a week reported lower levels of depression, stress, and anger than those who exercised less frequently (Hassmen, Koivula, & Uutela, 2000). Being involved in sports and games was also associated with higher levels of happiness than participating in other types of recreational activities (Menec, 2003). ...
... The current study suggests that opportunities should be provided for older adults to regularly engage in a variety of leisure activities to improve different health aspects. When planning community-based initiatives, activity professionals are encouraged to consider the essential role of regular exercise (e.g., at least twice a week) to enhance mental health (e.g., lower levels of depression, stress, and anger and increase levels of happiness) among older adults living in the community (Hassmen et al., 2000;Lee et al., 2021). Particularly, as the physical enthusiast in this study demonstrated, older adults frequently working in the garden and physical exercise may be able to enhance physical strength, which can potentially contribute to activities for daily living (ADL) and active life lived free of disability in later life (Reynolds et al., 2005). ...
Article
To promote health and healthy aging, it is important to develop supportive environments and specific opportunities for meaningful and valuable social engagement. The current study examined the differences of Body Mass Index (physical health indicator), perceived health, happiness, and depression (mental health indicators) according to the clusters of leisure participation patterns among older adults who were retired and living in the community. A sample of 1,134 participants aged 60 years and older was extracted from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study. The result of K-means cluster analysis revealed that there were three distinctive leisure participation patterns: the ardent achievers, the physical enthusiasts, and the easy contenders. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that the ardent achievers had the highest perceived mental health and happiness scores and the lowest depressive symptoms scores. Physical enthusiasts demonstrated the highest scores on ‘working in the garden’ and the lowest Body Mass Index of the three groups, which is one of the important indicators for physical health. Activity professionals may encourage older adults living in the community to work in the garden or other moderate to rigorous physical exercise, which may contribute to increased physical and mental health of older adults. Further practical implications are discussed.
... Well-being is significantly reduced by physical illnesses and disabilities (Schleicher et al., 2005;Hickson et al., 2008;Kashubeck-West and Meyer, 2008;Pusswald et al., 2012), but having a life purpose can be protective against cognitive impairment, neuropathology, the risk for stroke, and myocardial infarction (Rafanelli et al., 2012;Guidi et al., 2013). Well-being is also strongly associated with physical health and health behaviors such as weight and the associated perceived discrimination (Carr and Friedman, 2005), physical activity (Hassmén, Koivula and Uutela, 2000;Edwards, Edwards and Basson, 2004;Svensson et al., 2021), and sleep (Pilcher, Ginter and Sadowsky, 1997;Hamilton et al., 2007). Higher well-being predicts better biological regulation as measured by the stress hormone, cortisol, and inflammation levels, or cardiovascular risk (Lindfors and Lundberg, 2002;Hayney et al., 2003;Ryff, Singer and Dienberg Love, 2004). ...
... Wellbeing is now understood as a multidimensional and dynamic construct encompassing both views and other new essential components such as mental and physical health, autonomy, social relationships, spirituality, self-acceptance (Keyes and Waterman, 2003;Ryff and Singer, 2013). Well-being can be mediated by numerous factors such as demographics (Keyes and Waterman, 2003;Carstensen et al., 2011), genetic predisposition (Keyes et al., 2010, personality traits (Lucas and Diener, 2008), income (Luhmann et al., 2011), exercise (Hassmén et al., 2000;Svensson et al., 2021), mindfulness meditation practice (Carmody and Baer, 2008), or connectedness with nature (Howell et al., 2011;Russell et al., 2013). These factors also shape the structure and function of our brains throughout the lifespan, with important implications for wellbeing levels. ...
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Thesis
Over the last 30 years we have observed dramatic declines in mental health worldwide, with nearly 450 million people currently suffering from a mental or behavioral disorder. Globally, there is less than 1 mental health professional for every 10,000 people, with 76-85% of the population in low and middle-income countries without access to treatment. The overarching aim of this thesis is the identification of novel and cost-effective methods for measuring, detecting, and assessing well-being. In the first study of this research project, we validated the ability of a quick global scale to capture multidimensional well-being on 1,615 participants that participated in an online survey, identified some predictors of well-being, and observed improvements from online interventions. Mental health and individual well-being also influences the structure and function of our brains across the lifespan, which in turn, mediate well-being levels. While progress has been made regarding our understanding of the interacting relationships between well-being and brain function, much is still unknown. Recent technological advances have led to the development of affordable, light-weight, wearable, and wireless electroencephalography (EEG) technologies that offer fast preparation time, high mobility, and that facilitate the collection of EEG data over large and diversified populations by increasing access to populations that were previously difficult to study with conventional systems. The analysis of large datasets with robust statistical methods or advanced machine-learning algorithms can ease the identification of trends, the mediator role of covariables, and the classification of mental states. While low-cost, low-density EEG systems have presented significant challenges for conducting EEG research, here we validated a wearable system for recording spectral measures relevant to the study of well-being, by comparison with a state-of-the-art system (study 2). In study 3, we used the tools validated in studies 1 and 2 to examine the relation between EEG and multidimensional well-being in a large sample (N = 353). We found a potential EEG marker of well-being, consistent with some literature on anxiety and depression, with age as a mediator. We discuss interpretations and limitations related to the studies and the broader field, as well as future directions (e.g., real-world EEG monitoring, dyadic or multimodal applications, brain-computer interfaces, neurofeedback training) and ethical implications for the field. The broader applications of this line of research will hopefully help to reduce the prevalence of mental health disparities worldwide (e.g., chronic stress, anxiety disorder, depression, psychiatric conditions), and will also help to predict and prevent mental illness in the broader population.
... The positive and protective effects of physical activity (PA), such as enhanced physical health, psychological well-being, increased concentration, academic performance, and reduced feelings of depression and anxiety, have been well documented in earlier studies [1][2][3]. Physical education (PE) is taught as a subject in many countries around the world, but it also incorporates aspects of PA within the school context, because of the different indoor and outdoor activities students engage in during PE sessions. Indeed, Mooses and colleagues [4] found PE to significantly increase daily moderate to vigorous PA alongside reducing sedentary time among schoolchildren. ...
... In many schools, students' efforts in PE are captured in the grade they receive on the subject. Thus, higher grades in PE would indicate greater efforts and achievement in the physical activities engaged in, which in turn can lead to the promotion of outcomes related to health and development as indicated in earlier studies [1][2][3]. The present study seeks to determine whether this is the case in high school students in Norway. ...
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Article
Earlier research indicates that physical education (PE) in school is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., healthy lifestyle, psychological well-being, and academic performance). Research assessing associations with resilience and thriving indicators, such as the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD; competence, confidence, character, caring, and connection) is limited and more so in the Norwegian context. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between PE grade (reflecting students’ effort in theoretical and practical aspects of the subject) and the 5Cs as well as healthy behaviors (physical activity (PA), fruit and vegetable consumption), using cross-sectional data collected from 220 high school students in Norway (Mage = 17.30 years old, SD = 1.12; 52% males). Results from structural equation modelling indicated positive associations between PE grade and four of the 5Cs (competence, confidence, caring, and connection; standardized coefficient: 0.22–0.60, p < 0.05) while in logistic regressions, a unit increase in PE grade was associated with higher likelihood of engaging in PA and vegetable consumption (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.18–3.18 and OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.08–2.63, respectively). These significant findings suggest the need for policies and programs that can support effective planning and implementation of PE curriculum. However, further research is needed to probe into the role of PE on youth health and development with representative samples and longitudinal designs.
... Social motives behind practicing NW include an improved quality of life, better stress management as well as enhanced self-esteem and ability to function in the community [82,83]. PA provides participants with a sense of purposefulness, identity and belonging to a given social group [84,85]. ...
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Article
The aim of the study was to identify motives and barriers which have the greatest influence on participation in Nordic Walking (NW) of people with normal body weight and persons who are either overweight or obese (according to their BMI). In the study, the modified Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was used, which was designed to measure adult physical activity (PA) motivation. PALMS measures eight motives for participation in PA, on a 5-point Likert scale. The study was conducted during a NW competition and during training sessions of its participants. Two groups of respondents were taken into account: the first group with those with normal body weight and the second group with those who were overweight or obese. Respondents with normal body weight were more frequent participants of NW sessions. Enhanced body capacity, concern for one’s health, improved body shape and lifespan extension were major motives of practicing NW. Polish people perceive PA as a means of improving the quality of life due to enhanced health and wellbeing. Subjects with normal body weight tended to mention lack of areas suitable for NW and lack of time due to professional work. Overweight or obese persons pointed to other types of PA, shyness and lack of time.
... Many exercise groups share characteristics with choirs, including music exposure, coordinated movement, and social opportunities. Exercise groups have also been found to improve subjective wellbeing and quality of life in older populations (Rennemark et al., 2009), with participation in exercise correlated with reduced depressive symptoms (Lindwall et al., 2007), and overall psychological wellbeing and mood (Hassmen et al., 2000;McIntyre et al., 2020). Similar to choirs, exercise groups have also been found to increase a sense of social cohesion (Dunlop & Beauchamp, 2011;Tunçgenç & Cohen, 2016) and expression of pro-social behaviours (Di Bartolomeo & Papa, 2019). ...
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Article
Community choirs can contribute to health and wellbeing, but there is less clarity about the mechanisms through which choir participation promotes positive change, or whether mechanisms are shared with other leisure activities. This research explores two possible types of mechanism: Mechanisms relating to individual characteristics pertaining to mindset and motivation, including experiences of flow, competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Study 1); and mechanisms relating to the activity experience, which include music, movement, and social opportunities (Study 2). In Study 1, middle and older aged members of choirs, exercise groups and other kinds of social groups (N = 190) completed surveys on their experience of emotional wellbeing (operationalized as positive and negative affect scores), mental wellbeing, and social cohesion (outcomes) pertaining to their group activity as well as experiences of motivation, flow, and the components of Self-Determination Theory (potential mediators). Multiple regression analyses revealed that participation in Choir or Exercise groups predicted positive emotional wellbeing, but not social cohesion. Underlying mechanisms differed, with positive affect mediated by intrinsic motivation for choir members, and by intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and flow for Exercise group members. Mental wellbeing was correlated only with exercise group participation and was mediated by flow. Study 2 used an experience sampling methodology conducted with a sub-group from Study 1 (N = 59), which asked daily questions about wellbeing (happiness, sense of social connection, and energy levels) and participation in activities (music engagement, exercise, and social activities) experienced in their everyday lives and not directly associated with any leisure group participation. Repeated-measures t-tests revealed that participants were more likely to report higher levels of social connection on days in which they participated in music activities than on days in which they did not engage in music activities. Engaging in exercise or social activities was also associated with a greater sense of social connection, as well as higher levels of happiness and energy. In sum, the activity characteristics and individual differences of motivation and mindset towards participation correlated with greater wellbeing, reflecting an ecological model of person-activity fit, with no indication of superior benefits associated with group singing. Findings are discussed in terms of social prescribing and other settings where social opportunities are organized.
... The sample size was coded as a continuous moderator to determine the influence of sample size on the intervention effects. The proportion of males in the sample was coded, since there are some indications of gender difference in physical activity and aggressive behaviour (Hassmén et al., 2000). Participants' age was coded as a continuous moderator to determine the intervention effects in different age groups. ...
