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Exposure to airborne dust contaminated with pesticide in the Aral Sea Region

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Abstract

The Aral Sea region is one of the world's foremost ecological disaster zones and there is increasing local concern for the health of millions of people living in this region. We have found that dust deposition rates across eastern Turkmenistan are among the highest in the world and that the dust is contaminated with pesticide.

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... In parts of the Amu Darya delta region, the deposition rate of wind transport salts is up to 15.0 g m −2 year −1 (Orlovsky et al. 2004). Findings of O'Hara et al. (2000) revealed that the sites of highest deposition rates were located in the desert in the northern region that were closest to the original shoreline and lower at sites in the northwestern and eastern regions closer to the remnant Aral Sea. In the eastern Turkmenistan, the monthly dust deposition rates were among the highest in the world and varied considerably in the range of 5.0-168.0 ...
... Particle mass-size distributions of aerosol samples from dust storms collected in Tadzhikistan appear to be characterized by a common log-normal mode between 1 and 10 μm (Gomes and Gillette 1993). In eastern Turkmenistan, the dust particle size varied in the range of 12-107 μm, and on average, 23 % in the deposited dust was PM10 in size or smaller (O'Hara et al. 2000). In the southern Aral Sea basin, the dominant particle size in the center of the dust plumes is between 10 and 50 μm, and samples collected nearby during a dust storm displayed a dominance of silt-size (6-63 μm) fractions, amounting to 77 vol% of total sediments; the clay (<6 μm) and sand-size (>63 μm) fractions only consist of 8.7 and 14.3 vol%, respectively. ...
... In the southern Aral Sea basin, high values of phosalone were found in all dust samples and concentrations were noticeably higher at sites located in the irrigated zones. Of particular note is the high concentration of phosalone recorded 126 mg kg −1 at Dashkhous which is located in the main irrigation zone around the basin (O'Hara et al. 2000). The concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are probably high in the Aral Sea and surrounding soil, and it is likely that these and other toxins will also be carried in the dust. ...
Article
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The Central Asian Arid Zone (CAAZ) located in the temperate desert belt of the Northern Hemisphere is one of the most important sources for global aeolian dust and aerosol. It is widely acknowledged that aeolian dust plays a vital role in the Earth system through participating in the energy and material budget of the planet. Except for the existed natural desert areas, the newly human-induced deserts that originally used to be the bed of terminal lakes (like the Aral Sea, Caspian Sea, Balkhash Lake, etc.) are becoming the much more significant sources for aeolian dust/salt in this region. Dust and associated aerosols have complex impacts on local ecological system and human health for its special chemical composition. In recent years, a slight declining trend of dust storm frequency in the region was reported, which may be explained by the weakened human disturbances in desert areas or climate variations. The dust dynamics in the CAAZ represent considerable variations in both spatial and temporal distribution, which makes it harder to forecast the dust events and mitigate its damages to ecosystems and social economics. Nevertheless, there is not much evidence of its climatic and environmental impacts both on the regional and global scales. Therefore, further related studies and regulation measures in the region are essential and emergent, as well as the strengthening cooperation between the associated countries and organizations.
... Naturally, local inhabitants are exposed to saline water (7) and in 2000 only 32 % had access to safe drinking water (10). An increased frequency of storms carries 43 million tons of dust and sand from the dried-out sea floor through the air yearly (11,12). Accordingly, the rate of dust deposition is among the highest in the world (12) and contains large amounts of salts and pesticides, probably related to the water quality in the tributary rivers. ...
... An increased frequency of storms carries 43 million tons of dust and sand from the dried-out sea floor through the air yearly (11,12). Accordingly, the rate of dust deposition is among the highest in the world (12) and contains large amounts of salts and pesticides, probably related to the water quality in the tributary rivers. Fertilisers, chlorinated organic pesticides and other chemicals are used in large quantities for agricultural purposes and pollutant-rich water returns to the rivers that supply the Aral Sea (13). ...
... Aral Sea concentrations of the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) do not exceed WHO recommendations (15). It is, however, apparent that both water (14) and soil (12) in the region are affected by toxic pollutants from industry and agriculture. The concentration of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds (polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) has been found in fish, sheep, milk, eggs and several other foods. ...
... This highlights that 'Asia sources, including the Taklimakan, Gobi, and the Chinese loess plateau represent ~25% of global dust emissions' ( [3], p. 1). Whilst dust impact on regional health has been identified but not studied extensively [4][5][6], knowledge of potential desert dust interaction with human health is well established [7]. This paper examines the current dust-health dynamics across greater Central Asia, and then investigates a case study in the Mongolian Gobi to examine if mega-mining dust generation may present a particulate concentration sufficient to affect human health. ...
... The Aral Sea loss [54] is a striking example of how disturbance of the natural landscape contributes to dust and health impacts. Intensive water diversion upriver for farming has exposed the seafloor and salty flats that are now the source of severe dust storms with very high amount of PM10 particulate ( Figure 2) [5]. Indoitu et al. [21] investigated dust storms in Middle Asia (their term), describing seven decades of dust storm phenomenon that cover the pre-and post-Soviet period (see also [13,42]). ...
... Whilst government monitoring of mining dust emissions is not strong (limited technical ability, cost, rent seeking, corruption, weak legal oversight), it is imperative for continued research to identify dust parameters in the region. Past history of dust's deleterious effects in the region, including 2008's 52 dust storm-related deaths in Mongolia [107] and toxic dust in the Aral Sea region ( [108]; see also [4][5][6]), make further investigation into dust impact on health significant in Central and Inner Asia. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining’s potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents, dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.
... At present, more than 60,000 km² of the former Aral Sea have been transformed into a desert of salty lake bed sediments, called the Aralkum [4][5]7]. Monitoring the salty dust emissions from the Aralkum is important as the Aral Sea has been a sink not only for salts, but also for agrochemicals and heavy metals and the mobilized dust poses a considerable health risk for the surrounding region [1,5,[8][9]. Due to the size of the affected area (>1.5 million km²) spread over three countries (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) and the isolation of large parts of that area, most studies focus on remote sensing as their primary tool for the monitoring of the aeolian sediment transport [10][11][12]. ...
... Carrying out such a ground-based monitoring in the Aral Sea basin was the central aim of the EU-CALTER project [5] and in combination with two other projects (The UNESCO KHOREZM project and the LUCA project [7]) the field measurements included a total of 23 meteorological stations in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Fig. 1). Monthly dust samples were collected between 2006 and 2012 in 3m height, using passive deposition samplers of an inverted frisbee design (Fig. 1), which had been used in Central Asia in previous studies with good results [8][9][14][15]. This extensive data set was complemented by samplers of the same design, which were only exposed during dust storm events (defined by a visibility of less than 1km). Information about the vertical dust profiles between 0.25 and 16m was provided through additional measurements conducted during dust storms in the Kazakh part of the research area [16][17]. ...
Chapter
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The desiccation of the Aral Sea ranks among the largest man-made ecological catastrophes and has become a global symbol for the overexploitation of limited resources and the environmental and socio-economic consequences caused thereby. Formerly the fourth largest inland lake, large parts of the Aral Sea have been transformed into a salty desert – the Aralkum. The exposed lake bed sediments are subject to wind erosion, resulting in white sand and dust storms which have been tracked over several hundred kilometers using remote sensing images. Dust deposition data, on the other hand, requires excessive field work over prolonged periods of time and thus is scarce. In order to learn more about the spatial and temporal dynamics of the dust deposition in the Aral Sea region and in order to evaluate the influence of the Aralkum, the passive dust deposition data from 23 meteorological stations in the Aral Sea basin has been monitored between 2006 and 2012 in the framework of three research projects. Падение уровня Аральского моря, вызванное нерациональным использованием ограниченных водных ресурсов, относится к числу наиболее серьезных экологических и социоэкономических катастроф антропогенно-техногенного характера. Процессы засоления и отступления береговой линии Аральского моря, в прошлом занимавшего по площади четвертое место в мире среди крупных озер, привели к образованию соленой пустыни, носящей название Аралкум. Сухие донные отложения, подверженные действию ветровой эрозии, вызывают белые песчаные и пылевые бури, по сведениям аэрокосмической съемки способные к переносу частиц на расстояние несколько сот километров. Для получения достоверной информации о количестве и качественном составе атмогенных отложений необходимо реализовать широкомасштабные полевые наблюдения в определенных временных интервалах. Результаты, характеризующие особенности пространственной и временной динамики атмогенных отложений, были получены на основе пассивных измерений их количества и качества на 23 метеорологических станциях Аральского региона в период с 2006 по 2012 гг. в рамках выполнения трех проектов.
