Protease production by Burkholderia pseudomallei and virulence in mice
Unité de Microbiologie, Centre de Recherche du Service de Santé des Armées Emile Pardé, La Tronche, France. Acta Tropica
(Impact Factor: 2.27).
03/2000; 74(2-3):215-20. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-706X(99)00073-X
The aim of this study was to assess protease production and virulence of various Burkholderia pseudomallei strains. Protease activity was evaluated in filtrates from cultures grown for 50 h in TSB Dialysate by azocasein hydrolysis, and expressed as absorbancy at 405 nm. Virulence was assessed in 8 weeks old SWISS mice, by intraperitoneal injection of 6-6 x 10(5) CFU, and the LD50 was calculated after 30 days by the method of Reed and Muench. The lethal activity was studied for five strains of B. pseudomallei and the type strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia cepacia. The three type strains appeared to be low protease producers (A405 = 0.11, 0.09 and 0.00, respectively) and avirulent. The two more virulent B. pseudomallei strains exhibited significantly different LD50, 3.5 x 10(2) (IPP 6068 VIR) versus 2.1 x 10(5) CFU/mouse (40/97), and protease activities (A405 = 0.046 and 0.79, respectively). Moreover, the avirulent parent of IPP 6068 (AG), was a better protease producer than the 6068 VIR strain, A405 = 0.26 versus 0.046. These results suggest that there is no correlation between virulence and level of exoproteolytic activity, when B. pseudomallei is injected to mice via the intraperitoneal route.
Available from: Brenda L Govan
- "Secretion of protease, lipase and phospholipase occurs via the type II general secretory pathway (Gsp); gsp mutants lack secretion, but are not attenuated for virulence in hamsters (DeShazer et al., 1999). Furthermore, no correlation has been observed between protease production in six B. pseudomallei strains and virulence in BALB/c mice (Gauthier et al., 2000). These data suggest that the exoproducts, including protease, lipase and phospholipase play, at most, a minor role in virulence. "
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ABSTRACT: Melioidosis, a febrile illness with disease states ranging from acute pneumonia or septicaemia to chronic abscesses, was first documented by Whitmore & Krishnaswami (1912). The causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, was subsequently identified as a motile, gram-negative bacillus, which is principally an environmental saprophyte. Melioidosis has become an increasingly important disease in endemic areas such as northern Thailand and Australia (Currie et al., 2000). This health burden, plus the classification of B. pseudomallei as a category B biological agent (Rotz et al., 2002), has resulted in an escalation of research interest. This review focuses on the molecular and cellular basis of pathogenesis in melioidosis, with a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on how B. pseudomallei can cause disease. The process of B. pseudomallei movement from the environmental reservoir to attachment and invasion of epithelial and macrophage cells and the subsequent intracellular survival and spread is outlined. Furthermore, the diverse assortment of virulence factors that allow B. pseudomallei to become an effective opportunistic pathogen, as well as to avoid or subvert the host immune response, is discussed. With the recent increase in genomic and molecular studies, the current understanding of the infection process of melioidosis has increased substantially, yet, much still remains to be elucidated.
Available from: David A B Dance
- "The pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei infections involves the expression of cell-associated components such as lipopolysaccharide, pili, extracellular polysaccharide, and flagella  as well as secreted factors including toxins , protease , siderophore  and phospholipase . Although capsular polysaccharide has been shown to enhance the intracellular survival and virulence of the pathogen, the role of this and other factors in pathogenicity and host resistance has not been conclusively resolved [15-17]. "
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ABSTRACT: Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte in tropical environments and an opportunistic human pathogen. This versatility requires a sensing mechanism that allows the bacterium to respond rapidly to altered environmental conditions. We characterized a two-component signal transduction locus from B. pseudomallei 204, mrgR and mrgS, encoding products with extensive homology with response regulators and histidine protein kinases of Escherichia coli, Bordetella pertussis, and Vibrio cholerae.
The locus was present and expressed in a variety of B. pseudomallei human and environmental isolates but was absent from other Burkholderia species, B. cepacia, B. cocovenenans, B. plantarii, B. thailandensis, B. vandii, and B. vietnamiensis. A 2128 bp sequence, including the full response regulator mrgR, but not the sensor kinase mrgS, was present in the B. mallei genome. Restriction fragment length polymorphism downstream from mrgRS showed two distinct groups were present among B. pseudomallei isolates. Our analysis of the open reading frames in this region of the genome revealed that transposase and bacteriophage activity may help explain this variation. MrgR and MrgS proteins were expressed in B. pseudomallei 204 cultured at different pH, salinity and temperatures and the expression was substantially reduced at 25°C compared with 37°C or 42°C but was mostly unaffected by pH or salinity, although at 25°C and 0.15% NaCl a small increase in MrgR expression was observed at pH 5. MrgR was recognized by antibodies in convalescent sera pooled from melioidosis patients.
The results suggest that mrgRS regulates an adaptive response to temperature that may be essential for pathogenesis, particularly during the initial phases of infection. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are very closely related species that differ in their capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Modifications in this region of the genome may assist our understanding of the reasons for this difference.
Available from: Ralf M Hagen
- "An overnight shaken bacterial culture in Brain Heart Infusion broth at 37³C (Difco Laboratories) was centrifuged, washed twice, and serially diluted in sterile saline at physiological pH to the desired concentration. The infective dose for an acute infection was based on previous experimentation  "
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ABSTRACT: Melioidosis is a severe gram-negative infection caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is responsible for a broad spectrum of symptoms in both humans and animals. No licensed vaccine currently exists. This study evaluated the protective effect of a monoclonal antibody (Mab Ps6F6) specific to B. pseudomallei exopolysaccharide in an outbred murine model of sub-acute melioidosis. When administered before the infectious challenge, Ps6F6 significantly increased resistance to infection and restrained bacterial burden in the spleen over a 30-days period. Patterns of IFN-gamma production were similar in the treated and non treated groups of mice. However, Ps6F6 lowered IFN-gamma levels over the duration of the assay period, except on day 1, suggesting a transient and rapid production of IFN-gamma under Ps6F6 control. Minor but persisting increases occurred in IL-12 levels while TNF-alpha was detected only in the controls at the later stages of infection. No IL-10 secretion was detected in both groups of mice. These data suggest that passive prophylaxis with Mab Ps6F6 provide a moderate and transient induction of inflammatory responses in infected mice but failed to trigger a sterilizing protective immunity.
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