Article
Background Aggressive behaviour is a substantial behavioural problem in children and adolescents. This review systematically summarises the current evidence on the relationship between physical activity participation and aggressive behaviour and quantifies the effects of physical activity interventions on aggression in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were identified through a search of five electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Web of Science) with combinations of three groups of keywords. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted data from the individual studies. The reporting quality and publication bias were assessed. The relationship between physical activity participation and aggressive behaviour was systematically summarized. Data (effect sizes) were pooled to investigate the effects of physical activity interventions on aggressive behaviour. A moderator meta-analysis was performed to identify potential moderators of the effects of physical activity interventions on aggressive behaviour. Results Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The relationship between physical activity participation and aggressive behaviour was mixed. A significant reduction in aggressive behaviour was observed after physical activity interventions (k = 8, SMD = −0.53, 95% CI [-0.27, −0.79], p < 0.001). The moderator meta-analysis showed that physical activity interventions involving team-based physical activity had greater effects than those involving individual-based physical activity (β = 0.42, SE = 0.18, p = 0.02). In addition, interventions involving physical activity alone were more effective in reducing aggressive behaviour than those that combined physical activity with other activities such as a philosophy course (β = −0.63, SE = 0.11, p < 0.001). Conclusion The current meta-analysis presents evidence for the effect of physical activity interventions on aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. Physical activity–only interventions involving team-based physical activity might be used for preventing or reducing aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. Possible mechanisms, methodological strengths and weaknesses, implications, and suggestions for future studies were discussed.
... The older the emotional age will be more controlled and more able to accept physical limitations than younger people (9,10). This is because older people's demands and expectations are lower than younger patients, and the older patient's age affects nurses in providing services (11,12). ...
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Article
Patient satisfaction is a measure of service quality in hospitals. Satisfaction can be influenced by various aspects, one of which is patient characteristics. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship between the Characteristics of Class 3 Inpatients and Service Satisfaction at Mokopido General Hospital, Baolan, Tolitoli Regency. This type of quantitative research with a Cross-Sectional approach. The population in this study amounted to 1,178 patients; a sample of 93 patients was obtained using the slovin formula, while sampling was using the Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling technique. The analysis used was the Contingency Correlation with a value of =10%. The results of this study indicated a strong relationship between patient characteristics in the form of last education (p = 0.000) and age (p = 0.000) with service satisfaction. There is a strong relationship between age group, education and service satisfaction at Mokopido General Hospital, Baolan, Tolitoli Regency. Older respondents are more satisfied with their services. Respondents who are not educated are more satisfied with the services received. Suggestions for the empathy dimension are expected that the doctor or nurse will be able to be polite, and friendly, listen to complaints about the patient's illness, and provide a way out in the consultation so that the patient is satisfied with the service
... Anger and depression are other negative emotions that were tested to be decreased after regular exercise. ( Hassmén et al., 2000). Moreover, from a cross-sectional study in America, scientists found out that popular team sports improve mental health better than other kinds of sports. ...
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Article
Middle school students are often affected by negative emotions, which significantly harm their physical and mental health. Physical exercise may be an effective form of relief. This study discusses the alleviating effect of basketball training on high school students' bad emotions. This study recruited 62 high school students and divided them into 2 groups. The control group didn’t do any basketball-related training, and the basketball training group did regular basketball training. We gather the statistics by sending out questionnaires about whether they are training or not and their anxiety score. The statistical results show that the anxiety level of the exercise group was significantly lower than that of the control group. This showed that basketball training is an effective way to relieve the bad emotions of high school students.
... The third factor is the frequency at which the patient is expected to perform the exercises. The frequency of exercise is inversely associated with depression symptoms and overall well-being [38,108]. High-frequency (3 to 5 exercise sessions per week) aerobic exercise interventions for 8 weeks have been shown to be more effective in reducing symptoms of depression than low-frequency interventions (one session per week) [109]. ...
Article
Depression is a major public health issue in numerous countries, with around 300 million people worldwide suffering from it. Typically, depressed patients are treated with antidepressants or psychological therapy or a combination of both. However, there are some limitations associated with these therapies and as a result, over the past decades a number of alternative or complementary therapies have been developed. Exercise is one such option that is supported by published extensive basic and clinical research data. The aim of this review was to examine the beneficial effects of exercise in depression. Physical activity and exercise have been shown to be effective in treating mild-to-moderate depression and in reducing mortality and symptoms of major depression. However, physical activity and exercise are still underused in clinical practice. This review attempts to propose a framework to help clinicians in their decision-making process, how to incorporate physical activity in their toolkit of potential therapeutic responses for depressed patients. We first summarize the interactions between depression and physical activities, with a particular focus on the potential antidepressant physiological effects of physical activity. We then identify some of the barriers blocking physical activity from being used to fight depression. Finally, we present several perspectives and ideas that can help in optimizing mitigation strategies to challenge these barriers, including actions on physical activity representations, ways to increase the accessibility of physical activity, and the potential of technology to help both clinicians and patients.
... In line with our findings, previous work has demonstrated that exercise leads to decreased anxiety symptoms for individuals with anxiety disorders as well as healthy individuals (Mochcovitch et al., 2016;Stubbs et al., 2017). Additionally, the association between number of workouts or fitness gains and reduction in rumination, general negative affect, sadness, and hostility is consistent with previous findings indicating that increased exercise reduces the risk of depression (Hassmén et al., 2000;Mammen and Faulkner, 2013). Importantly, our work and others have shown that exercise engagement may reduce negative mood state even in the absence of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (Olson et al., 2017). ...
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Article
Regular physical exercise can decrease the risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, increase life expectancy, and promote psychological health and neurocognitive functioning. Cross-sectional studies show that cardiorespiratory fitness level (VO2 max) is associated with enhanced brain health, including improved mood state and heightened cognitive performance. Interventional studies are consistent with these cross-sectional studies, but most have focused on low-fit populations. Few such studies have asked if increasing levels of physical activity in moderately fit people can significantly enhance mood, motivation, and cognition. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of increasing aerobic exercise in moderately fit individuals on psychological state and cognitive performance. We randomly assigned moderately fit healthy adults, 25–59 years of age, who were engaged in one or two aerobic exercise sessions per week to either maintain their exercise regimen (n = 41) or increase their exercise regimen (i.e., 4–7 aerobic workouts per week; n = 39) for a duration of 3 months. Both before and after the intervention, we assessed aerobic capacity using a modified cardiorespiratory fitness test, and hippocampal functioning via various neuropsychological assessments including a spatial navigation task and the Mnemonic Similarity Task as well as self-reported measures including the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, Rumination Scale, Eating Disorders Examination, Eating Attitudes Test, Body Attitudes Test, and Behavioral Regulation of Exercise Questionnaire. Consistent with our initial working hypotheses, we found that increasing exercise significantly decreased measures of negative affect, including fear, sadness, guilt, and hostility, as well as improved body image. Further, we found that the total number of workouts was significantly associated with improved spatial navigation abilities and body image as well as reduced anxiety, general negative affect, fear, sadness, hostility, rumination, and disordered eating. In addition, increases in fitness levels were significantly associated with improved episodic memory and exercise motivation as well as decreased stress and disordered eating. Our findings are some of the first to indicate that in middle-aged moderately-fit adults, continuing to increase exercise levels in an already ongoing fitness regimen is associated with additional benefits for both psychological and cognitive health.
... In addition to demographic, socioeconomic and personality factors, factors such as lifestyle (Witmer, Sweeney, & Myers, 1993), social support (Masini & Barrett, 2008), physical exercise (Hassmen, Koivula, & Uutela, 2000), and Internet on social involvement (Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukophadhyay, & Scherlis, 1998) seem to be associated with psychological well-being. The current study focused on the predictive utility of lifestyle, social support and demographic variables (gender, marital status) in psychological well-being. ...
... oms. And, also protects an individuals from the unsafe outcomes of stress (Salmon, 2001).It was described that when physical workout was performed during leisure time in adequate amount drops the stress (Aldana et. al., 1996). Likewise, Schnohr et. al. (2005) identified that stress get reduced as the amount of exercise gets increased. Furthermore, Hassmén et. al. (2000), founded that involvement in exercise for 2 or 3 times in a week have been showed a lowers level of stress than non-involved individuals.Moreover, (Atlantis et. al., 2004) conducted a pre-post design study and concluded that indulging in aerobic exercise and weight-training for 24 weeks provides the noteworthy alterations in the amount ...
Article
Anxiety, depression, and stress are the most common psychological concerns among the population of society. The desirable changes in mental health are obtained through therapeutic diagnosis i.e., physical exercise practice and physical activity participation which are having a great potential as a prevention and treatment for these psychological issues. The purpose of the study was to systematically review the evidences for the effect of an exercise program on psychological variables i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress. For this purpose 198 research articles were reviewed from the available resources i.e. Research Gate, Pub Med, Google Scholar, Springer, Scopus, Web of Science and sample of 38 research articles were selected for the study as per the inclusion criteria. This study was given an idea that exercise interventions were beneficial in reducing the anxiety, depression, and stress. Further, research literature evidently reported that exercise in detention environments improves mental health. Findings of the study were concluded that low to high intensive exercise practices, physical activities and participation in recreational games brought the significant improvement in psychological variables i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress respectively in place of the alternative of drugs and other clinical treatment methods.
... PA has been shown to help with weight control, offset anxiety and depression symptoms, and improve sleep [11]. Those engaged in regular PA can maintain weight and exhibit improved mental health outcomes such lower rates of depression, anxiety, anger, and stress compared to those who are physically inactive [12][13][14]. A single bout of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity improves anxiety and depression symptoms [11,15], decreases blood pressure [11,16], and improves sleep [11,17] on the day it is performed. ...
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Article
Background Most women incarcerated in jail are not physically active and do not attend recreation time (rec-time), a time dedicated to being physically active, outside. The purpose of this study was to determine barriers and facilitators to attending and being physically active during rec-time among women incarcerated in jail. Methods We recruited and distributed a cross-sectional questionnaire to 100 women incarcerated at the Coconino County Detention Facility (CCDF) in Flagstaff, Arizona from March to July 2020. Women were asked about their experience with rec-time at CCDF, including if they had ever attended, how often they attended, if they exercised at rec-time, activities they participated in, and facilitators, barriers, and benefits to attend rec-time. Results Among 99 women who completed the questionnaire, 89% had ever attended rec-time. Most women identified environmental- and health-related facilitators to attending rec-time including enjoying natural light (74%), getting fresh air (83%), a change in environment (62%), and to move around and exercise (72%). Many women indicated environmental-, equipment-, clothing, and motivation-related barriers to attending rec-time. Specifically, women believed there was a lack of equipment (56%) and limited access to proper footwear (49%). Conclusions As health and environment are important facilitators and barriers to being physically active among women incarcerated in jail, it is important to identify appropriate environmental and policy interventions to increase the use of rec-time and physical activity. If a correctional facility does not offer rec-time or a similar alternative, one should be established, accessible, and welcoming.
... In addition to the physical benefits of exercise, Csikszentmihalyi (77) proposed the idea of "flow experience, " which means that when the participant concentrates on the activity, it will produce a subjective and temporary experience of multiple feelings such as oblivion, smoothness, and joy (78)(79)(80). Therefore, exercise can reduce depression, anxiety, and anger, and improve mood (81). From the physiological perspective, neurobiological and neuropsychological studies found that Internet addiction leads to neurostructural changes that reduce the activity of the dopaminergic system and limit neurocognitive function, whereas regular exercise can reduce SMA by moderating the central and autonomic nervous systems (29). ...