... Several studies conducted since the late 1990s highlighted severe health issues affecting the populations living around the lake although most medical studies did not investigate the relationships between the observed increased morbidity and mortality and the exposure to dust. Some of the observed health problems are adult and children respiratory diseases in Turkmenistan (O'Hara et al., 2000); children respiratory and pulmonary diseases and renal functions (Kaneko et al., 2002; in Uzbekistan; psychological health and well-being in Uzbekistan (Crighton et al., 2003a;Crighton et al., 2003b); adult cancer (Mamyrbayev et al., 2016) and reproduction diseases affecting both men and women in Kazakhstan (Kislitskaya et al., 2015;Turdybekova et al., 2015;Kultanov et al., 2016). ...
... These contaminants, via the dust generated by the exposed seabed, now contaminate the air and the surrounding ecosystems, resulting in severe health risks for the populations living in the region. A highly cited article by O'Hara et al. (2000) describes very high dust deposition rates in southwestern Aral Basin (Eastern Turkmenistan) and considerable contamination of such dust with phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide (up to 126 mg/kg in the main irrigation zone along the Amu Darya River). In a more recent study by Mamyrbayev et al. (2016) the increase in cancers (all cancers, between 2003 and 2014) around Aral Sea was found to be 1.5 times higher compared to more distant areas, and this was hypothetically ascribed to inhalation and/or intake of Nickel and Cadmium. ...
Article
Sand and Dust Storms (SDS) are a natural phenomenon with important impacts on ecosystems and human society. SDS hotspots are mostly located in drylands, however their impact goes beyond national and regional boundaries, making them a global issue. Factors affecting SDS occurrence include weather and climate, land cover and soil surface conditions, geomorphology and terrain types. “Playas”, the exposed beds of shrinking water bodies, play a significant role in dust generation. Land degradation and desertification processes play an important role on dust emission from playa sources, which is frequently triggered or increased by human activities such as unsustainable land and water use upstream, reduced vegetation cover on and around playas, and mechanical disturbance of the playa surfaces. It has been estimated that anthropogenic playa sources contribute 85% of global anthropogenic dust emissions. Anthropogenic playa sources are frequently located near human settlements, so that even relatively small dust sources can have severe socio-economic and environmental impacts, including soil salinization and soil pollution when playa sediments are salt-rich or polluted. In these contexts, the implementation of sustainable land and water management (SLWM) measures and integrated watershed planning is particularly urgent to reduce dust emission and its impacts. The United Nations Conventions to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) identified the mitigation of anthropogenic SDS sources as a major pillar towards combating SDS. The number of scientific articles addressing this issue is rapidly increasing, but our understanding of SDS emitted from anthropogenic playa sources remains limited and fragmented. This article reviews the literature on playa sources that are recognized to be mainly anthropogenic in nature, with particular focus on the anthropogenic drivers, the SDS-related impacts, and the possible SLWM-based solutions to reduce SDS impact.
... After the collapse of the Soviet Union, different countries drafted their own water policies, primarily to support rice and cotton agricultural fields, which further complicated an already delicate situation (Waehler and Dietrichs, 2017). This led to the desiccation of the lake, initiating dust and sand storms in the area, carrying B43 million tons of deposits from the lake floor (O'Hara et al., 2000;Small et al., 2003). According to a study by O'Hara et al. (2000), the dust contained high levels of salt mixed with pesticides. ...
... This led to the desiccation of the lake, initiating dust and sand storms in the area, carrying B43 million tons of deposits from the lake floor (O'Hara et al., 2000;Small et al., 2003). According to a study by O'Hara et al. (2000), the dust contained high levels of salt mixed with pesticides. ...
Chapter
A saline lake forms when evaporation exceeds precipitation and its internally drained basin intersects the water table. These lakes are generally found in subhumid, arid and semiarid environments. They are home to several migratory birds and also a source of economically important minerals which add to their socioeconomic value. Saline lakes have been observed across the world including the Great Salt Lake in the United States, the Dead Sea in the Middle-East, Fuente de Piedra in Europe, and Sambhar Lake in India. As salt lakes have closed system dynamics any trivial change gets highly magnified due to delicately balanced physical, chemical and biological cycles. Anthropogenic activities including runoff from agriculture, mining, construction of causeways and dams have led to their contamination. Moreover, when salt concentration rises, it may flow into fresh groundwater, deteriorating it as well. Lack of proper management, strict laws and policies to prevent them from degradation has further complicated the situation. In this review we studied saline lakes from around the world and based on most common issues faced by them, suggest measures for revival and conservation.
... Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Ammonium chloride fertilizer, Ammonium sulphate fertilizer, Nitrogen phosphorus fertilizer, Potassium chloride fertilizer; FAO, 2003), pesticides (e.g. DDT, phosalone, toxaphene and lindane) accumulated in the Aral Sea as well as salts which were leached from the salinized irrigated fields (Micklin, 1988;Zetterstr€ om, 1999;O'Hara et al., 2000;Whish-Wilson, 2002). Heavy metals (e.g. ...
... The grain size distribution is influenced by both the wind speed and the distance from the source region. Larger and thus heavier grains (medium sand and larger e >0.2 mm diameter) require a larger force in order to be set into and kept in motion (O'Hara et al., 2000;Zepp, 2004;Wu et al., 2006;Goudie, 2009;McKnight and Hess, 2009;Semenov 2011). They can only be mobilized during strong wind events and even then there preferred mode of transportation is a saltation near the earth surface. ...
Chapter
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The ground-based monitoring of dust deposition is an essential tool for the long-term evaluation of the aeolian processes involved in sediment transport in arid regions. It offers valuable insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of the dust distribution and grants access to the deposited material for further analyses. Central Asia in general and the Aral Sea Basin, in particular, is an arid region that largely contributed to the aeolian transport of dust from natural and anthropogenic sources over long distances. The shrinking Aral Sea itself has become a global symbol for the overexploitation of limited water resources. Its artificial desiccation has led to the emergence of a new salty desert, the Aralkum. Exposed to severe wind erosion, the lake bed sediments are transported over hundreds of kilometers as white sand and dust storms, negatively affecting the Turan lowland surrounding the Aralkum. Passive dust deposition samplers were installed at 23 meteorological stations throughout the Turan lowland to monitor and evaluate the temporal and spatial dust dynamics between 2006 and 2012 and assess the grain size distribution, mineralogical and chemical properties of the deposited material. The dust deposition increased over time, which correlates with a decreasing trend in precipitation, increasing wind speeds, and a shift toward northern winds. More than 50% of all dust samples collected exceed the health-based deposition threshold, and the most intense dust storm events reached ground level deposition rates of up to 150 g m⁻² per hour. The grain size analysis showed that most of the material deposited in 3 m height was part of the PM5 group with average regional grain diameters between 0.0018 and 0.0129 mm. Coarser material was deposited in spring and summer throughout the study period. The average annual grain diameter increased from 0.0019 mm in 2006 to 0.0141 mm in 2012. Quartz, calcite, and dolomite were the main mineral components in the Central Asian dust samples, and the Aralkum and Karakum samples showed the most significant similarity. A slightly different composition characterized the Kyzylkum dust, but overall all Central Asian dust samples could easily be separated from dust samples from dust source regions in Asia. The differences between the Central Asian dust sources are more pronounced on the level of their chemical composition. The Aralkum samples show a greater similarity to the samples from the Kyzylkum and samples collected in Central Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and the Western Sahara. Combining different analytical methods allows for a detailed characterization of the different dust source regions and can be used to track this dust over greater distances. This study showed the impact of the Aralkum, but also that the Kyzylkum is a far more active dust source. Concerning climate change and increasing aridity in the region, the aeolian dust transport will continue to increase, making a widespread monitoring program even more critical.
