Blastomatous tumor with teratoid features of nasal cavity: Report of a case and review of the literature
Department of Pathology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Pathology International
(Impact Factor: 1.69).
02/2000; 50(1):71-5. DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1827.2000.01012.x
A case of blastomatous tumor with teratoid features is presented. The polypoid mass was observed in the left nasal cavity of a 72-year-old man. Histologically, the lesion was composed of neuroepithelial cells with blastomatous appearance, cystic squamous nests filled with keratin materials, many mucous glands, complex tubular and glandular structures with edematous fibroblastic stroma. Sinonasal neoplasms including teratoid components and immature neuroepithelium are exceedingly rare. We suggest that the term 'immature teratoma' is more suitable than blastoma or blastomatous tumor when there is no carcinomatous or sarcomatous component besides the immature neuroepithelium and teratoid elements.
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- "Because of its heterogeneous composition, the diagnosis of SNTCS can be quite challenging, particularly if the sampling is not sufficient. Other tumors that may be considered include primarily olfactory neuroblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, sarcoma, blastomatous tumors with teratoid features, and craniopharyngeoma [3,33,34]. One feature that seems to be highly suggestive of SNTCS is the presence of the "fetal-appearing" clear cell squamous epithelium . "
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ABSTRACT: Germ-cell tumors (GCT) are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body. The head and neck region including the upper respiratory tract is a very rare location for such tumors in both children and adults, which can cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties.
We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm). We correlate their presenting clinico-pathological features and compare histologic and cytogenetic features in an attempt to elucidate their pathogenesis and biologic potentials.
Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities only in the case of SNTCS that showed trisomy 12 and 1p deletion. Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm. The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential.
The comparison of these three cases should serve to emphasize the diversity of multilineage tumors (hamartomas and GCT) of the upper respiratory tract in regards to their biology, age of presentation and clinical outcomes. Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.
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ABSTRACT: To study the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features, as well as differential diagnosis of teratocarcinosarcoma in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Light microscopic examination and immunohistochemical study was performed in 5 cases of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma. The clinical, radiologic and pathologic features were analyzed and the literature was reviewed.
All 5 patients were males and their age ranged from 34 to 43 years (mean age = 39 years). The clinical presentation was nasal obstruction, epistaxis and headache. Physical examination often revealed a polypoid mass with contact bleeding. Computed tomography showed a homogeneous nasal mass with obturation of sinuses. Cystic changes, calcification or ossification was not observed. Histologically, the tumor showed a heterogeneous admixture of components from the 3 germ cell layers, exhibiting various degrees of maturation. Squamous epithelium, smooth muscle cells, chondro-osseous tissue, intestinal or respiratory type epithelium, "fetal-type" clear cells and immature neuroepithelium were commonly seen. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the epithelial component expressed cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen, while the mesenchymal component variably expressed vimentin, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. On the other hand, the neuroepithelial component expressed neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin, and the primitive component expressed CD99. The initial biopsy diagnosis included capillary hemangioma, olfactory neuroblastoma, craniopharyngioma and malignant mixed tumor. Follow-up information was available in all patients. Two of which had local recurrence and 1 had cervical lymph node metastasis.
Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma is a rare and highly malignant tumor occurring in sinonasal tract. It manifests mainly in adult males and is characterized by a complex admixture of teratomatous and carcinosarcomatous components. "Fetal-type" clear cells, squamous epithelium and immature neuroepithelium represent important histologic characteristics useful in diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma is a highly malignant, polymorphous neoplasm that combines features of carcinosarcoma and teratoma. We describe the clinicopathologic features and management of a well-documented example of this unique entity that involved a 41-year-old Hispanic man. The patient presented with a history of multiple episodes of epistaxis, nasal obstruction and frontal headaches. Computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass filling the left nasal cavity and extending to the cribriform plate with involvement of the ethmoid sinuses, lamina papyracea, and orbit. The patient underwent a complex procedure for a T3N0 tumor. Histologic examination revealed a heterogeneous admixture of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroepithelial elements. The mesenchymal components consist of fibrous stroma and myxomatous areas, labeled with calponin and smooth muscle actin. The epithelial components vary from clear cells, nonkeratinizing epithelium to glandular pattern, and keratin containing cysts. Immature neuroepithelium and olfactory neuroblastomalike tissue are highlighted with neuroendocrine markers. Postoperatively, the patient had a rapid local recurrence of the tumor and underwent reexcision, and was treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Twelve months after his primary resection, computerized tomography scans revealed an intrathoracic tumor with dominant mass in the left hilum and metastases to the mediastinum, left pleural space, and both lungs. The histologic nature of his chest mass remains undetermined. Among 54 cases of reported sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma, 67% of patients with initial single surgical resection and 80% of patients primarily treated with radiotherapy had recurrence, or metastatsis, or unresponsiveness to treatment. The high rate of local recurrence and metastasis is indicative of its highly aggressive biologic behavior. Almost half of the patients died of tumor within 3 years of diagnosis, despite aggressive therapy. Seventy percent of the patients who survived more than 1 year had the initial therapeutic regiments of combined surgery and adjuvant therapies, suggesting that aggressive therapeutic approaches may improve the treatment outcome.
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