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The popularity of online social media in recent years has not only brought information and social convenience to people's lives, but has also given rise to many problems, among which social media addiction (SMA) has become a concern of many scholars and experts. Past research has shown that regular exercise (REx) can have many health benefits for the body, so numerous scholars and experts believe that this may be one possible strategy for reducing the health effects of online community addiction and Internet use (IU). Therefore, this study adopted a secondary data research approach to explore and predict the effect of age on social media use and personal health, and therefore included age as a control variable to investigate whether the intervention of REx, excluding the effect of age, moderates the effect of SMA on IU and on perceived health (PH). The participants of this study were adults aged 18 years or older in Taiwan, using the 2019 “Survey Research Data Archive,” Vol. 7, No. 5 data. A total of 1,933 questionnaires were retrieved, and after elimination of invalid responses, 1,163 data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, PLS-SEM. The results were as follows: (1) SMA positively affected IU, (2) SMA could negatively affect PH, (3) there was no statistical effect of IU on PH, (4) SMA did not indirectly affect PH through IU, (5) REx had a moderating effect on SMA and IU, and (6) REx did not regulate the effect of SMA on PH. First, from these results, it is clear that the negative health effects of SMA may not be simply due to prolonged IU. Secondly, while it is true that the moderating effect for people with low levels of SMA can reduce IU, for people with high levels of SMA, the moderating effect of REx becomes a catalyst for increased Internet usage behavior. Finally, we draw conclusions based on the results of the study and propose directions and recommendations for follow-up research.
... (11) Those engaged in regular PA can maintain weight and exhibit improved mental health outcomes such lower rates of depression, anxiety, anger, and stress compared to those who are physically inactive. (12)(13)(14) A single bout of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity improves anxiety and depression symptoms, (11,15) decreases blood pressure, (11,16) and improves sleep (11,17) on the day it is performed and improve when an individual engages in regular physical activity. (11) Other bene ts, such as substance abuse treatment success,(18) having a sense of control and achievement, and stress reduction may be of particular importance to individuals incarcerated. ...
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Background: Most women incarcerated in jail are not physically active and do not attend recreation time (rec-time), a time dedicated to being physically active, outside. The purpose of this study was to determine barriers and facilitators to attending and being physically active during rec-time among women incarcerated in jail. Methods: We recruited and distributed a cross-sectional questionnaire to 100 women incarcerated at the Coconino County Detention Facility (CCDF) in Flagstaff, Arizona from March to July 2020. Women were asked about their experience with rec-time at CCDF, including if they had ever attended, how often they attended, if they exercised at rec-time, activities they participated in, and motivators, barriers, and benefits to attend rec-time. Results: Among 99 women who completed the questionnaire, 89% had ever attended rec-time. Most women identified environmental- and health-related motivators to attending rec-time including enjoying natural light (74%), getting fresh air (83%), a change in environment (62%), and to move around and exercise (72%). Many women indicated environmental-, equipment-, clothing, and motivation-related barriers to attending rec-time. Specifically, women believed there was a lack of equipment (56%) and limited access to proper footwear (49%). Conclusions: As health and environment are important motivators and barriers to being physically active among women incarcerated in jail, it is important to identify appropriate environmental and policy interventions to increase the use of rec-time and physical activity. If a correctional facility does not offer rec-time or a similar alternative, one should be established, accessible, and welcoming.
... Previous studies found that individuals who report higher levels of physical activity have lower levels of stress and depression. Therefore, there may be an indirect association between the two mental health indicators and unhealthy food consumption (Norris et al., 1992;Hassmén et al., 2000). Unhealthy food consumption could be affected more by variables not included in this study, which should be investigated in future studies. ...
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Background This study assessed whether perceived stress and depressive symptoms were associated with the frequency of consumption of specific food groups among female university students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among female university students using a simple random sampling method. The response rate was 97%, with a total number of 385 participants. The associations between stress levels and most/least-consumed food groups, and between depressive symptoms levels and most/least-consumed food groups were assessed. The questionnaire included a 12-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The study was approved by the University Ethical Committee prior to the data collection. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and an independent-sample t -test were performed to test the equality of population means across the categories of each independent variable depending on the number of categories of the independent variable. Results Overall, this group of female university students fell under the mild mood disturbance category (depressive symptoms) (BDI-II) and had moderate perceived stress (PSS). Perceived stress was associated with more frequent consumption of salad/raw vegetables and cooked vegetables and less frequent consumption of cake/cookies and meat/sausage products ( p < 0.05). Additionally, depressive symptoms were associated with less frequent consumption of fresh fruits and increased consumption of fast food/canned food and soft drinks ( p < 0.05). Conclusions The data showed that stress and depression were associated with different dietary preferences, which is consistent with the distinctions between stress and depression in human behavior. Specifically, the results revealed associations between soft drinks consumption and higher depressive symptoms and between frequent consumption of salad/raw vegetables and cooked vegetables and higher perceived stress among this group of female university students.
... Well-being has consistently been shown to be associated with higher levels of physical exercise (Hassmén et al., 2000;McAuley et al., 2007;Zubala et al., 2017;Mandolesi et al., 2018). However, several open questions remain regarding this association, including the directionality of effects, as well as whether the effects occur at specific doses of exercise. ...
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The beneficial effects of physical exercise on physical health and cognitive functioning have been repeatedly shown. However, evidence of its effect on psychosocial functioning in healthy adults is still scarce or inconclusive. One limitation of many studies examining this link is their reliance on correlational approaches or specific subpopulations, such as clinical populations. The present study investigated the effects of a physical exercise intervention on key factors of psychosocial functioning, specifically well-being, stress, loneliness, and future time perspective. We used data from healthy, previously sedentary older adults (N = 132) who participated in a 6-month at-home intervention, either engaging in aerobic exercise or as part of a control group who participated in foreign language-learning or reading of selected native-language literature. Before and after the intervention, comprehensive cardiovascular pulmonary testing and a psychosocial questionnaire were administered. The exercise group showed significantly increased fitness compared to the control group. Contrary to expectations, however, we did not find evidence for a beneficial effect of this fitness improvement on any of the four domains of psychosocial functioning we assessed. This may be due to pronounced stability of such psychological traits in older age, especially in older adults who show high levels of well-being initially. Alternatively, it may be that the well-documented beneficial effects of physical exercise on brain structure and function, as well as cognition differ markedly from beneficial effects on psychosocial functioning. While aerobic exercise may be the driving factor for the former, positive effects on the latter may only be invoked by other aspects of exercise, for example, experiences of mastery or a feeling of community.
... These behaviors include exercise, eating, sleep, and drug use. Individuals who exercise regularly are less depressed, angry, and stressed; more trusting; and perceive their health to be better compared to people who do not exercise regularly [18,19]. Exercise includes aerobics, weight training, Tai Chi, yoga, and group activities that reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, increase self-esteem, and reduce social isolation [20][21][22][23]. ...
... Several reports have suggested that engagement in sports positively influences mental health. Habitual exercise (at least a few times a week) has been found to alleviate depression and anxiety, foster the Sense of Coherence (which is closely associated with stress coping), and improve self-esteem and cognitive functions (44). The benefits of sports on cognitive function have been reported in meta-analyses (45,46); for example, an intermediate level of aero bike pedalling contributes to the improvement of memory function (47). ...
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In this review, the underlying mechanisms of health benefits and the risk of habitual behaviours such as internet use and media multitasking were explored, considering their associations with the reward/motivation system. The review highlights that several routines that are beneficial when undertaken normally may evolve into excessive behaviour and have a negative impact, as represented by “the inverted U-curve model”. This is especially critical in the current era, where technology like the internet has become mainstream despite the enormous addictive risk. The understanding of underlying mechanisms of behavioural addiction and optimal level of habitual behaviours for mental health benefits are deepened by shedding light on some findings of neuroimaging studies to have hints to facilitate better management and prevention strategies of addictive problems. With the evolution of the world, and the inevitable use of some technologies that carry the risk of addiction, more effective strategies for preventing and managing addiction are in more demand than before, and the insights of this study are also valuable foundations for future research.
... Central to the argument presented herein is the idea that physical exercise has a positive effect on well-being. Research exploring this relationship has received much attention over the years, consistently showing that physical activity positively impacts health and well-being (Colcombe and Kramer 2003;Hassmén, Koivula, and Uutela 2000;Ratey and Loehr 2011;Scully et al. 1998). Studies have shown that physical activity helps with a variety of disorders such as anxiety (Stubbs et al. 2017), stress (Gerber and Pühse 2009;Wyss et al. 2016), and stress-related disease (Gerber and Pühse 2009;Silverman and Deuster 2014). ...
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Mental health issues are increasingly prevalent worldwide, emphasizing the need to research antecedents and consequences of well-being. Prior research shows that within organizations, higher levels of subjective well-being (SWB) promote productivity performance. Building on this research, the authors hypothesize that recreational dance positively influences productivity through higher SWB. Survey data from Brazil, Italy, and the United Kingdom reveal that recreational dancers are more productive than non-dancers due to their higher intrinsic motivation and SWB. Dancing has an additional direct effect on productivity, beyond the mediating role of SWB. The results indicate well-being and productivity improvements in all three countries, although they show a moderating effect such that the relationship between recreational dance and SWB is stronger when social norms are perceived to be looser. This study indicates potentially far-reaching benefits that could be achieved by including recreational dance in corporate well-being programs. International dance organizations could market dance classes as a pathway to increase productivity at work and explore synergies with public health marketing to promote the benefits of recreational dance in joint international campaigns.
... When the relevant literature is examined, it is seen that psychological well-being is associated with several variables. According to studies, psychological well-being is associated with variables such as marriage (Kim & McKenry, 2002), social support (Lincoln, 2000;Turner, 1981), physical exercise (Hassmen, Koivula, & Uutela, 2000), internet use (Chen & Persson, 2002) and internet addiction (Çardak, 2013). Although psychological well-being has been studied with issues such as internet use and internet addiction, few studies are examining the relationship between social media addiction and psychological well-being. ...
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Article
This study aimed to determine the relationships between social appearance anxiety, automatic thoughts, psychological well-being and social media addiction and the predictive power of these variables on social media addiction. The sample of the study consists of 440 associate degrees, undergraduate and postgraduate students studying in various universities in Turkey. Demographic Information Form, Social Media Addiction Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale and Psychological Well-being Scale were used as data collection tools in the study. Independent group t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression analysis methods were used for the analysis of the obtained data. As a result of the analysis, it was found that there was a positive correlation between social appearance anxiety, automatic thoughts and social media addiction and a negative correlation between social media addiction and psychological well-being. According to the analysis, it was concluded that automatic thoughts and social appearance anxiety significantly predicted social media addiction, while psychological well-being did not significantly contribute to the model. Findings were discussed in light of the relevant literature.
... The other scales were angry temperament (4-item from trait scale), angry reaction (4-item from trait scale), anger-in (8-item), anger-out (8-item), anger-control (8-item), and anger expression (anger in + anger-out -anger-control). For our purpose, we used the state and trait scales (Azevedo et al., 2010;Hassmén et al., 2000). ...