... Windblown salt and dust from the desiccated lake bed had negative effects on agriculture in a wide zone downwind of the basin. Impacts on human health (in addition to those experienced via loss of employment in the fishery and transport sectors) included respiratory infections exacerbated by windblown salts, as well as an increased incidence of cancers and other conditions potentially related to exposure to the heavy metals and pesticides associated with industrial farming operations [52]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the early 20th century, “desert reclamation” has been synonymous with large-scale waterworks and irrigation. These techniques have made it possible to produce abundant crops in arid or semi-arid environments. The costs have often been externalized, with increased environmental productivity in the new croplands counterbalanced by increased aridity elsewhere. In this paper I consider whose interests are served by such projects, and what kinds of social constructions of the natural and human environment make them possible. I focus on the Turkana basin, a watershed spanning the Ethiopian and Kenyan borders, where large dams and irrigation projects are currently being established with the goal of producing cash crops and hydro-electricity. In the narratives of the projects’ proponents, the schemes are represented as part of a tradition of development stretching back to the American West. In the discourse of critics, the Aral Sea of Central Asia is frequently invoked. Considering Turkana in relation to these cases sheds light on the political and ecological gambits involved in desert reclamation, and helps us to understand the costs and benefits of such projects.
... Windblown salt and dust from the desiccated lake bed had negative effects on agriculture in a wide zone downwind of the basin. Impacts on human health (in addition to those experienced via loss of employment in the fishery and transport sectors) included respiratory infections exacerbated by windblown salts, as well as an increased incidence of cancers and other conditions potentially related to exposure to the heavy metals and pesticides associated with industrial farming operations [52]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the early 20th century, “desert reclamation” has been synonymous with large-scale waterworks and irrigation. These techniques have made it possible to produce abundant crops in arid or semi-arid environments. The costs have often been externalized, with increased environmental productivity in the new croplands counterbalanced by increased aridity elsewhere. In this paper I consider whose interests are served by such projects, and what kinds of social constructions of the natural and human environment make them possible. I focus on the Turkana basin, a watershed spanning the Ethiopian and Kenyan borders, where large dams and irrigation projects are currently being established with the goal of producing cash crops and hydro-electricity. In the narratives of the projects’ proponents, the schemes are represented as part of a tradition of development stretching back to the American West. In the discourse of critics, the Aral Sea of Central Asia is frequently invoked. Considering Turkana in relation to these cases sheds light on the political and ecological gambits involved in desert reclamation, and helps us to understand the costs and benefits of such projects.
... Small particles can travel from z500 km (particle sizes between 10 and 20 mm) to thousands of kilometers (particle sizes <10 mm) during moderate wind storms (Pye, 1987). Moreover, in a sediment sample, the largest amounts of pesticides are normally adsorbed to the fine particles (Agassi et al., 1995;O'Hara et al., 2000). Their contents in these particles can also be much higher than those in the parent topsoil (Clymo et al., 2005). ...
Article
Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural areas where it has been applied. Therefore, special attention is required to the airborne transport of glyphosate and AMPA. In this study, we investigated the behavior of glyphosate and AMPA in wind-eroded sediment by measuring their content in different size fractions (median diameters between 715 and 8 μm) of a loess soil, during a period of 28 days after glyphosate application. Granulometrical extraction was done using a wind tunnel and a Soil Fine Particle Extractor. Extractions were conducted on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after glyphosate application. Results indicated that glyphosate and AMPA contents were significantly higher in the finest particle fractions (median diameters between 8 and 18 μm), and lowered significantly with the increase in particle size. However, their content remained constant when aggregates were present in the sample. Glyphosate and AMPA contents correlated positively with clay, organic matter, and silt content. The dissipation of glyphosate over time was very low, which was most probably due to the low soil moisture content of the sediment. Consequently, the formation of AMPA was also very low. The low dissipation of glyphosate in our study indicates that the risk of glyphosate transport in dry sediment to off-target areas by wind can be very high. The highest glyphosate and AMPA contents were found in the smallest soil fractions (PM10 and less), which are easily inhaled and, therefore, contribute to human exposure.
... These newly formed landscapes are highly unstable and considered to be the main source of salt and dust storms (Semenov 2012;Singer et al. 2003). Frequent salt/sand dust events and aerosols have been a posing great threat to the ecological environment and local inhabitants in the Circum-Aral region (Löw et al. 2013;O'Hara et al. 2000;Wiggs et al. 2003). The Aral Sea basin has experienced the most significant LULC dynamics which include primary vegetation succession during the past several decades (Wucherer and Breckle 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
The human-induced desiccation of the Aral Sea has generated large amounts of salt dust and has been posing a great threat to local ecological environment and human health. Monitoring its land cover changes is essential to obtaining information about the desertification process and dynamics of potential salt/sand dust source. To this end, long-term Landsat imagery was applied for the land use/cover change analysis based on support vector machine approach. The land cover distribution of the study area for 1977, 1987, 1996, 2006 and 2015 was mapped. In addition, the Markov–cellular automata integrated approach was used to predict the land cover change in 2015 and project changes in 2025 by extrapolating current trends. The classification results revealed that water surface of the Aral Sea shrunk by more than 66%, leading to the dramatic expanding of the salt soil and bare area. Change detection analysis indicated a serious land degradation trend as well as a major land cover evolution mode in the Aral Kum that could predict shifts in dust composition. The Markov–cellular automata technique was successful in predicting land cover distribution in 2015, and the projected land cover for 2025 revealed more desertification of the landscape with potential expansion in the salt soils and bare area. It is worth noting that the vegetation cover of the region represented an obvious increase in recent years that may be a good signal of ecological recovery.
... Playas (dry lake beds) are widely distributed in the arid and semiarid areas of northwest China and Central Asia, where they are an important dust source. Examples include Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Ebinur Lake (Abuduwaili and Mu, 2006) and the Manas Lake area in the Junggar Basin, Aiding Lake in the Turpan Basin (Wang and Wu, 2003), the Aral Sea (O'Hara et al., 2000;Baidya Roy et al., 2013), and Balkhash Lake (Bond et al., 1992) in Central Asia. The dust and salt dust storms formed by wind erosion of the playa contain a great deal of high-density and fine-particle sizes of sulfate, chloride, and heavy metal elements (Liu et al., 2011a). ...
... Small particulates penetrate deeply into the bronchi and bronchioles and exacerbate chronic respiratory and pulmonary diseases (Pope et al., 2002;Berico et al., 2007), reduce lung capacity and can be added to the blood directly to cause various diseases. Although the effect of dust particulates from increased dust events on the incidence of diseases has not been extensively recognized, a sharp decline in the health status of the human population and the appearance of strange diseases around the Aral Sea (Small et al., 2001;O'Hara et al., 2000;Abrahamson and Beer, 1998), Khuzestan province on the northwestern the Persian Gulf (Rezaei et al., 2014) and the Sistan region of the northern Sea of Makran (Rashki et al., 2013) have been reported and ascribed to an increase in dust events in these areas. However, the effects of dust particles depend on particle size and composition. ...
Article
It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2013 to May 2013, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. <10 µm) were collected at Abadan, a site beside the Persian Gulf. The research aim was to compare chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities including industrial and urban pollution are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.
