Headache and major depression: Is the association specific to migraine?

ArticleinNeurology 54(2):308-13 · February 2000with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.54.2.308 · Source: PubMed
To examine the relationship between migraine and major depression, by estimating the risk for first-onset major depression associated with prior migraine and the risk for first migraine associated with prior major depression. We also examined the extent to which comorbidity with major depression is specific to migraine or is observed in other severe headaches. Representative samples of persons 25 to 55 years of age with migraine or other severe headaches (i.e., disabling headaches without migraine features) and controls with no history of severe headaches were identified by a telephone survey and later interviewed in person to ascertain history of common psychiatric disorders. Lifetime prevalence of major depression was approximately three times higher in persons with migraine and in persons with severe headaches compared with controls. Significant bidirectional relationships were observed between major depression and migraine, with migraine predicting first-onset depression and depression predicting first-onset migraine. In contrast, persons with severe headaches had a higher incidence of first-onset major depression (hazard ratio = 3.6), but major depression did not predict a significantly increased incidence of other severe headaches (hazard ratio = 1.6). The contrasting results regarding the relationship of major depression with migraine versus other severe headaches suggest that different causes may underlie the co-occurrence of major depression in persons with migraine compared with persons with other severe headaches.
    • "Considering the relevance of genetic factors in both migraine and affective disorders, the hypothesis of an involvement of a common mechanism has been postulated to explain the implication of similar neurochemical abnormalities [13, 49, 50]. Breslau and colleagues [51] found significant bidirectional relationships between major depression and migraine: migraine seems to predict first-onset depression and depression seems to predict first-onset migraine. Different factors may be involved in the co-occurrence of these two disorders, such as genetic-neurodevelopmental relationships [52] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Headache is a common disorder affecting a growing number of children and adolescents. In recent years, there has been an increase in scientific interest in exploring the relationship between migraine and emotional regulation, and in particular, the impact of emotional dysregulation on mental and physical health. The present study aims to explore the relationship between migraine and alexithymia among adolescents and their mothers as well as the impact of this association on mental health. An additional aim is to verify whether alexithymia may be a predictor of psychopathological symptoms in adolescents and mothers with migraines. Methods A total of 212 subjects were involved in this study. The sample was divided into (a) Experimental Group (EG) consisting of 106 subjects (53 adolescents and 53 mothers) with a diagnosis of migraine according to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) and (b) Control Group (CG) including 106 subjects (53 adolescents and 53 mothers) without a diagnosis of migraine. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale to assess alexithymia and the Symptom Checklist-90-R to assess psychopathological symptoms. Results Higher rates of alexithymia were found in the adolescents and mothers of the EG in comparison to the adolescents and mothers of the CG. Furthermore, adolescents and mothers experiencing both migraine and alexithymia, demonstrated a higher risk of psychopathology. Conclusions Findings from this study provide evidence that the co-occurrence of migraine and alexithymia increases the risk of psychopathology for both adolescents and their mothers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "Chronic diseases and pain, such as migraine, are frequently accompanied by psychiatric abnormalities [11]. Numerous studies have tried to clarify the associations between the migraine and psychiatric disorders in the past decade121314. However, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the relationship between TN and psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, or sleep disturbance151617. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TN is one of the most common causes of facial pain. A higher prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidities, especially depressive disorder, has been proven in patients with TN; however, a clear temporal-causal relationship between TN and specific psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We performed a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between TN and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with TN between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without TN who were matched according to age and sex. All TN and control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, death, withdrawal from the National Health Institute system, or until December 31, 2010. The TN cohort consisted of 3273 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 13,092 matched control patients without TN. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with TN was higher than that of the controls during the follow-up [aHR: 2.85 (95 % confidence interval: 2.11-3.85), aHR: 2.98 (95 % confidence interval: 2.12-4.18) and aHR: 2.17 (95 % confidence interval: 1.48-3.19), respectively]. TN might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder, but not schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Additional prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "Because the co-occurrence between migraine and affective disorders is not fully explained by mechanisms such as somatic depression or overlapping symptomatology we argue that there is a true comorbidity between migraine and depression. Additionally, previous studies showed a bidirectional relationship, in which the risk for depression is five times increased in migraine patients, and vice versa, the risk for migraine is three times increased in patients with depression [2,3]. This bidirectional association suggests shared underlying mechanisms, presumably shared genetic factors [4,5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: A strong association has been established between migraine and depression. However, this is the first study to differentiate in a large sample of migraine patients for symptom dimensions of the affective disorder spectrum. Methods: Migraine patients (n = 3174) from the LUMINA (Leiden University Medical Centre Migraine Neuro-analysis Program) study and patients with current psychopathology (n = 1129), past psychopathology (n = 477), and healthy controls (n = 561) from the NESDA (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety) study, were compared for three symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety. The dimensions lack of positive affect (depression specific); negative affect (nonspecific); and somatic arousal (anxiety specific) were assessed by a shortened adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ-D30). Within the migraine group, the association with migraine specific determinants was established. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Results: Migraine patients differed significantly (p < 0.001) from healthy controls for all three dimensions: Cohen's d effect sizes were 037 for lack of positive affect, 0.68 for negative affect, and 0.75 for somatic arousal. For the lack of positive affect and negative affect dimensions, migraine patients were predominantly similar to the past psychopathology group. For the somatic arousal dimension, migraine patients scores were more comparable with the current psychopathology group. Migraine specific determinants for high scores on all dimensions were high frequency of attacks and cutaneous allodynia during attacks. Conclusion: This study shows that affective symptoms in migraine patients are especially associated with the somatic arousal component.
    Article · Nov 2015
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