Article
To evaluate the heart rate response, emotion and changes in anxiety and anger levels after exposure to unpleasant pictures from the International Assessment Pictures System (IAPS) compared with neutral picture exposure in healthy individuals. Forty participants (23 women) visited the laboratory on two occasions. State anger and state anxiety levels were evaluated pre- and post-visualization of a set of IAPS pictures and heart rate was monitored during exposure. Two different picture sets were utilized—one with neutral pictures (that served as the control) and the other with unpleasant pictures. State anxiety and state anger were higher in post-unpleasant session for women than before (p < 0.001). For men, only state anxiety was higher in the post-unpleasant session (p < 0.001). State anxiety (p = 0.004) and state anger (p < 0.001) post-unpleasant session was higher for women than in men. The pleasure and dominance domains were lower in the unpleasant session for both men and women (p < 0.001), and the arousal domain was higher for both men and women (p < 0.001) than in the neutral session. In the unpleasant session, arousal was higher (p = 0.004), and dominance was lower (p < 0.001) among women than among men, but no difference in pleasure was found (p > 0.05). For women, average heart rate was higher on unpleasant session, compared to neutral (p = 0.01), but not for men (p > 0.05). Women are more sensitive and react strongly to unpleasant picture exposure. The IAPS unpleasant session was not able to induce anger levels in men.
... The other scales were angry temperament (4-item from trait scale), angry reaction (4-item from trait scale), anger-in (8-item), anger-out (8-item), anger-control (8-item), and anger expression (anger in + anger-out -anger-control). For our purpose, we used the state and trait scales (Azevedo et al., 2010;Hassmén et al., 2000). ...
Full-text available
Article
To evaluate the heart rate response, emotion and changes in anxiety and anger levels after exposure to unpleasant pictures from the International Assessment Pictures System (IAPS) compared with neutral picture exposure in healthy individuals. Forty participants (23 women) visited the laboratory on two occasions. State anger and state anxiety levels were evaluated pre-and post-visualization of a set of IAPS pictures and heart rate was monitored during exposure. Two different picture sets were utilized-one with neutral pictures (that served as the control) and the other with unpleasant pictures. State anxiety and state anger were higher in post-unpleasant session for women than before (p < 0.001). For men, only state anxiety was higher in the post-unpleasant session (p < 0.001). State anxiety (p = 0.004) and state anger (p < 0.001) post-unpleasant session was higher for women than in men. The pleasure and dominance domains were lower in the unpleasant session for both men and women (p < 0.001), and the arousal domain was higher for both men and women (p < 0.001) than in the neutral session. In the unpleasant session, arousal was higher (p = 0.004), and dominance was lower (p < 0.001) among women than among men, but no difference in pleasure was found (p > 0.05). For women, average heart rate was higher on unpleasant session, compared to neutral (p = 0.01), but not for men (p > 0.05). Women are more sensitive and react strongly to unpleasant picture exposure. The IAPS unpleasant session was not able to induce anger levels in men.
... Doherty & Brennan (203) claim PE is a unique subject within the primary curriculum and lives of children for several reasons: it fosters various physical skills, develops self-esteem and is associated with good psychological health (Sallis et al., 997;Fox, 2000;Hassmen et al., 2000). Furthermore, sport is inherently competitive unlike other subjects -Aggerholm et al. (208) question the suitability of competition in curriculum PE -and, as discussed, pupils can have mixed mindsets in various disciplines (Frith & Sykes,206). ...
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Article
Growth mindset continues to be a popular topic of conversation in the field of education and Physical Education (PE). However, despite the existence of various schemes for delivering curriculum PE, there are limited studies analysing how they seek to directly develop children’s mindsets. This study analyses the process taken for one of these frameworks, Real PE, to be implemented within a school to develop their growth mindset culture, drawing upon the theories of key educational thinkers. The study is based upon the authors’ experiences as PE Subject Leader and member of the school Senior Leadership Team (SLT) within a single-form entry primary school in Leicestershire, United Kingdom; testimonials from other schools who utilise Real PE and existing literature on the effectiveness of growth mindset. Implementing a growth mindset culture is not straightforward; although important, it is not solely about intelligence and praising effort, nor a battle of fixed versus growth mindsets as within PE, mixed mindsets exist, and, the fixed mindset should be legitimised. Therefore, a long-term, rigorous approach to change considering policies, individual beliefs, training needs, strategies and feedback methods needs to be developed. This study adds to the growing conversation about growth mindset and seeks to support other school settings considering embedding mindset culture within their school setting and PE provision.
... Wellbeing is now understood as a multidimensional and dynamic construct encompassing both views and other new essential components such as mental and physical health, autonomy, social relationships, spirituality, self-acceptance (Keyes and Waterman, 2003;Ryff and Singer, 2013). Well-being can be mediated by numerous factors such as demographics (Keyes and Waterman, 2003;Carstensen et al., 2011), genetic predisposition (Keyes et al., 2010), personality traits (Lucas and Diener, 2008), income (Luhmann et al., 2011), exercise (Hassmén et al., 2000;Svensson et al., 2021), mindfulness meditation practice (Carmody and Baer, 2008), or connectedness with nature (Howell et al., 2011;Russell et al., 2013). These factors also shape the structure and function of our brains throughout the lifespan, with important implications for wellbeing levels. ...
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Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha asymmetry is thought to reflect crucial brain processes underlying executive control, motivation, and affect. It has been widely used in psychopathology and, more recently, in novel neuromodulation studies. However, inconsistencies remain in the field due to the lack of consensus in methodological approaches employed and the recurrent use of small samples. Wearable technologies ease the collection of large and diversified EEG datasets that better reflect the general population, allow longitudinal monitoring of individuals, and facilitate real-world experience sampling. We tested the feasibility of using a low-cost wearable headset to collect a relatively large EEG database (N = 230, 22–80 years old, 64.3% female), and an open-source automatic method to preprocess it. We then examined associations between well-being levels and the alpha center of gravity (CoG) as well as trait EEG asymmetries, in the frontal and temporoparietal (TP) areas. Robust linear regression models did not reveal an association between well-being and alpha (8–13 Hz) asymmetry in the frontal regions, nor with the CoG. However, well-being was associated with alpha asymmetry in the TP areas (i.e., corresponding to relatively less left than right TP cortical activity as well-being levels increased). This effect was driven by oscillatory activity in lower alpha frequencies (8–10.5 Hz), reinforcing the importance of dissociating sub-components of the alpha band when investigating alpha asymmetries. Age was correlated with both well-being and alpha asymmetry scores, but gender was not. Finally, EEG asymmetries in the other frequency bands were not associated with well-being, supporting the specific role of alpha asymmetries with the brain mechanisms underlying well-being levels. Interpretations, limitations, and recommendations for future studies are discussed. This paper presents novel methodological, experimental, and theoretical findings that help advance human neurophysiological monitoring techniques using wearable neurotechnologies and increase the feasibility of their implementation into real-world applications.
... Bu araştırmalar özellikle çocukların saygınlık görmesine ve öz-davranışları üzerinde fiziksel aktivitenin olumlu etkisi olduğunu göstermektedir (Fox, 2000). Diğer psikolojik faydaları stres, kaygı ve depresyonun azalmasıdır (Hassmen, Koivula ve Uutela, 2000). Bunların tümü, iyi bir şekilde planlanarak sunulan BES derslerinin çocuklarda ve gençlerde psikolojik sağlığın iyileştirilmesine katkıda bulunacağını desteklemektedir. ...
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Chapter
Üniversiteler her toplumda önemli eğitim merkezlerinden biridir ve öğrenciler üniversitelerde kilit bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu çalışma ile üniversitelerde derslere devam zorunluluğu olan öğrencilerin Covid-19 korku ve stres düzeylerinin tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma, betimsel bir araştırmadır. Araştırmaya 2020-2021 bahar döneminde Akdeniz bölgesindeki üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi Spor Yüksek Okulu ve Spor Bilimleri Fakültelerinde ders devam zorunluluğu olan 204 öğrenci katılmıştır. Veri toplama yöntemi olarak online anket yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Katılımcılara 01-31 Mart 2021 tarihlerinde ulaşılmış ve anketler elektronik ortamda toplanmıştır. Çalışmamızda, İki ölçek (Covid-19 Korkusu ölçeği ve Algılanan Stres Ölçeği) kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada verilerin analizinde betimsel istatistikler ve korelasyon analizleri kullanılmıştır. Analizler öncesinde verilerin normal dağılma durumları çarpıklık ve basıklık (+1.0, -1.0) aralığındaki değerlerine göre incelenmiş ve verilerin normal dağılmadığı belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin Covid-19 korkusuna yönelik algı düzeylerinin korku toplam alt boyutunda düşük, Yetersiz Özerklik algısı ve Stres Rahatsızlık algısı orta düzeyde olduğu söylenebilir. Öğrencilerin korelasyon sonucunda korku düzeyleri ile stres rahatsızlık kaygısı (.r=.285, p<.000) arasında pozitif yönde düşük düzeyde bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Bu durumu ders devam zorunluluğu olan öğrencilerin, Covid-19 korkusu ve algıladıkları stres düzeylerinin orta düzeyde olduğu ve öğrencilerin bu süreçten çok etkilenmedikleri söylenebilir.
... Sosyal ortamların kurulmasında ise sporun bir yapı ustalığına sahip olduğu da bir gerçektir. Literatürde, spor ve fiziksel aktivitelerin bireylerin yaşantısına ve psikolojik sağlığına kattığı pozitif değerlere yönelik birçok çalışma yer almaktadır [11][12][13][14][15][16] . Stres duygusu ve buna bağlı davranış örüntüsünün yaşantımıza pozitif bir şekilde yansıması için stresin kontrol altına alınması gerekir. ...
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Bu çalışma ile bireysel spor branşlarında ve takım sporlarında görev yapan antrenörlerin öz yeterlik ve stresle başa çıkma tarzlarındaki değişimin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma evrenini Türkiye’deki bireysel sporlar ile takım sporları antrenörleri oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem grubunu ise İstanbul, Ankara, Antalya, İzmir, Denizli, Kocaeli ve Konya illerinde aktif olarak görev yapan 216 bireysel spor antrenörü, 246 takım sporu antrenörü olmak üzere toplamda 462 antrenör oluşturmaktadır. Öz yeterliliğin tespitinde Riggs ve ark., (1994) tarafından geliştirilen, Türkçe’ye uyarlaması Öcel, (2002) tarafından yapılan Öz Yeterlik Ölçeği, stresle başa çıkmanın belirlenmesinde ise Lazarus ve Folkman (1980) tarafından geliştirilen, Türkçe’ye uyarlaması Şahin ve Durak, (1995) tarafından yapılan Stresle Başa Çıkma Tarzları Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verilerinin varyans ve homojenliği kontrol edilmiş, independent samples t testi, One-Way Anova-Tukey testlerinin yanı sıra, ilişkisel model kapsamında korelâsyon yönetimine başvurulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, antrenörlerin stresle başa çıkma tarzlarında cinsiyet ve yaş faktörlerine bağlı olarak anlamlı değişimler söz konusu değilken, stresle başa çıkma tarzlarından kendine güvenli yaklaşım boyutunda takım sporu antrenörlerinin, bireysel spor antrenörlerine nazaran anlamlı bir şekilde daha pozitif davranışlar sergiledikleri bulgulanmıştır. Antrenörlerin öz yeterlik değerlerinde cinsiyet ve yaş faktörlerine bağlı olarak anlamlı değişimler gözlenmemişken, bireysel spor antrenörlerinin öz yeterliklilik değerlerinin, takım sporu antrenörlerine göre istatistikî anlamda daha yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bulgular ışığında takım sporu antrenörlerinin, bireysel spor antrenörlerine nazaran daha fazla kendilerine güvendikleri, bireysel spor antrenörlerinin ise takım sporları antrenörlerinden daha yüksek öz yeterliğe sahip oldukları söylenilebilir. İlişkisel model kapsamında ise öz yeterlik ile stresle başa çıkma tarzları kendine güvenli yaklaşım boyutu arasında negatif yönlü ve güçlü, iyimser yaklaşım ile negatif yönlü ve orta düzeyli, çaresiz yaklaşım ile pozitif yönlü ve yüksek düzeyli, boyun eğici yaklaşım ile pozitif yönlü ve orta düzeyli, sosyal desteğe başvurma ile negatif yönlü ve düşük düzeyli bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir
... Sporda Sorumluluklara Bağlılık (Madde 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). Rakibe Saygı (Madde 16,17,18,19,20). Cronbach Alpha değerleri; Faktör 1 (Sosyal Normlara Uyum) 0,86; Faktör 2 (Kurallara ve Yönetime Saygı) 0,83; Faktör 3 (Sporda Sorumluluklara Bağlılık) 0,91; Faktör 4 (Rakibe Saygı) 0,82"dir. ...