... Small particles can travel from ≈500 km (particle sizes between 10 and 20 µm) to thousands of kilometers (particle sizes <10 µm) during moderate wind storms (Pye, 1987). Moreover, in a sediment sample, the largest amounts of pesticides are normally adsorbed to the fine particles (O'Hara et al., 2000;Agassi et al., 1995). Their contents in these particles can also be much higher than those in the parent topsoil (Clymo et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
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Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in agricultural lands worldwide, with more than 825 000 tons sold globally in 2014. Such great use is mostly a result of the introduction of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops in 1996 by Monsanto company. Loess soils, on the other hand, are amongst the most productive and fertile soils and, consequently, are intensively used for agriculture and to grow GR crops. Consequently, they are heavily subject to the application of glyphosate-based herbicides every year. Despite being the most used pesticide worldwide, the environmental fate of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is still not well understood. Therefore, this PhD thesis aims at better understanding the environmental fate of glyphosate and AMPA in the loess soil environment. Special focus is given to: 1) the decay kinetics of glyphosate and the formation and decay kinetics of AMPA; and 2) the off-site transport of glyphosate and AMPA associated to the particle-bound phase, as a result of wind and water erosion. These processes were studied under laboratory and field conditions. The field study was performed in agribusiness fields of the loess Pampas of Argentina. The results of this PhD thesis have shown that: 1) the decay of glyphosate and AMPA in loess soils is mostly a microbiological process and is fastest under warm and moist soil conditions and slowest under cold and dry soil conditions; 2) AMPA persists longer in loess soil than glyphosate, and tends to accumulate; 3) the type of decay kinetics followed by glyphosate in loess soils is mostly temperature dependent, but abrupt soil moisture changes from dry to moist also play a role; 4) glyphosate degradation into AMPA was extremely variable (5-100%) amongst different temperature conditions and between laboratory and field conditions; 5) glyphosate and AMPA contents are highest in eroded soil particles <10 µm (PM10) and, consequently, their long-range off-site transport risk with wind erosion (dust) is very high: 6) during water erosion events, the particle-bound transport of glyphosate and AMPA is as or even more important than the water-dissolved transport; and 7) the risk of deposition of glyphosate and AMPA into off-target downslope fields during water erosion events can be considerable. It is concluded that repeated glyphosate applications, particularly under dry soil conditions, increase the risk of accumulation of glyphosate and AMPA in loess soils and, consequently, of on-site soil pollution and off-site transport with wind and water erosion.
... In addition, the sea served to protect against sharp weather changes in central Asia. [3,4] The Aral Sea problem arises in 1960s, after improper regulation of the cross-borders Rivers in the area and heavy application of the pesticides over the cotton fields. Most of the Aral Sea destroyed, converted to lifeless wasteland, and it is estimated that 40,000-60,000 fishermen lost their work [5][6][7] [ Figure 2]. ...
Article
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Background: The Aral Sea problem arises after improper regulation of the water from cross‑borders river and heavy application of the pesticides over the cotton fields in the area. Objectives: This review article was designed to highlight the reproductive and health‑related hazards of Lindane exposure in Aral Sea area. Methods of Literature Research: PubMed search was done for the articles that have been published from January 2007 to December 2015 using the keywords; Lindane and related health hazards in human. Five articles were found and critically analyzed to highlight the reproductive and health‑related hazards of Lindane exposure in Aral Sea area. Results: Men of reproductive age were exposed to organochlorine pesticides (including Lindane), which have estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity, and this exposure may affect the male reproductive health. The human maternal and cord blood levels of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane were higher in preterm labor than full‑term labor cases. Exposure of the human farmers to Lindane may be associated with long‑term abnormalities that affect sensory nerves, and short‑term abnormalities that affect liver, with reduced hepatic enzymes activity and reduced hepatocyte RNA synthesis. The Lindane level of 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid detected in the newborns in Turkey. Recently; Lindane has been restricted in most countries since 2009 under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The WHOs International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that the large epidemiological studies in the United States and Canada showed a 60% increased risk of non‑Hodgkin lymphoma in agricultural workers, and pesticide applicators exposed to Lindane. Conclusion: Organochlorine pesticides, including Lindane have estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity, which may affect the male reproductive health. The human maternal and cord blood levels of HCH were higher in preterm labor than full‑term labor cases. Exposure of the human farmers to Lindane may be associated with long‑term abnormalities that affect sensory nerves, and short‑term abnormalities that affect liver. Further future studies needed, with screening program of blood levels of Lindane in people living in Aral Sea area to confirm the Lindane health‑related hazards, and the use of Lindane should be restricted in the Aral Sea area, if such relation proved.
... One of the most critical environmental issue is the increasing sand storms in this region, which is characterized by satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth. The salts, sands, and dust originated from the Aralkum Desert contain poisoned pollutants due to excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers from farming [31] and heavy metals from weapon tests in the former Soviet Union [32,33]. Tons of these pollutants can be transported thousands of kilometers away from the Aralkum Desert and the surrounding regions in the ASB to Himalayan, the Antarctic continent, Greenland's glaciers, Norway's forests, and Byelorussia's fields [11,34] and thus adversely influence the vegetation growth and health of human beings [35,36]. ...
... One of the most critical environmental issue is the increasing sand storms in this region, which is characterized by satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth. The salts, sands, and dust originated from the Aralkum Desert contain poisoned pollutants due to excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers from farming [31] and heavy metals from weapon tests in the former Soviet Union [32,33]. Tons of these pollutants can be transported thousands of kilometers away from the Aralkum Desert and the surrounding regions in the ASB to Himalayan, the Antarctic continent, Greenland's glaciers, Norway's forests, and Byelorussia's fields [11,34] and thus adversely influence the vegetation growth and health of human beings [35,36]. ...
Article
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The Aral Sea basin (ASB) is one of the most environmentally vulnerable regions to climate change and human activities. During the past 60 years, irrigation has greatly changed the water distribution and caused severe environmental issues in the ASB. Using remote sensing data, this study investigated the environmental changes induced by irrigation activities in this region. The results show that, in the past decade, land water storage has significantly increased in the irrigated upstream regions (13 km3 year−1) but decreased in the downstream regions (−27 km3 year−1) of the Amu Darya River basin, causing a water storage decrease in the whole basin (−20 km3 year−1). As a result, the water surface area of the Aral Sea has decreased from 32,000 in 2000 to 10,000 km2 in 2015. The shrinking Aral Sea exposed a large portion of the lake bottom to the air, increasing (decreasing) the daytime (nighttime) temperatures by about 1 °C year−1 (0.5 °C year−1). Moreover, there were other potential environmental changes, including drier soil, less vegetation, decreasing cloud and precipitation, and more severe and frequent dust storms. Possible biases in the remote sensing data due to the neglect of the shrinking water surface area of the Aral Sea were identified. These findings highlight the severe environmental threats caused by irrigation in Central Asia and call attention to sustainable water use in such dryland regions.
... In addition, there is a growing evidence that air pollution caused by increasing concentration of respirable particulates, that is those smaller than 10 µm (PM 10 ), have many local to global environmental and human-related consequences, most of which are adverse. In addition, wind-borne dust may transport bacteria and fungi Prospero et al., 2005) and can be contaminated with pesticides (O'Hara et al., 2000) or even radioactive (Papastefanou et al., 2001). ...
... The disastrous retraction of the Aral Sea began in the 1960s because of excessive water consumption, which was mainly for cotton field irrigation. Thousands of tons of pesticides, including organochlorines (OCPs), were extensively used in Karakalpakstan, which is now the most polluted near the Aral Sea [1]. OCPs, as persistent lipophilic chemicals, accumulate in the adipose tissue and jeopardize reproductive and developmental systems [2]. ...
