Peliosis hepatis in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae
A 6-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was examined because of generalized weakness and abdominal distention. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a large quantity of peritoneal fluid. In addition, the liver appeared larger than normal and contained multiple, small, nodular masses and cyst-like structures. Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, and 5 L of serosanguineous peritoneal fluid was removed. Gross lesions were not found in the stomach, kidneys, intestines, adrenal glands, or urinary bladder. There were diffuse cystic nodules in all liver lobes. The dog did not recover from anesthesia. A diagnosis of peliosis hepatis was made on the basis of gross and histologic appearance of the liver. A polymerase chain reaction assay revealed Bartonella henselae DNA in liver specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular evidence of B henselae infection in a dog with peliosis hepatis.
Available from: Ricardo G Maggi
- "Frontal Stealth Incubation Short (hours to days) Long (months to years) Symptoms Acute Chronic Immunity Sterilizing Non-sterilizing Transmission Direct Indirect Replication Rapid Slow Carrier state Uncommon Common Adapted from Merrell and Falkow (2004). Koch's Postulates and Comparative Bartonellosis been associated with peliosis hepatis (PH; a vasoproliferative lesion in the liver characterized by the presence of irregular blood-filled spaces within the parenchyma) in a human patient or a dog (Koehler et al., 1997; Kitchell et al., 2000 "
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ABSTRACT: In his homage to Lucretius ('Georgica'), Vergil is credited with stating: 'Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas' ('Fortunate is he who knows the causes of things'). Based on numerous commentaries and publications it is obvious that clinicians, diagnosticians and biomedical research scientists continue to struggle with disease causation, particularly in the assessment of the pathogenic role of 'stealth pathogens' that produce persistent infections in the host. Bartonella species, because of their evolutionary ability to induce persistent intravascular infections, present substantial challenges for researchers attempting to clarify the ability of these stealth bacteria to cause disease. By studying the comparative biological and pathological behaviour of microbes across mammalian genera, researchers might be able more rapidly to advance medical science and, subsequently, patient care by undertaking focused research efforts involving a single mammalian species or by attempting to recapitulate a complex disease in an rodent model. Therefore, in an effort to further assist in the establishment of disease causation by stealth pathogens, we use recent research observations involving the genus Bartonella to propose an additional postulate of comparative infectious disease causation to Koch's postulates.
Available from: John H. Rossmeisl, Jr.
- "These intraerythrocytic, endotheliotropic bacteria have been implicated in association with an increasing spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs (Breitschwerdt et al. 1995, 1999, Pappalardo et al. 2000b, Kitchell et al. 2000, Yager et al. 2010) and human patients (Roux et al. 2000, Breitschwerdt et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010a, 2010b, Breitschwerdt and Maggi 2009). Pathophysiological abnormalities associated with Bartonella infection in dogs or humans include lymphadenopathy, granulomatous inflammatory diseases, arthropathy, endocarditis, neurological signs, including seizures , sensory or motor neuropathy, and neurocognitive abnormalities, and vasoproliferative lesions in immunocompromised patients, including bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis (Breitschwerdt et al. 1995, 2009a, 2009b, Breitschwerdt and Maggi 2009, Chomel et al. 2009b, Kitchell et al. 2000, Yager et al. 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: Bartonella species comprise a genus of gram-negative, fastidious, intracellular bacteria that have been implicated in association with an increasing spectrum of disease manifestations in dogs and human patients. In this study, chronic canine and human disease, for which causation was not diagnostically defined, were reported by the breeder of a kennel of Doberman pinschers. In addition to other diagnostic tests, serology, polymerase chain reaction, and enrichment blood culture were used to assess the prevalence of Bartonella sp. infection in the dogs and their owner. From five dogs, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I, multiple Bartonella henselae strains, and a species most similar to Candidatus B. volans, a rodent-associated Bartonella sp., were amplified and sequenced from biopsy tissues, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood enrichment cultures. The owner was bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I, the same subsp. and genotype detected in one of her dogs. These results further emphasize the ecological complexity of Bartonella sp. transmission in nature.
Available from: Henri Jean Boulouis
- "Several cases of B. henselae encephalopathy have been described in immunocompetent patients (Boulouis et al., 2005). Some of these human diseases have also been described in dogs (Kitchell et al., 2000; Pesavento et al., 2005) and cats (Chomel et al., 2003). On a yearly basis, about 22 000 cases of human infection occur in the USA (Jackson et al., 1993), and 2000 cases per year in the Netherlands (Bergmans et al., 1997); these prevalences are considered to be underestimated . "
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ABSTRACT: Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic bacterium that infects cats and humans. Several attempts have been made to develop typing techniques for epidemiological purposes; however, most of the techniques developed do not appear to be sufficiently discriminatory or easy to use. In order to develop multilocus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for B. henselae, 30 VNTR candidates were selected from the genome sequence of the reference strain Houston 1 (H1). The VNTR candidates were initially tested by PCR on six B. henselae isolates from different geographical areas. Five VNTRs were selected from those that showed two or more alleles. These five B. henselae VNTRs (BHVs) were tested on 42 feline B. henselae isolates and strains from France (23 isolates), Denmark (17 isolates), the Philippines (one isolate) and the USA (F1 strain), on one human isolate from Germany, and on the H1 reference strain. These BHVs were sufficiently discriminatory to obtain 31 different profiles (corresponding to two different groups) among the 44 isolates and strains of B. henselae tested. Thirty-five profiles were obtained using these BHVs and two variant alleles. The combination of the five markers led to a diversity index of 0.98. The stability of the five BHVs was demonstrated on the feline F1 strain, with no change in stability observed after 2, 21 and 41 passages. This is believed to be the first study conducted on B. henselae typing using MLVA, and it demonstrates the high quality of this technique for discriminating between B. henselae isolates.
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