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Araştırmanın amacı atletizmin stres, atılganlık ve sportmenlik düzeyleriyle ilişkisini incelemektir. Araştırmanın modeli için tarama modeli seçilmiştir. Çalışmanın evrenini Türkiye’nin çeşitli şehirlerinde yaşayan 17-34 yaş arasındaki bireyler; örneklemini ise rastgele örneklem yöntemiyle seçilmiş 1254 kişi oluşturmuştur. Katılımcılara “Kişisel Bilgi Formu”, “Algılanan Stres Ölçeği”, “Rathus Atılganlık Envanteri” ve “Çok Boyutlu Sportmenlik Yönelimi Ölçeği” uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin analizinde SPSS programı kullanılmıştır. Normallik testleri sonucunda veriler normal dağılım göstermediğinden Spearman Rank Korelasyon Testi, Mann Whitney-U Testi ve Kruskal Wallis Testi ve Bonferroni Testi uygulanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde ayrıca frekans, yüzde, minimum, maksimum, ortalama ve standart sapma değerleri kullanılmıştır. Anlamlılık düzeyi ise p<0,05 olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları katılımcıların olumlu stres düzeyine sahip olduklarını ve stresle etkili şekilde baş edebildiklerini; orta derecede çekingen olduklarını ve yüksek düzeyde sportmen davranışlar sergilediklerini göstermiştir. Algılanan stres ile atılganlık ve sportmenlik arasında negatif; atılganlık ve sportmenlik arasında ise pozitif yönlü ve anlamlı ilişkiler mevcuttur. Ayrıca stres ile cinsiyet, yaş, spor yaşı ve branş; atılganlık ile cinsiyet, yaş, spor yaşı ve branş; sportmenlik ile cinsiyet ve branş arasında anlamlı bir ilişki vardır. Araştırmada elde edilen sonuca göre atletizm; düşük algılanan stres düzeyine ve yüksek atılganlık ve sportmenlik düzeyine sahip olmada etkilidir. Atletizmde yaşı küçük olanlar daha stresli, daha atılgan ve rakiplerine daha saygılıdır. Atletizm yaparak geçirilen süre arttıkça daha az stres yaşanmakta, daha atılgan davranılmakta, kurallara ve yönetime ve rakibe daha saygılı olunmaktadır. Ayrıca atletizm sporcuları spor yapmayanlara göre anlamlı şekilde daha atılgan; mücadele sporları sporcularına, diğer branşların sporcularına ve hiç spor yapmayanlara göre anlamlı şekilde daha sportmendir.
... Physical inactivity continues to be a persistent and major public health concern (Das & Horton, 2012;Hallal et al., 2012). Indeed, it is well-established that an overall lack of physical activity engagement is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases, directly contributing to high health care costs (Althoff et al., 2017;Ding et al., 2016;Katzmarzyk & Janssen, 2004), and carries significant indirect and social costs such as time off work, lost productivity, and psychosocial problems (e.g., low self-esteem, low sense of competence, delinquency; Biddle & Asare, 2011;Hassmén et al., 2000;Staiano et al., 2013). In terms of total estimated energy expenditure, trends would suggest that physical activity peaks during the adolescent period, with activity levels decreasing with increased age (Gordon-Larsen et al., 2004;White & McTeer, 2012). ...
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The aim of this study was to apply the Multi-Process Action Control model to examine how the additions of regulatory and reflexive processes predict physical activity (PA) behaviors among adolescents. Our sample included 1,176 Grade 11 students ( M age = 15.85 ± 0.38) recruited from a large school board in Southern Ontario. Participants completed a questionnaire including measures of self-reported PA and PA cognitions derived from the Multi-Process Action Control model. Results found the reflective process explaining 16.5% of the variance in PA, with the additions of regulatory and reflexive processes significantly improving the explained variance by 5.1% and 8.2%, respectively. Final models revealed coping planning (estimate = 45.10, p = .047), identity (estimate = 55.82, p < .001), and habit (estimate = 64.07, p < .001) as significant predictors of PA. Findings reinforce the need for integrative models to better understand PA, with coping planning, habit formation, and development of an active identity to be salient targets for intervention during adolescence.
... Regular physical activity can help with weight maintenance (Fogelholm & Kukkonen-Harjula, 2000). In addition, those engaged in regular physical activity exhibit lower rates of depression, anxiety, anger, and stress compared with those who are physically inactive (Cashin et al., 2008;Hassmén et al., 2000;Krawczynski & Olszewski, 2000). A single bout of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity improves anxiety and depression symptoms Physical Activity Guidelines, 2018Paluska & Schwenk, 2000), decreases blood pressure Physical Activity Guidelines, 2018Pescatello et al., 2004), and improves sleep Physical Activity Guidelines, 2018Uchida et al., 2012) on the day it is performed. ...
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The physical and mental health benefits of physical activity in all populations are well established. In 2019, incarcerated women at a Southwest county jail were observed during "recreation time," a time when physical activity is encouraged, to identify the proportion of women who participated in recreation time and their physical activity levels. During observed recreation times, 28% of women attended; 56% were sedentary, 4% engaged in vigorous physical activity, and approximately 40% walked or performed similarly moderate physical activity. Future research should identify barriers to being physically active while incarcerated, leading to targeted interventions to promote physical activity.
... Bu araştırmalar özellikle çocukların saygınlık görmesine ve öz-davranışları üzerinde fiziksel aktivitenin olumlu etkisi olduğunu göstermektedir (Fox, 2000). Diğer psikolojik faydaları stres, kaygı ve depresyonun azalmasıdır (Hassmen, Koivula ve Uutela, 2000). Bunların tümü, iyi bir şekilde planlanarak sunulan BES derslerinin çocuklarda ve gençlerde psikolojik sağlığın iyileştirilmesine katkıda bulunacağını desteklemektedir. ...
... Edwards et al. (2005) determined that there is a positive relationship on autonomy, environmental mastery, individual development, positive relationships with others life goals and the self-acceptance. Hassmen (2000), analyzed the relationship between physical activity frequency and the psychological well-being. A relationship was found between psychological well-being and the regular exercises. ...
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Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de investigar los niveles de bienestar psicológico en deportistas adolescentes de acuerdo con una serie de variables utilizando el modelo de encuesta general. La población objetivo del estudio se compone de 196 deportistas que jugaron al fútbol para el club de fútbol juvenil amateur ubicado en Kocaeli (Turquía). Dentro del alcance del estudio, se utilizaron el formulario de información personal y la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico como herramientas de recolección de datos. Al probar la hipótesis, además, se aplicó el análisis ANOVA unidireccional. En este estudio, se observó una diferencia significativa mediante sub-dimensiones que se pueden catalogar como autonomía, dominio ambiental, crecimiento personal, relaciones positivas con los demás, propósito en la vida y autoaceptación (p <0.05). Se puede comentar que el desempeño de los futbolistas adolescentes suplentes de acuerdo con sus niveles de bienestar psicológico en función de los diferentes equipos. Cuando se evaluó el desempeño de los deportistas adolescentes de acuerdo con los niveles de bienestar psicológico, no se observó diferencia significativa (p> 0.05). Como resultado de los niveles de liga, posiciones de liga y mensual se observó una diferencia significativa (p <0.05). Cuando se interpretaron los datos recolectados, se puede afirmar que el rendimiento y los niveles de bienestar psicológico de los deportistas muestran una alteración con respecto a los niveles de liga, posiciones de liga e ingresos familiares mensuales.
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Background: Dental caries is one of the most common dental diseases that affect all population and is associated with the avoidance of care. Research has reported that sense of coherence (SOC) is related to many aspects of health including oral health. SOC determines the quality of health and might have a direct association with the development of subjective assessments of oral health. Objectives: To find the association between SOC, Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and caries status among nursing college students in southern state of India. Design: Cross-sectional design using questionnaire and assessment of caries status. Participants: Nursing students from south India. Methods: Convenience sampling method was followed and students who were present on the day of the study and consented to participate were included in the study. The total study sample consisted of 494 nursing students. SOC and OHRQoL were measured by a self-administered questionnaire; caries status was assessed using Decayed, Missing and Filled Tooth (DMFT) index. Results: Association between SOC and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) and caries status and OHIP was found to be statistically significant. Correlation between dental caries and OHIP was found to be statistically significant, with R-value -0.251 shows that OHIP is negatively correlated with caries status. Conclusion: SOC as a psychosocial resource is capable of facilitating the motivation for positive oral health behaviours. These resources along with socio-economic and demographic factors can create an environment that is partially responsible for the individuals' cognitive and physical functions that can express themselves as the individuals' well-being and positive health behaviours.
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Objectives Native Hawaiians (NH) report higher rates of interpersonal trauma in childhood or adolescence (ITCA) as well as higher rates of chronic physical illness and psychopathology. Given that physical activity (PA) has positive impacts on physical and mental health, it may also serve as a protective factor in the development of poor health outcomes in adulthood following ITCA. The present study investigated what factors contribute to wellbeing and transdiagnostic posttraumatic sequelae for individuals with exposure to ITCA using a dataset from a longitudinal study cohort (n = 989) of ethnically diverse older individuals (mean age = 60) in Hawaiʻi. Methods Five univariate general linear models were used to explore the unique effects of: PA; ITCA level; NH status; interactions with ITCA level; and interactions with NH status on the dependent variables: posttraumatic sequelae (i.e., dissociation, avoidance, interpersonal difficulty) and aspects of wellbeing (i.e., satisfaction with life [SWL], self-rated health). Results PA was a significant predictor of SWL, self-rated health, and dissociation, while exposure to ITCA predicted SWL. NH group status interacted with PA to uniquely predict dissociation. Exposure to ITCA differentially predicted SWL. Conclusions Findings support prior evidence that processes in posttraumatic experience are significantly associated with poor health-promoting behaviors (e.g., PA). Additionally, for NHs, PA may reduce dissociation, or levels of dissociation already present in the NH group may play a role in disengagement from PA. Future research should consider whether PA holds benefits across trauma types (e.g., historical trauma), or if culturally based PA is differentially more protective.