Article
Lindane, which is one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticide contaminating the Aral Sea region, is associated with numerous pathologies of the female reproductive system, including infertility, due to its gap junction blocker activity. By using an in vitro model of reproductive toxicity consisting of mouse parietal granulosa cells (GCs) exposed to increasing concentrations of Lindane ranging from 1 to 100μM (L1; L10; L100), we aimed to ascertain the Lindane toxicity by evaluating the ultrastructure and expression of the cell death protein p53. GCs exposed to L1 showed an early sign of degeneration as chromatin marginalization and initial reduction of cell-to-cell contacts. Such effects increased at L10 with nuclear membrane invagination, cytoplasmic blebbing, reduction of microvilli and intercellular connections. L100 induced evident cellular damages with an extensive presence of vacuoles, cytoplasmic fragments, nuclear membrane vesiculation and abundant cellular debris. A dose-dependent increase of p53 expression was evident in the L1 and L10 groups but not in L100. These data provide evidence for a dose-dependent reproductive toxicity of the gap junction blocker Lindane, as seen in mouse GCs cultured in vitro by ultrastructural damage compatible with apoptosis. Since gap junctions may play a critical role in FSH-stimulated progesterone production, the ultrastructural damage here evidenced could explain the increase in the prevalence of reproductive pathologies and infertility in exposed women. Finally, this study provided a useful and repeatable model of reproductive toxicity in vitro, which is applicable to evaluate the detrimental effects of toxicants or the reversing effect of protective substances.
... The changes observed at the Aral Sea provide an example of the possible public health consequences of lakebed desiccation. The diversion of water for irrigation from the Aral Sea basin resulted in exposure of 36,000 square kilometer of former seabed over the course of 40 years (Micklin 1998) and created one of the highest dust deposition rates globally (O'Hara et al. 2000). However, the few studies of wind-blown dust and children's respiratory health in this region have been largely inconclusive. ...
Article
Changing weather patterns, droughts and competing water demands are dramatically altering the landscape and creating conditions conducive to the production of wind-blown dust and dust storms. In California, such factors are leading to the rapid shrinking of the Salton Sea, a 345 mile2 land-locked "sea" situated near the southeastern rural border region known as the Imperial Valley. The region is anticipated to experience a dramatic increase in wind-blown dust and existing studies suggest a significant impact on the health and quality of life for nearby residents of this predominantly low-income, Mexican-American community. The discussion calls attention to the public health dimensions of the Salton Sea crisis. We know little about the possible long-term health effects of exposure to mobilized lakebed sediments or the numerous toxic contaminants that may become respirable on entrained particles. We draw on existing epidemiological literature of other known sources of wind-blown dust, such as desert dust storms, and related health effects to begin to understand the potential public health impact of wind-blown dust exposure. The increased production of wind-blown dust and environmental exposures to such non-combustion related sources of particulate matter are a growing health threat, due in part to drought coupled with increasing pressures on limited water resources. Recent population-based studies have linked dust storms with cardiovascular mortality, asthma hospitalization and decrease in pulmonary function in both adults and children. A growing number of studies provide evidence of the acute health effects of wind-blown dust exposures among children, which with repeated insults have the potential to influence respiratory health over time. The shrinking of the Salton Sea illustrates a public health and environmental justice crisis that requires action and attention to protect the health and well-being of local communities.
... The progressive desiccation of the Aral Sea was associated to an increased salinity and to the runoff of pesticides and fertilizers, extensively used in response to the decreased water supply to the Aral Sea and to the increased demand for cotton during the Soviet era. Consequently, toxic salts from the new emerged saline desert called Aralkum, were dispersed in dust and salt storms, to further increase levels of pesticides and fertilizers throughout the Aral Sea region and over (3)(4)(5). Airdust dispersion was favorited by meteorological characteristics of the Aral region, that is a windy area of the Central Asia characterized by intense and protracted winds, with a maximal speed of 20-25 m/sec. Satellite images indicated that the dust rain may spread to a maximal distance up to 620-700 km, moving a volume of toxic salts and dust corresponding to 100-130 million tons (6,7). ...
Article
The disaster of the Aral Sea is one of the biggest environmental problem for the central Asia. The extinction of the Aral Sea began in the 60’s, as a consequence of the excessive water consumption for cotton fields irrigation. Pesticides, as the γ-hexachlorohexane (HCH) or Lindane, were used to increase cotton yields. After sea shrinkage, the infertile soil contaminated with pesticide residues dispersed salts and toxicants in the atmosphere. Due to intense winds, toxic salty dust poisoned the population around the Aral Sea, with severe health problems. Lindane, recently classified as carcinogenic to humans, showed endocrine disrupting activity. Unfavorable outcomes on pregnancy and birth seems to be due by alterations in meiotic spindle formation, polar body extrusion, embryonic development. This article revises the grave situation of the Aral Sea region on the human’s and animal’s health, with regard to the effects of Lindane exposure on female reproduction and fertility.
... The average temperature in summer rises with each passing year while it drops remarkably in winter. The season for growth becomes shorter and shorter (O'Hara et al., 2000a, b;Wiggs et al., 2003). All the benefits acquired in the past decades in the Aral Sea basin by the former Soviet Union is far from compensating the consequences of ecological disasters in this basin. ...
Article
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The objective reality of uneven water resource distribution and imbalanced water demand of the human society makes it inevitable to transfer water. It has been an age-old method to adopt the inter-basin water transfers (IBTs) for alleviating and even resolving the urgent demand of the water-deficient areas. A number of countries have made attempts and have achieved enormous benefits. However, IBTs inevitably involve the redistribution of water resources in relevant basins and may cause changes of the ecological environment in different basins. Such changes are two-sided, namely, the positive impacts, including adding new basins for water-deficient areas, facilitating water cycle, improving meteorological conditions in the recipient basins, mitigating ecological water shortage, repairing the damaged ecological system, and preserving the endangered wild fauna and flora, as well as the negative impacts, including salinization and aridification of the donor basins, damage to the ecological environment of the donor basins and the both sides of the conveying channel system, increase of water consumption in the recipient basins, and spread of diseases, etc. Because IBTs have enormous ecological risk, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the inter-basin water balance relationship, coordinate the possible conflicts and environmental quality problems between regions, and strengthen the argumentation of the ecological risk of water transfer and eco-compensation measures. In addition, there are some effective alternative measures for IBTs, such as attaching importance to water cycle, improving water use efficiency, developing sea water desalination, and rainwater harvesting technology, etc.
... Adult and children respiratory diseases studied in Turkmenistan (O'Hara et al., 2000) were a major cause of illness and death among all age groups but accounted for 50% of all reported illnesses in children. ...
Technical Report
Available here: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/36461 ................................................... Central Asia experiences frequent sand and dust storms (SDS), which have been made worse by human activity. The main objective of this study is to provide an economic analysis of the benefits of afforestation of the former Aral Seabed in Uzbekistan. The objective of this study is to estimate economic benefits attributed to afforestation of the former Aral Seabed in Uzbekistan. Proper estimation and categorization of economic benefits associated with each scenario of landscape restoration enables the Government of Uzbekistan and local authorities to allocate limited resources in an efficient way, supporting promising rehabilitation techniques and practices. Based on wind erosion modeling results, this study measures soil retention ecosystem services in the former Aral Seabed in Uzbekistan. To understand the value of soil retention ecosystem services, several scenarios of landscape restoration are considered.
... Research in the Aral Sea Basin suggested that drinking water quality did not threaten human health directly. Rather, pollutants, including pesticides and toxic elements, had different pathways, e.g. through the consumption of food which did not comply with the health standards and inhalation of contaminated desert dust (O'Hara et al., 2000;Jensen et al., 1997;Muntean et al., 2003;Crighton et al., 2011). Therefore, a holistic approach to research of water quality on human health is required including different types of exposure and multiple pathways. ...
Article
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Study region Glacierized catchments in Central Asia Study focus The literature on hydrochemistry and water quality was reviewed to identify gaps in knowledge required to understand and quantify the impacts of climate change and deglacierization. New hydrological insights for the region The main knowledge gap was the characterization of hydrochemistry and water quality along the elevation continuum from glaciers to arid plains. The chemical composition of snow and glacier ice are understood relatively well but the pathways of pollutants stored in glacier ice and released with melt into the aquatic systems are not researched. There is a lack of publications on the release of organic carbon following deglacierization and element leaching from the exposed substrate, permafrost and rock glaciers. Snow and glacial melt dilutes pollutants along the river channels, reducing concentrations and mostly ensuring the compliance with water quality standards including downstream locations. Poor surface water quality is associated with irrigation, the practice of soil washing, and discharge of the untreated sewage. There is a notable lack of information about the links between snow and glacier melt, aquifer recharge and groundwater quality and this is a major gap in knowledge affecting environmental and health protection. Better understanding and quantification of factors and processes controlling hydrochemistry and water quality is needed to adapt to the impacts of the imminent deglacierization.
... Эти процессы в Приаралье повлияли на популяцию людей. В том числе увеличение заболеваемости и смертности у детей и пожилых людей, сердечно-сосудистые заболевания [14], заболевания дыхательной системы [24], психологические заболевания [18,21], репродуктивные заболевания [19,25], увеличение числа онкологических заболеваний [26], врожденные аномалии развития [23] обусловили такие изменения. ...
Article
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According to studies conducted in recent years, there is a harmful effect of harmful chemicals in the environment on the cardiovascular system. The level of blood pressure is a very important hemodynamic indicator, the level of which provides primary information about diseases of the cardiovascular system. In this study, the indicators of total body size, blood pressure and heart rate were measured in adolescents living in unfavorable environmental conditions of the Aral Sea region. In adolescents of both sexes, body weight deficiency occupied a significant share. In girls and boys, the excess body weight was about 5%. Obesity was not observed in adolescents of both sexes. Hypotension was detected in 17.64% of the females studied by categories of systolic blood pressure, and there were no cases of hypertension among the females. And in males, hypotension of 8.70% and hypertension of 4.35% were observed. According to the categories of diastolic blood pressure, hypotension of 2.95% and hypertension of 8.82% were detected in females, hypotension of 8.69% and hypertension of 8.70% in males.
... In addition, pesticides used for cotton and other agriculture in the area have been transported down the rivers or atmospherically and deposited in the lake sediment over time. Some of these contaminants are now being exposed and are subject to erosion (O'Hara et al. 2000;Whish-Wilson 2002). Within the Aral Sea Basin, over irrigation of croplands in the Amu Darya watershed and development of canal systems to disburse water has led to the creation of numerous small shallow lakes in Khorezm, Uzbekistan. ...
Chapter
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The way water flows to a lake, through streams, as runoff, or as groundwater, can control the distribution and mass of sediment and contaminants deposited. Whether a lake is large or small, deep or shallow, open or closed, the movement of water to a lake and the circulation patterns of water within a lake control how and where sediment and contaminants are deposited. Particle-associated contaminants may stay close to the input source of contamination or be transported by currents to bathymetric lows. A complex morphology of the lake bottom or shoreline can also affect how contaminants will be distributed. Dissolved contaminants may be widely dispersed in smaller lakes, but may be diluted in large lakes away from the source. Although dissolved contaminants may not be deposited in lake sediments, the impact of dissolved contaminants (such as nitrogen) may be reflected by the ecosystem. For instance, increased phosphorus and nitrogen may increase organic content or algal biomass, and contribute to eutrophication of the lake over time. Changes in oxidation-reduction potential at the sediment-water interface may either release some contaminants to the water column or conversely deposit other contaminants to the sediment depending on the compound’s chemical characteristics. Changes in land use generally affect the hydrology of the watershed surrounding a lake, providing more runoff if soil binding vegetation is removed or if more impervious cover (roads and buildings) is increased. Groundwater inputs may change if pumping of the aquifer connected to the lake occurs. Even if groundwater is only a small portion of the volume of water entering a lake, if contaminant concentrations in the aquifer are high compared to surface water inputs, the mass of contaminants from groundwater may be as, or more, important than surface water contributions.
... In the Ebinur region of China's Western Dzungaria, about 4.8 million tons of saltrich dust are carried away (as far as 100-200 km) from the dry lakebed of Ebinor lake annually (6)(7)(8). The salt and transformed chemicals have caused respiratory diseases, malnutrition, anaemia, and leber in nearby urban and rural areas; this was also experienced in one of the largest environmental disasters of this kind, around the Aral Sea (6,9). Monitoring the parameters influencing the drying of Urmia Lake and modeling the lake's changes are crucial actions for identifying the reasons for this phenomena and ways to control it (10). ...
Article
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Background: Urmia Lake, the second largest hyper-saline lake of the world, has experienced lack of water and other environmental issues in recent years. Now, there is a danger of the lake drying out, which will affect the region and its inhabitants. This study aimed to present a model which can relate the water level of the lake to effective factors. Methods: Parameters that influence water level, such as precipitation, evaporation, water behind dams, and the previous year’s water level, were considered in the modeling procedure. The proposed model, based on evolutionary polynomial regression, can be used to evaluate salt marshes produced in the region in recent years. Results: Results show that the high surface-area-to-depth ratio of Urmia Lake is most influential on its drying; however, omitting this characteristic as an inherent one, the main cause is the construction of dams on rivers in the Urmia Lake basin. Conclusion: The proposed model predicts that by 2015, the water level of Urmia Lake will fall below 1269 m, and by 2030, the lake will dry out completely.
... The existence of the Salton Sea in its current state is more than an eyesore or an ecological conundrum; the Salton Sea may also be the source of current, and likely future, health risks to the nearby human population. Similar geographic and environmental features (Gomez et al., 1992;O'Hara et al., 2000;Wiggs et al., 2003) between the Salton and Aral Seas suggest that there could be links between these features and the potential for adverse health consequences that may be applicable in the context of the Imperial Valley. Evidence of human health impacts resulting from drought conditions in the Imperial Valley of Southern California is limited to anecdotal evidence. ...
Article
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Abstract The Imperial Valley region of Southeastern California has become one of the most productive agricultural regions in the state and has the highest rates of childhood asthma in California. Lack of precipitation in the Imperial Valley has caused the water level of the Salton Sea to recede to a record low since its formation in the early 1900s. Previous studies of wind and dust deposition conducted in other regions have shown how reduced precipitation, ground heating, and the diminishing water level in an arid climate pose a risk of exposing previously sequestered toxic chemicals to open air, adversely affecting lung health. The purpose of this study is to draw historical parallels between the Aral Sea and Salton Sea in the context of geomorphology, ecology, human health, economics, and human migration, to inform an assessment of environmentally related health impacts of those living in the Imperial Valley region. Future droughts and heatwaves are expected to rise in frequency and severity, disproportionately affecting those impacted by financial and health disparities. Future research must include the implications of population health in the context of GeoHealth as a result of the most recent drought and the receding water levels of the Salton Sea.
... The shrinkage of Aral Sea [1], related to changes in water storage [2,3], water quality [4], regional climate [5,6], and environmental conditions [7][8][9], have been hotspots of research attention in the past few decades. The Syr Darya River, which originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and is the second largest river in the Aral Sea Basin, has also received more research focus. ...