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During secondary school, students’ well-being is challenged in manifold ways and declines continuously. To address this issue, we designed and evaluated a six-day online art-of-living intervention to foster eighth and ninth graders’ ( N = 69) well-being. Art-of-living (AoL) is based on empirical evidence and conceptualizes strategies that lead to well-being. We tested the effectiveness of the AoL training and investigated the possible contribution of body-related AoL exercises to cognitive exercises by comparing two intervention groups (cognitive training vs. cognitive and body-focused training) and a waitlist control group. Levels of AoL and well-being at pretest, posttest, and two-week follow-up showed that both significantly increased in the intervention groups. No significant differences were found between the cognitive and combined training. We discuss methodological issues of the study and propose that the approach to enhance student well-being by using art-of-living exercises is fruitful for application in school and should be explored further.
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This study examines the health benefits of participating in recreational activities by public servants in Southwest Nigeria. The research design was the descriptive research of the survey type. The population consisted of all public servants selected from three states out of the six states in the Southwest Nigeria, using multistage sampling procedure. The face and content validity of the instrument used was ensured by experts in Human kinetics and health education, tests, measurements and evaluation. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained by using test re-test method, which yielded 0.81 reliability coefficient. The data collected were analyzed descriptively using frequency counts and percentages and inferentially using t-test analysis. The hypothesis formulated was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that there was no significant influence of gender on public servants perception of health benefits of participants in recreational activities.. Recommendations were made on the need for public servants to participate in recreational activities for health and longevity. Introduction:
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Purpose Exercise during chemotherapy has beneficial long-term effects on women with breast cancer, but short-term beneficial changes have been less investigated. Though short-term changes may be important as a encouraging factor, this study aimed to investigate immediate changes in self-reported energy, stress, nausea and pain following a single exercise session during chemotherapy. Methods Forty-six women who were exercising while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer were included between October 2016 and April 2018. Self-reported energy and stress were assessed before, immediately after and three hours after exercise sessions by the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. On the same questionnaire nausea and pain were assessed by a Visual Analog Scale. The measurements were completed at four time points during cycles 2 and 5 of the 6-cycle chemotherapy course. Results Energy level increased immediately after a single exercise session for three out of four periods during the chemotherapy course (p < 0.01), with a larger increase when energy was lower before the session (p < 0.01). Three hours after the exercise session, the energy was about the same level as before the exercise session. Stress decreased immediately after the session during cycle two (p < 0.01) but not cycle five. There were no changes in nausea or pain. Conclusions Patients undergoing chemotherapy should be informed not only about the long-term advantages of exercise, but also immediate benefits in terms of increased energy. The energy increase both while exercise in the beginning and toward the end of the chemotherapy course, this short-term advantageous consequence may strengthen patients’ motivation to exercise. Clinicians should also inform patients that exercise does not seem to worsen nausea and pain.
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Allergies and allergic diseases are the most important health problems of modern and urban life. Allergy is defined as the immunological sensitivity of the individual (human-animal) who is repeatedly exposed to a particular antigen (allergen). In the formation and course of allergic diseases, whether or not they are infected with helminths shows great differences in the course and results of immunological responses. Hygiene hypothesis is the most accepted hypothesis. According to the this, changes made in the cornerstones of society such as living conditions, habits and small family structures, which are altered from nature, reduce the likelihood of encountering helminths and at the same time decreasing the incidence of helminth infections. However, this decrease adversely affects the immune system and causes “immunological deficiency”. According to this, TH2 cell mechanisms and secretion of T-reg cells are different in allergic reactions of organisms that have previously had helminth infection. Given that helminth infections are the strongest natural stimulant for TH2 responses, a strong TH2 response appears to significantly reduce the effects of an allergic attack. In this article, the role of helminths in allergic reactions is discussed under various headlines.
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Z Bu araştırmada tenis sporcularının algılanan stres düzeylerini bazı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu değişkenler, cinsiyet, yaş ve spor yapma yılı olarak ele alınmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Türkiye'de Tenis Federasyonuna bağlı tenis kulüplerinde tenis oynayan, rastgele yöntem ile seçilen 138 kadın, 152 erkek olmak üzere toplam 290 tenis sporcusundan oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak kişisel bilgi, formu ve Cohen ve ark., (1983) tarafından geliştirilen, Baltaş ve ark., (1998) tarafından Türkçe'ye uyarlanan Algılanan Stres Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma veri analizinde ise, araştırma tarama modelindedir. Demografik faktörler için frekans analizi yapılmıştır. Analiz yöntemlerinden Mann Whitney U Analizi ve Kruskal Wallis Analizi kullanılmıştır. Fark çıkan değişkenlerde hangi grupta fark olduğunu anlamak için ikili Mann Whitney U Analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre; tenisçilerin algılanan stres düzeylerinde cinsiyet ve yaş değişkenine göre anlamlı bir fark bulunamamıştır (p>0.0.5). Tenisçilerin algılanan stres düzeylerinde ise spor yapma yıllına göre anlamlı bir fark bulunmuş, bu farkın 1-4 yıl ile 9+ yıl (p=0.02) ve 5-8 yıl ile 9+ yıl (p=0.01) arasında olduğu görülmüştür (p<0.05). Sonuç olarak tenisçilerin spor yapma yıllı arttıkça, algılanan stres düzeyinin de arttığı tespit edilmiştir. ABSTRACT In this study, it was aimed to examine the perceived stress levels of tennis players according to some variables. These variables were considered as gender, age and year of doing sports. The universe of the research consists of a total of 290 tennis players, 138 women and 152 men, who play tennis in tennis clubs affiliated to the Tennis Federation in Turkey, randomly selected. Personal information form and the Perceived Stress Scale developed by Cohen et al. (1983) and adapted into Turkish by Baltaş et al. (1998) were used as data collection tools in the study. In research data analysis, the research is in the scanning model. Frequency analysis was performed for demographic factors. Among the analysis methods, Mann Whitney U Analysis and Kruskal Wallis Analysis were used. Binary Mann-Whitney U Analysis was used to understand in which group there was a difference in the variables that differed. According to the research findings; No significant difference was found in the perceived stress levels of tennis players according to gender and age (p>0.0.5). A significant difference was found in the perceived stress levels of tennis players according to the years of doing sports. this difference was found to be between 1-4 years and 9+ years (p=0.02), and between 5-8 years and 9+ years (p=0.01) (p<0.05). As a result, it was determined that the perceived stress level of tennis players increased as the years of doing sports increased.
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Mastering a speciality language as well as formation of world outlook and professional speech competence of future medical specialists begins at the higher educational establishment. Above all, the process of forming speech competence implies formation of stable students' motivation for improving their skills of professional communication; mastering the terminology of their future speciality. Good command of the professional language contributes to effective mastering special disciplines alongside with increasing performance efficacy and promoting establishment of business linkages. The article focuses on psychological and pedagogical aspects of the Latin language training of medical students, their speech competence being paid particular attention. Underlying Latin language training is a semantic aspect: understanding the meaning of the word and improvement of lexical basis, mastering the system of linguistic concepts in the field of grammar, speech culture, and connected monologue speech. All the speech aspects are developed and correlated in the process of recognizing language and speech phenomena. The prospects of today’s health-care worker can hardly be imagined without properly formed skills of professional speech, providing means of receiving and transferring information for its further use in the professional activity. Psychological features of communicative study organization and its effect on students’ cognitive motivation have been analysed, and a version of interpreting the experience of the Latin language training in view of psychological specifics of forming future medics’ speech competence have been attempted. Actualization of psychological conditions of forming future medical specialist's professional speech competence is achieved due to the stepby-step development of his linguistic capabilities, provided by the reliance on the independent study, capabilities and inclinations taken into account. Besides, these conditions are associated with the understanding of the social nature of professional activity and awareness of the role of Latin language acquisition for meeting professional challenges through communicating with the colleagues and world community.
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Long distance relationships (LDR) are increasingly common, particularly among postsecondary students. The geographic separation inherent in LDR, and related relationship factors, may have implications for the health of individuals in LDR. However, little current work examines these potential associations. The current study examined associations between relationship-level predictors (satisfaction, stress, maintenance) and individual-level health (e.g., anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, fatigue) and health behaviors (e.g., alcohol and cigarette use, sex) in LDR. Participants ( N = 100) were postsecondary students and romantic partners of postsecondary students, recruited from October 2018–June 2019, who completed an online survey on relationships and health. Here, we report sample characteristics; correlations between key study variables; and, results of stepwise hierarchical regressions testing whether relationship-level variables predicted individual-level health. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction and relationship stress predicted self-reported health in multiple domains, in the expected directions; but, neither relationship satisfaction nor relationship stress predicted health behaviors. Relationship maintenance predicted neither self-reported health nor health behaviors. Overall, some, but not all, relationship-level variables influenced some, but not all, individual-level health variables among postsecondary students and partners of postsecondary students in LDR. Future work can clarify relationship-level predictors of individual-level health behaviors in postsecondary students, among whom LDR are prevalent.
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Objective To assess the relationship between the sense of coherence (SOC), eating behavior and nutritional status. Design It is a systematic review Setting The following databases were searched: MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct/Elsevier, LILACS/Bireme, SciELO and Google Scholar, using the indexed terms’ salutogenesis', 'sense of coherence', 'nutritional status', 'nutrition', 'eating behavior’ and 'healthy eating'. The indexed terms were used in Portuguese and English according to the database searched. The data were extracted in a standardized way and the quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Participants Observational studies were included, with no limitations on the date of publication or language. Results After reading the titles and abstracts of 1855 articles, 107 full-texts were retrieved, of which 27 were included. Of these, 25 were cross-sectional and 2 were longitudinal. The average score for Newcastle Ottawa studies was 6 and most studies were rated as moderate and low quality. The cumulative sample size of all included studies was 28,981 adults and the elderly, aged between 18 and 81 years. The studies were carried out in 15 different countries. Fifteen articles assessed eating behavior/habit and 12 assessed nutritional status. Studies have shown that SOC has a positive relationship with an appropriate eating behavior/habit. On the other hand, the relationship between SOC and nutritional status was controversial among studies. The heterogeneity of the data resulting from the use of different methods of evaluation of the outcomes of interest (nutritional status and eating behavior) made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. Conclusion SOC was positively associated to adequate eating behavior. However, it was not possible to establish a relationship between SOC and nutritional status.
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Lifetime rates are presented for 15 DSM-III psychiatric diagnoses evaluated in three large household samples on the basis of lay interviewers' use of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The most common diagnoses were alcohol abuse and dependence, phobia, major depressive episode, and drug abuse and dependence. Disorders that most clearly predominated in men were antisocial personality and alcohol abuse and dependence. Disorders that most clearly predominated in women were depressive episodes and phobias. The age group with highest rates for most disorders was found to be young adults (aged 25 to 44 years). Correlates with race, education, and urbanization are presented.
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This study presents estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 14 DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders from the National Comorbidity Survey, the first survey to administer a structured psychiatric interview to a national probability sample in the United States. The DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among persons aged 15 to 54 years in the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States were assessed with data collected by lay interviewers using a revised version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nearly 50% of respondents reported at least one lifetime disorder, and close to 30% reported at least one 12-month disorder. The most common disorders were major depressive episode, alcohol dependence, social phobia, and simple phobia. More than half of all lifetime disorders occurred in the 14% of the population who had a history of three or more comorbid disorders. These highly comorbid people also included the vast majority of people with severe disorders. Less than 40% of those with a lifetime disorder had ever received professional treatment, and less than 20% of those with a recent disorder had been in treatment during the past 12 months. Consistent with previous risk factor research, it was found that women had elevated rates of affective disorders and anxiety disorders, that men had elevated rates of substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder, and that most disorders declined with age and with higher socioeconomic status. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is greater than previously thought to be the case. Furthermore, this morbidity is more highly concentrated than previously recognized in roughly one sixth of the population who have a history of three or more comorbid disorders. This suggests that the causes and consequences of high comorbidity should be the focus of research attention. The majority of people with psychiatric disorders fail to obtain professional treatment. Even among people with a lifetime history of three or more comorbid disorders, the proportion who ever obtain specialty sector mental health treatment is less than 50%. These results argue for the importance of more outreach and more research on barriers to professional help-seeking.