Article
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Based on water sampling of the upper reaches of the Syr River and its tributaries from the parts of Aral Sea Basin in Kyrgyzstan, the chemical compositions of river waters were systematically analyzed for revealing the hydrochemical characteristics and evaluating the water quality. Research indicates that there are some differences in ion concentration between the low-flow season (LFS) and high-flow season (HFS), but the hydrochemical classification reflected that all water samples fall in the calcium bicarbonate category, except that only three samples fall in the not dominant category during the LFS. The water quality classification shows that the water samples fall in the excellent to good categories for irrigation use. The analysis shows that the main ions of river waters come from the weathering of rocks, and the dissolution of carbonates is higher than that of silicates. Human activities have had an impact on the waterbody, especially inferred from the indicators of NH4-N and fecal coliform (FC). FC groups were detected in some rivers, in which the detection rate at the high-water level increased. The contents of potentially toxic elements are lower than international drinking water standards, but there are clustering differences between the LFS and HFS. There may be anthropogenic intrusions of Cu, Pb, and Zn during the LFS period and of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd during the HFS period. The results fill the gaps in the study of the hydrochemical composition and water quality assessment in the Aral Sea Basin and will also provide a basis for water resource management and for the study of water quality evolution in the future.
... Garrison et al. (2006) suggested that Saharan dust might act as a carried of persistent organic pollutants, metals (Pb in their specific study), and microbes to the Caribbean. In fact, some organic persistent pollutants, such as pesticides have been described to be potentially emitted from desert areas such as the Aral Sea (Ataniyazova et al., 2001;O'Hara et al., 2000). García et al. (2017) reported long data series on organic speciation of dust in the free troposphere over the Canary Islands, on his way to the Caribbean, and they identified levoglucosan, dicarboxylic acids, saccharides, n-alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic compounds formed after oxidation of α-pinene and isoprene; and revealed a high correlation of secondary organic and inorganic aerosols during dust episodes. ...
Article
We review the major features of desert dust outbreaks that are relevant to the assessment of dust impacts upon human health. Our ultimate goal is to provide scientific guidance for the acquisition of relevant population exposure information for epidemiological studies tackling the short and long term health effects of desert dust. We first describe the source regions and the typical levels of dust particles in regions close and far away from the source areas, along with their size, composition, and bio-aerosol load. We then describe the processes by which dust may become mixed with anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) and/or alter its load in receptor areas. Short term health effects are found during desert dust episodes in different regions of the world, but in a number of cases the results differ when it comes to associate the effects to the bulk PM, the desert dust-PM, or non-desert dust-PM. These differences are likely due to the different monitoring strategies applied in the epidemiological studies, and to the differences on atmospheric and emission (natural and anthropogenic) patterns of desert dust around the world. We finally propose methods to allow the discrimination of health effects by PM fraction during dust outbreaks, and a strategy to implement desert dust alert and monitoring systems for health studies and air quality management. Keywords: Mineral dust, Atmospheric particulate matter, Aerosols, Epidemiology, Natural and anthropogenic contributions
... This has lead to a lack of continuous ground data for a long-term evaluation of the impact the Aralkum has on the region as well as for the analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of the sediment transport and their connection to meteorological and climatic factors. Carrying out such a ground-based monitoring in the Aral Sea basin was the central aim of the EU-CALTER project [7] and in combination with two other projects (the UNESCO KHOREZM project [8] and the LUCA project [9]) the field measurements included a total of 23 meteorological stations in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Fig. 1). ...
Article
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Ground based dust monitoring is an important tool for the long-term monitoring of aeolian sediment transport in Central Asia as it provides valuable insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of dust deposition as well as grants access to the transported material for further analyses. Between 2006 and 2012 such a monitoring was carried out in the Turan lowland to analyze the effects of the newly formed Aralkum. The detected spatial and temporal dust deposition variability was significant and encourages further studies. The dust deposition increased over time, which correlates with a decreasing trend in precipitation, increasing wind speeds and a shift towards northern winds. More than 50% of all dust samples collected exceed the health based deposition threshold and the most intense dust storm events reached ground level deposition rates of up to 150 g/m ² per hour. This study showed the impact of the Aralkum, but also that the Kyzylkum is a far more active dust source. With regard to climate change and an increasing aridity in the region it can be expected that the aeolian dust transport will continue to increase, making a wide-spread monitoring program even more important.
... This increase in salinity was accelerated by the anthropogenic pollution of the rivers supplying the Aral Sea. The extensive use of agrochemicals (fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate fertilizer, ammonium chloride fertilizer, ammonium sulfate fertilizer, nitrogen phosphorus fertilizer, potassium chloride fertilizer (FAO 2003); pesticides such as DDT, phosalone, lindane or toxaphene and salts leached from the salinized fields at regular intervals) in the Aral Sea basin has made the lake a sink for hazardous substances for many decades (Groll et al. 2013;Kulmatov and Hojamberdiev 2010;Létolle et al. 2005;Micklin 1988;O'Hara et al. 2000;Whish-Wilson 2002;Wiggs et al. 2003;Zetterström 1999). The desiccation of the Aral Sea has become known as the Aral Sea syndrome and was the largest man-made ecological disaster in the twentieth century and ranks among the largest catastrophes in human history, together with the deep water horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the effects of microplastics on the aquatic ecosystems or the impact of the climate change (Opp 2007;Saiko and Zonn 2000;Shepherd et al. 2013;Micklin 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Originally, a shallow saline depression between the Kyzylkum and the Nurata mountain range the Aydarkul–Arnasay Lake System (AALS) was created in 1969 when a catastrophic flood event in the Syr Darya catchment exceeded the capacity of the Chardarya reservoir. Additional water diversions further increased the volume of the lakes to up to 42.2 mln m3 in 2006. After the breakdown of the commercial fishing in the Uzbek part of the Aral Sea in 1983, the AALS became the most important fishery lake in Uzbekistan with an annual catch of more than 4600 tons (in 1988). In recent years, however, the fish catch experienced a sharp decline (down to 728 tons in 2006) due to the increased inflow of drainage water from the large Golodnaya Steppe (Hunger Steppe) irrigation scheme (e.g., 0.1 km3 in 1960, 1.0 km3 in 1970, 2.3 km3 in 1980, 2.9 km3 in 2000 and 3.6 km3 in 2010) and a decrease in freshwater inflow from the Chardarya reservoir (e.g., 4.0 km3 in 1995, 2.3 km3 in 2005 and 1.8 km3 in 2010). The increasing anthropogenic pressure, as well as the impacts of the climate change (+0.6–0.9 °C between 1950 and 2000, decrease in the long-term precipitation and increase in the variability), is threatening this ecological and economic important lake system. This article presents new data about the temporal dynamic of the lake hydrology (size, volume, water balance), the surrounding climate and its development as well as about the water quality of the lakes and the main drainage water collectors, and the development of the fish fauna over the last decades. This study, based on official data (Uzhydromet, Uzryba), online databases (GHCN) and extensive field work (water quality and fish sampling), provides a complete published analysis of the status quo of the AALS. Therefore, it is an important contribution to the establishment of a stable lake ecosystem system and a sustainable fishing industry.
... 1051/e3sconf/20199901003 CADUC 2019 and Taklamakan) with additional contributions by the Aral Sea basin. The phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in the regional air quality due to the health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea seabed [4]. In the southern parts of our study region desert dust particles originate from arid regions of the Iranian Plateau (such as Registan desert) and the Thar desert, located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. ...
Conference Paper
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Central and South Asia are regions of particular interest for studying atmospheric aerosols, being among the largest sources of desert dust aerosols globally. In this study we use the newest collection (C061) of MODIS - Aqua aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm and Ångström exponent (a) at 412/470 nm over the 15-year period between 2002 and 2017, providing the longest analyzed dataset for this region. According to our results, during spring and summer, high aerosol load (AOD up to 1.2) consisting of coarse desert dust particles, as indicated by a values as low as 0.15, is observed over the Taklamakan, Thar and Registan deserts and the region between the Aral and Caspian seas. The dust load is much lower during winter and autumn (lower AOD and higher a values compared to the other seasons). The interannual variation of AOD and a suggests that the dust load exhibits large decreasing trends (AOD slopes down to -0.22, a slopes up to 0.47 decade ⁻¹ ) over the Thar desert and large increasing trends between the Aral and Caspian seas (AOD and a slopes up to 0.23 decade ⁻¹ and down to -0.61 decade ⁻¹ , respectively.) The AOD data are evaluated against AERONET surface-based measurements. Generally, MODIS and AERONET data are in good agreement with a correlation coefficient (R) equal to 0.835.