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Fiercer competition between athletes and a wider knowledge of optimal training regimens dramatically influence current training methods. A single training bout per day was previously considered sufficient, whereas today athletes regularly train twice a day or more. Consequently, the number of athletes who are overtraining and have insufficient rest is increasing. Positive overtraining can be regarded as a natural process when the end result is adaptation and improved performance: the supercompensation principle--which includes the breakdown process (training) followed by the recovery process (rest)--is well known in sports. However, negative overtraining, causing maladaptation and other negative consequences such as staleness, can occur. Physiological, psychological, biochemical and immunological symptoms must be considered, both independently and together, to fully understand the 'staleness' syndrome. However, psychological testing may reveal early-warning signs more readily than the various physiological or immunological markers. The time frame of training and recovery is also important since the consequences of negative overtraining comprise an overtraining-response continuum from short to long term effects. An athlete failing to recover within 72 hours has presumably negatively overtrained and is in an overreached state. For an elite athlete to refrain from training for > 72 hours is extremely undesirable, highlighting the importance of a carefully monitored recovery process. There are many methods used to measure the training process but few with which to match the recovery process against it. One such framework for this is referred to as the total quality recovery (TQR) process. By using a TQR scale, structured around the scale developed for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), the recovery process can be monitored and matched against the breakdown (training) process (TQR versus RPE). The TQR scale emphasises both the athlete's perception of recovery and the importance of active measures to improve the recovery process. Furthermore, directing attention to psychophysiological cues serves the same purpose as in RPE, i.e. increasing self-awareness. This article reviews and conceptualises the whole overtraining process. In doing so, it (i) aims to differentiate between the types of stress affecting an athlete's performance: (ii) identifies factors influencing an athlete's ability to adapt to physical training: (iii) structures the recovery process. The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is then suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (maladaptation).
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This review examines the effects of exercise and physical activity on the psychological well-being of older adults. Unlike most of the literature in this area, this review focuses primarily on those psychosocial outcomes that are generally positive in nature. As well as considering the overall effects of physical activity, the roles of program length, subject sex, age, physical fitness, and measurement are considered. Overall, the results of the 38 studies reviewed are overwhelmingly positive, with the majority reporting positive associations between physical activity and psychological well-being. This relationship appears to be moderated by the length of the exercise programs; longer programs consistently report more positive results. There is little evidence that exercise has differential psychological effects on men and women or on individuals of differing ages. Whereas training protocols seem to result in significant changes in physical fitness and well-being, such improvements appear to be unrelated. The review concludes with a brief discussion of possible mechanisms underlying the physical activity/psychological health relationship, and several directions are recommended for future research.
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• Lifetime rates are presented for 15 DSM-III psychiatric diagnoses evaluated in three large household samples on the basis of lay interviewers' use of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The most common diagnoses were alcohol abuse and dependence, phobia, major depressive episode, and drug abuse and dependence. Disorders that most clearly predominated in men were antisocial personality and alcohol abuse and dependence. Disorders that most clearly predominated in women were depressive episodes and phobias. The age group with highest rates for most disorders was found to be young adults (aged 25 to 44 years). Correlates with race, education, and urbanization are presented.
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Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)
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The major purposes of the text are to provide prospective fitness and exercise professionals with essential theoretical information and to offer suggestions of practical value in leadership roles in exercise, wellness, health promotion, corporate fitness, cardiac rehabilitation, commercial fitness, and other related areas. The text is intended for upper-level undergraduate and beginning-level graduate courses, as well as for practitioners who seek additional knowledge to help them function more effectively. Part I addresses research-based and theoretical topics. However, we have attempted to infuse suggestions for practical application throughout this section. Part II has an applied focus and discusses the skills and techniques for effective exercise leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the separate and combined effects of verbal (cognitive) therapy and aerobic exercise for the treatment of individuals experiencing difficulties coping with dysphoric moods. Sixty-one volunteers who scored between 9 and 30 on the Beck Depression Inventory were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: running only, cognitive therapy only, or combined running and therapy. Cognitive therapy was provided in 10 weekly individual sessions, while supervised running was conducted in small groups three times a week for 10 weeks. All three treatment conditions produced significant but not differential improvement over time on measures assessing a variety of mood states. Posthoc analyses demonstrated that all treatments were equally effective for individuals who initially would have been considered to be mildly depressed (BDI < 20)="" and="" those="" who="" would="" have="" been="" considered="" moderately="" depressed="" (bdi=""> 20). Four-month follow-up data indicated that the improvement had been maintained. The correlation between improvement on depression scores and an index of improved physiological functioning was not significant. Thus, the mechanism through which exercise influences mood was not clarified. These results suggest that supervised involvement in aerobic exercise may be a viable and cost-efficient alternative treatment to traditional individual verbal therapy for some individuals experiencing difficulty with dysphoric moods.
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This paper empirically examines the relationship between position in the social structure, beliefs about control over health and three different types of health-related behaviour. The data are drawn from two large scale community surveys (N = 4224) carried out in southern England. The results show that the relationship between the Multi-dimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) and exercise, cigarette smoking and use of alcohol was never more than modest even within different social and economic contexts. Doubts are cast upon the value of the MHLC for explaining variations in health-related behaviour and more fruitful areas for research are suggested.
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity participation patterns of college students when defined by their Health Locus of Control orientation. One thousand thirty-three college-aged students completed the Wellness Activity Profile, a questionnaire that yielded data on Health Locus of Control and self-reported frequency of participation in physical activities. Discriminant analyses indicated that the combination of physical activities associated with internally and externally oriented students were different for both males and females. Participation in high caloric expenditure activities was more frequent among internal subjects (Male: bicycling, volleyball, other individual sports, and snorkel/scuba diving; Female: basketball, weight training, tennis, fast walking/jogging/running, and judo/karate), while low caloric expenditure activities were associated with an external orientation (Male: baseball/softball, sailing, fishing, golf, and other recreational sports; Female: track and field jumping and fishing).
Article
Research has shown that physical activity leads to greater psychological well-being for many young and middle-aged individuals. This paper reviews studies to determine whether there is also evidence for an association between physical activity and psychological well-being across the life span, or in the elderly. Several methodological problems related to exercise, ageing, and psychological well-being are explored. Although an association between exercise and mental well-being in the elderly is noted, there is little experimental evidence to support a conclusion that physical activity is causally related to enhanced psychological well-being in the elderly. Methodological problems, a paucity of well-controlled studies, and equivocal findings regarding the topic make it premature to conclude that physical activity leads to enhanced mental health in elderly persons.
Article
The cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, resting pulse, lung capacity and body fat of 246 subjects were measured and each subject completed activity, mental health and mood questionnaires. The results of this study support the hypothesis that participation in physical activity, rather than cardiovascular fitness, is the factor associated with better mental health and mood. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with better mood scores unless the individuals were unfit. This research has implications for how physical activity is prescribed; the emphasis needs to be on performing physical activity rather than improving fitness and should not be beyond the physical capabilities of the individual.
Article
According to research, hostility is a reliable predictor of coronary heart disease. Cook-Medley-defined hostility in particular has been seen as a significant precursor of coronary disease. It is important to specify the kind of hostility measured by the Cook-Medley scale. The present study examined the construct validity of the Cook-Medley scale for a sample of 219 university students in Finland, a country with a high incidence of coronary heart disease. The results supported the interpretation of the Cook-Medley scale primarily as a measure of cynicism and distrust. On the basis of our previous research, a subscale of the Cook-Medley scale was formed. This 9-item scale, a measure of Cynical Distrust, correlated positively with cynicism and negatively with trust. Moreover, the over-all pattern of correlations between the new 9-item factor, cynical distrust, and other variables assessing hostility, anger, and trust, was similar to the one obtained for our previous sample of students. It is suggested that this new 9-item scale is a shorter and more specific alternative to the longer Cook-Medley scale as a measure of cynical distrust.
Article
Exercise habits, cardiovascular fitness, and selected psychological characteristics were assessed in a sample of over 200 men and women at entrance to medical school. Fitness was measured with a step test, and other variables were measured with standardized questionnaires. Anger ('anger-in') showed the strongest negative correlation with both exercise and fitness. Anger suppression, Type A behavior, and daily stress showed significant negative correlations with both exercise and fitness variables, although the strengths of these associations were uniformly weak. Associations of exercise/fitness with depression and total anger inventory were nonsignificant. Few gender differences were found. Both exercise and fitness showed similar patterns of association with psychological variables. Both exercise and fitness were associated with a style of anger expression that has been found to be related to cardiovascular risk in other studies.
Article
Vigorous exercise is associated with a sensation of well-being, and this subjective state has been objectively quantified with psychometric, cardiovascular, and neurophysiological data. Reductions in state anxiety have been demonstrated to follow acute physical activity, and this response persists for 2-5 h. Chronic physical activity has been associated with reductions in anxiety and depression, as well as increases in self-esteem. This research has been limited to designs of a correlational nature, and the issue of causality vs mere association has not been resolved or addressed. Three hypotheses based upon distraction, monoamine metabolism, and endorphin release are discussed in this paper. Investigators have traditionally attempted to illustrate the mechanism involved in improved mood following exercise by testing one of these or related hypotheses, but it is likely that advances will not be made in this area until these hypotheses are examined in a multiple or synergistic manner. It is concluded that each of the hypotheses reviewed remains tenable.
Article
The effects of aerobic fitness on resistance to psychosocial stressors are reviewed. To unravel the inconsistent results in studies examining the relationship between aerobic fitness and psychosocial stress response, a meta-analysis was conducted. The results of 34 studies having 92 effect size estimates from 1,449 subjects were statistically combined to compare psychosocial stressor tasks and arousal measures. The average effect size estimate of 0.48 was significantly different from zero (P less than 0.01), indicating that aerobically fit subjects had a reduced psychosocial stress response compared to either control group or baseline values. The test for the homogeneity assumption showed that it could not be rejected, and thus none of the proposed moderating variables altered the aerobic fitness-psychosocial reactivity relationship. Various underlying mechanisms which may contribute to this response are discussed, and future research directions are presented.
Article
This study explored variables which predict effects of an aerobic exercise program on mood. Adult members of an eight-week conditioning program improved significantly in mood, in comparison with non-exercising controls, immediately after and three months after the program. Mood improvement was predicted by initial mood, with improvement limited to the most mood-disturbed subjects. It was not, however, predicted by improvement on cardiovascular or other physical indices, by other psychological or demographic ratings, or by beliefs and expectations about physical fitness or about mood state.
Article
This study examined prospectively (1971-1983) the relationship between anger-coping types, blood pressure, and all-cause mortality in a sample of men and women aged 30-69 (n = 696) of the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Subjects who indicated that they were likely to suppress their anger in response to two hypothetical anger-provoking situations had 1.7 times the mortality risk of those who expressed their anger (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-3.05). Subjects who suppressed their anger when unjustifiably confronted by their spouse had twice the mortality risk of those who expressed their anger (95% CI = 1.13-3.38). For high vs. low suppressed anger towards a policeman, the mortality risk was 1.24 (95% CI = 0.72-2.14). These relationships were invariant across age, sex, and education groups, even when medical risk factors were adjusted for, i.e., smoking, relative weight, blood pressure, coronary heart disease status, forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and chronic bronchitis. However, suppressed anger measures significantly interacted with elevated blood pressure to predict the highest mortality risk. These results suggest that persons with high mortality risk can be identified in part by how they cope with anger, and by the joint effect of anger-coping type (a behavioral trait) and elevated blood pressure (a biologic trait).
Article
The occurrence of anxiety symptoms during exercise was evaluated in 66 patients with DSM-III defined anxiety disorders and 37 normal subjects. The incidence of subjective anxiety was approximately 20% in both groups; however, exercise-sensitive patients (ie, exercise acutely increased their anxiety levels) reported greater severity than normals. Thirty-one percent (11) of the 36 patients with panic attacks were exercise-sensitive but only 7% (2) of the other 30 patients were sensitive. For sensitive individuals, the severity of subjective anxiety was a direct function of exercise intensity. Exercise-sensitive patients had higher SCL-90R anxiety factor scores than nonsensitive patients.
Article
Reviews theory and research that have attempted to relate fitness training to improvements on psychological variables among normals as well as selected clinical populations. Theoretical speculations in this area are critiqued, and research designs are evaluated as either experimental or quasi-experimental and therefore interpretable, or preexperimental and therefore largely uninterpretable. The research suggests that physical fitness training leads to improved mood, self-concept, and work behavior; the evidence is less clear as to its effects on cognitive functioning, although it does appear to bolster cognitive performance during and after physical stress. Except for self-concept, personality traits are not affected by improvements in physical fitness. Mentally retarded children demonstrate psychological improvement following physical fitness training, but no conclusion can be reached regarding the effects of physical fitness training with other clinical syndromes. (2½ p ref)
Article
To test the idea that the preponderance of women depressives is due to a masculine tendency to avoid negative social consequences by reporting fewer depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted in which the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to both sexes under conditions of public and private disclosure. It was hypothesized that men would score lower on the BDI than women in the public disclosure condition but not in the private disclosure condition. Despite procedural differences in the two experiments, the results of both studies failed to support the experimental hypothesis. However, in each case, analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between sex of subject and sex of examiner (p less than .05). These results are discussed in terms of a willingness to admit more symptoms to a same-sex person due to fear of rejection by the opposite sex and in terms of gender-specific patterns of self-disclosure in first-encounter heterosexual situations. Results of both studies also suggest BDI scores of college students can be interpreted without regard to type of administration.
Article
This study presents the initial findings of an attempt to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a group of health, middle-aged adults by participation in a ten-week, supervised exercise program. Forty-six subjects were classified as Type A or Type B based on their scores on the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS). Measures of physiologic (blood pressure, serum lipids, body weight, plasminogen activator release, and treadmill performance) and psychologic (scores on the JAS) variables were obtained before and after the exercise program. Subjects were able to successfully reduce the physiologic cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, Type A subjects lowered their scores on the JAS Type A scale after training, while the scores of the Type B subjected remained unchanged. It is concluded that a supervised program of regular exercise can successfully modify the physiological and psychological variables associated with increased risk for CHD in a nonclinical sample of healthy adults.
Article
A health-specific locus-of-control (HLC) questionnaire was constructed to measure beliefs about Self-Control Over Health, Provider Control Over Health, Chance Health Outcomes and General Health Threat. A factor analysis of items confirmed these dimensions, and corresponding scales were shown to be reliable. A factor analysis of HLC scales and other measures was used to evaluate construct validity. Persons believing in provider control over health outcomes tended to have strong favorable attitudes toward the quality of medical care. Chance Health Outcomes was associated with more general chance and controllability measures. General Health Threat seemed to tap susceptibility to disease and beliefs that doctors are unable to diagnose those diseases. People who believe in Self-Control Over Health tended to reject the role of chance and health threat in determining health outcomes and to believe in the efficacy of doctors, although they view them as inaccessible. Results are compared with those of previous studies, and some applications of the questionnaire are discussed.
Article
The hypothesis that health promotive diets associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity confound the relationship between regular physical activity and health has not been well explored in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated self-reported physical activity, Willett Food Frequency dietary data, sociodemographic and physiologic factors cross-sectionally for 2,004 household survey participants in two southeastern New England communities. We compared the dietary habits of sedentary participants (n = 964) to those of moderately active (n = 600) and very active (n = 440) participants after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking status, year of survey, and total calories. Our results showed that moderately active and very active participants consumed more fiber, less total fat, and less saturated fat than sedentary participants (P < .01). They also consumed more vitamins (A, C, D, E), beta carotene, and calcium, (P < .01), and ate more fruits and vegetables (P < .001) than sedentary participants. We found these relationships in both New England communities studied. This association between regular physical activity and diet suggests that the relationship of habitual physical activity and chronic disease may be confounded by diet.
Article
The prevalence of depression, measured as high rates of depressive symptoms (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), was studied in a 55-year-old Finnish population consisting of all persons born in 1935 and living in the city of Oulu on 1 October 1990, who were alive at the beginning of the study (n = 1008). Of these, 345 men (76%) and 435 women (79%) participated in the examinations. The prevalence of depression was 6.8% in men and 12.1% in women. The group of depressed women consisted of persons who were divorced or widowed, less educated and without work. Among the men, depression was not associated with withdrawal, but with a sedentary lifestyle and the occurrence of two life events during the previous 5 years. Differences in the social roles of the sexes may explain these results.
Article
This investigation examined the dimensionality of personal health practices among 1,171 men and 1,854 women included in a national probability sample of adults 20 to 64 years of age living in the coterminous United States. Data on a wide range of personal health behaviors were collected in the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. I used gender-specific factor analyses to uncover the underlying domains of 10 different types of health behavior. I identified four subsets of personal health practices: (1) passive-risk behavior (i.e., low levels of leisure-time physical activity, poor dental care, poor nutritional habits, infrequent seat belt use, and poor use of preventive medical services); (2) active-risk behavior (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and coffee consumption); (3) sleeping behavior; and (4) behavior related to maintaining desirable weight. Internal consistency analyses assessed the stability of the two primary subsets of behavior for different gender, age, and education groups. Women were relatively stable in their tendencies toward both passive-risk and active-risk behavior, regardless of age or education. Older men had more consistent involvement in passive-risk behavior but less consistent active-risk behavior. With higher education, men were more consistent in both passive-risk and active-risk behavior, reflecting more positive health practices.
Article
We estimate in dollar terms the economic burden of depression in the United States on an annual basis. Using a human capital approach, we develop prevalence-based estimates of three major cost-of-illness categories: (1) direct costs of medical, psychiatric, and pharmacologic care; (2) mortality costs arising from depression-related suicides; and (3) morbidity costs associated with depression in the workplace. With respect to the latter category, we extend traditional cost-of-illness research to include not only the costs arising from excess absenteeism of depressed workers, but also the reductions in their productive capacity while at work during episodes of the illness. We estimate that the annual costs of depression in the United States total approximately $43.7 billion. Of this total, $12.4 billion-28%-is attributable to direct costs, $7.5 billion-17%-comprises mortality costs, and $23.8 billion-55%-is derived from the two morbidity cost categories. Depression imposes significant annual costs on society. Because there are many important categories of cost that have yet to be estimated, the true burden of this illness may be even greater than is implied by our estimate. Future research on the total costs of depression may include attention to the comorbidity costs of this illness with a variety of other diseases, reductions in the quality of life experienced by sufferers, and added out-of-pocket costs resulting from the effects of this illness, including those related to household services. Finally, it may be useful to estimate the additional costs associated with expanding the definition of depression to include individuals who suffer from only some of the symptoms of this illness.
Article
This paper addresses the current literature related to investigations of the link between exercise treatments and depression, anxiety and other mood states. Results from these investigations are supportive of the anti-depressant, anti-anxiety and mood enhancing effects of exercise programs. There were considered to be, however, a number of potential methodological problems in many of the research studies; the nature of these were considered. Finally, some possible directions for future research are outlined.
Article
Previous work of the author presents a salutogenic theoretical model designed to explain maintenance or improvement of location on a health ease/dis-ease continuum. The model's core construct, the Sense of Coherence (SOC), was consciously formulated in terms which are thought to be applicable crossculturally. The SOC scale which operationalizes the construct is a 29-item semantic differential questionnaire, its design guided by Guttman's facet theory. A 13-item version of the scale has also been used. The purpose of the present paper is to present the extant evidence from studies conducted in 20 countries for the feasibility, reliability and validity of the scale, as well as normative data. In 26 studies using SOC-29 the Cronbach alpha measure of internal consistency has ranged from 0.82 to 0.95. The alphas of 16 studies using SOC-13 range from 0.74 to 0.91. The relatively few test-retest correlations show considerable stability, e.g. 0.54 over a 2-year period among retirees. The systematic procedure used in scale construction and examination of the final product by many colleagues points to a high level of content, face and consensual validity. The few data sets available point to a high level of construct validity. Criterion validity is examined by presenting correlational data between the SOC and measures in four domains: a global orientation to oneself and one's environment (19 r's); stressors (11 r's); health, illness and wellbeing (32 r's); attitudes and behavior (5 r's). The great majority of correlations are statistically significant. All available published normative data on SOC-29 and SOC-13 are presented, data which bear upon validity using the known groups technique.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The test-retest reliability of self-rated health is analysed and compared with the reliability of health questions phrased more as well as less precisely. Differences in reliability between men and women and between age groups are also assessed. The study is based on 204 and 409 re-interviews from the 1991 Swedish Level of Living Survey and the 1989 Survey of Living Conditions respectively. The results show that the reliability of self-rated health is as good as or even better than that of most of the more specific questions. Only an indicator of high blood pressure showed significantly higher reliability. The reliability of self-rated health is good in all subgroups studied, and is even excellent among older men. It is concluded that the good overall reliability of self-rated health found in this study is in line with previous results concerning the validity of people's assessments of their general health as well as results concerning the basis upon which they make these judgements.
Article
The age-related decline in physical working capacity, cognitive performance, and psychological well-being can presumably be modified by regular physical exercise. The present study comprises 20 men and 20 women with a mean age of 66 years. Half of the participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group, the remaining half to a control group. The members of the exercise group exercised individually through regular walking (three times a week) during a period of three months. The control group performed instead a series of mental tasks with the same regularity. Results showed significant differences in favor of the exercise group on complex tasks at the post-test, whereas only minor differences were found on simple tasks. Mood improvements were uniform, regardless of exercise involvement. The latter can be taken to indicate that exercise is not the most important factor, instead social context and regular contacts with other people may be equally important for elderly individuals.
Article
We examined how education and gender moderate the association of obesity with cynical hostility and depression. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), years of education, cynical hostility (CynDis), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) were examined in a cross-sectional study of 1,547 men and 1,814 women, aged 25-64. Education moderates the positive association between cynical distrust and obesity among women in a such way that cynical distrust was not related to BMI or WHR among highly educated women. Depression had a positive association with WHR after age and education among both genders and among women with BMI. Bivariate associations between psychological factors and obesity measures were similar among men and women. The results suggest the importance of examining socioeconomic status (SES) together with psychological factors related to obesity.
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