... Of these indirect effects, one can mention the economic, psychological and long term indirect effects on human conditions (44). In the present review also some studies excluded measured the level of chemical and nonchemical substances by lake drying were transferred into human body through wind, water, and agricultural products because they did not assess any relationship between the substances and humans' health (45)(46)(47)(48)(49). Of course, that is another area for lake drying to affect human health and thus needs to be investigated. ...
Article
Background: One of the most important effects of many drying lakes in the world is increasing the emergence and outbreak of different diseases. For this sake, the present study aimed to systematically review the effects of lakes drying on human health. Methods: The present systematic review was designed and conducted in 2017. Data were gathered by searching the Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge databases, along with hand search of key journals and unpublished resources and contact with experts. There was no specific time span for the search. Results: Overall, 22 articles were selected with 20 articles about Aral Lake drying. Almost all studies were cross-sectional and retrospective. In 8 studies, the participants were children. Seventeen articles lakes drying have adverse effects on human health. Based on the type of effect, the studies were classified into 7 categories (respiratory problems, reproductive system problems, kidney and urological diseases, cancers, anemia, and diarrhea). Conclusion: Most studies depicted the harmful effects of lakes draught on human health; they had low level of evidence as they were mostly retrospective and cross-sectional. There is not enough evidence to accept or reject with high level of certainty the very effects of lakes drying on human health. To provide such evidence we suggest conducting middle and long term cohort and observational studies with scientific bases.
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Dust and sand storms are common events in the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. In the Central Asian countries the main scientific observations on dust and sand storms were performed mainly before 1980 during the former Soviet Union. Regular monitoring of dust and sand storms began 1930s at a large number of observation sites located over the entire territory of Central Asia. The first studies and results of research regarding the analysis of dust and sand storm in terms of observations were published during the 1960s.
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Sarykamysh is one of about 2,500 artificial lakes-collectors of drainage water in Central Asia. The Lake is located in a natural depression in the northwestern part of Turkmenistan, it receives irrigation surpluses and soil washing drainage water from Dashoguz and Khoresm oases. The area of the Lake has grown from 12 km2 in 1962 to 3,955 km2 in 2006. In terms of volume the change is from 0.6 km3 to 68.56 km3, respectively. Currently, the national plan is to create a new lake-accumulator in the Karashor depression – the Golden Age Lake. Nowadays, less water is being discharged into the Lake, and in the future its area/level will decrease significantly. With average annual evaporation rates of 1.2–1.4 m/year, the drying process is expected to be rapid. The study attempts to model the possible scenarios in the development of the Lake following a change of inflow. This research deals with the retrospective study of the parameters of the lake in the past 40 years using GIS and remote sensing methods in order to suggest a forecast of these parameters. The forecasted parameters will enable the mitigation of the negative regional impacts of the Lake’s changes. A three-dimensional model of the Sarykamysh depression was built using the 1940s topographic maps. Topex/Poseidon altimeter data, early Corona satellite images, and time-series of the Landsat satellite images were applied on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) together with ground measurements of the parameters of the Lake and meteorological data. The model was calibrated and validated, and the water balance of the Lake was calculated, enabling us to suggest with higher accuracy, an optimal future inflow.
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Sand and dust storms are complex natural phenomena. During storms, transported sand and dust particles can be observed in a thin sub-surface air layer or even through the whole atmospheric boundary layer. Thus, vertical scales of the phenomenon can change from small fractions of 1 m to ≥1 m high.
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Almost all major sources of dust and sand storms are located over topographical lows or on lands adjacent to strong topographical highs where fluvial action is evident by the presence of ephemeral rivers and streams, alluvial fans, playas, and saline lakes.
Article
The regression and salinization of the Aral Sea, largely caused by water diversion for irrigation, is among the most severe ecological disasters of the 20th century, and has had severe health and economic consequences for the local population. Introductions of alien species to enhance commercial fisheries before the regression had already impacted the ecology of this system. Crustaceans made up about one-quarter of the original metazoan species and constituted the principal food for native and introduced fish. From 1960 on, crustaceans were recorded at numerous fixed sampling stations, including thanatocoenoses (dead animals from sediment cores). We use this previously unpublished information to document changes in species abundance and discuss their causes in the context of species interactions and changes to physical and chemical parameters. Competition from alien crustaceans led to declines in or even extinction of some native species, but eventually severe salinization became the main detriment, and resulted in the complete collapse of commercial fisheries. This seriously hurt a critical trade, which provided the principal protein source for the local population. We document how comparatively modest conservation efforts enabled the northern Small Aral Sea to partially recover and commercial fishing to resume.
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The Aral Sea was once the world’s fourth largest inland body of water in terms of surface area. A lake basin, fed by two rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, it supported a diverse ecosystem and an economically valuable fishery. Intensive agricultural activity related to cotton production with high water demands during the Soviet era caused excessive water diversion for irrigation purposes from the rivers. As a result, since the early 1970s, the shores of the sea have been steadily receding. The disappearance of the Aral Sea has caused several severe environmental and economic impacts. The fishery is no longer viable. The seabed became exposed leading to the airborne dispersal of salts and pesticide residues. The river delta flora and fauna have deteriorated such that fewer species exist. The decreasing level of the Aral Sea was accompanied by a rise of salinity, which resulted in the degradation of the ecosystems in the Aral Sea area as well as those of the fertile delta lands. The exposed seabed has turned into a desert, which at the present time is a source of tons of salty dust, blown away by the wind and carried along for thousands of kilometers. The quality of river water and other sources for drinking water have deteriorated. Environmental degradation in the Aral Sea area, especially in the south part in Karakalpakstan has resulted in decline of the socio-economic and public health situation.
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During Soviet times, vast desert areas in the Aral Sea Basin were transformed into artificially irrigated agricultural land for the production of cotton. The ensuing ecological problems strongly affect the livelihood of the local population. The agricultural production systems that are at the heart of this transformation are characterized by large monocultures and heavy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides and water. The extensive irrigation systems are expensive to maintain; up to 70% of the water is lost. The state order on crops, which is imposed via strongly centralized government structures, secures the predominance of cotton production and impedes a transition to a market economy. At present, the agricultural production is ecologically and economically unsustainable. In this setting, ZEF with its partners in Uzbekistan has started in March 2002 a research program to develop sustainable and efficient land and water use practices for the region. The program is based on the assumptions that applicable concepts for sustainable and efficient land and water use must be developed on the basis of sound scientific research, and that the complexity of the problems requires an interdisciplinary approach integrating natural resource management as well as economic and institutional changes. The project therefore integrates these different disciplines into one unified concept through a model that will provide, through testing of different scenarios, the concept for restructuring, to be tested in practice on pilot farms. First results include the mapping of groundwater and soil salinity, and of land use (trees and forest plantations), as a basis for later recommendations for improved, sustainable resource use. Studies on the performance of tree growth performance preceded a trial to monitor growth and irrigation needs of the best-performing trees on marginal land in greater detail. For the first time in the region, detailed irrigation water budgets for single fields are being established and have revealed the large contribution of ground water to the crop water needs. First economic assessments based on government data and field surveys of selected farms reveal the intricate structure of the agricultural production process in which the strong hierarchical, state-governed characteristic of the former Soviet system prevails. Studies of health problems related to drinking water reveal the deteriorating health care system. A study of the administrative performance of the newly formed Water User Associations and an investigation into farmers’ perceptions of the needed reforms complete the studies undertaken in the first year of this project.
Article
The Great Salt Lake has been gradually desiccating, increasing the amount of exposed lakebed and potentially exposing heavy metals that may be present in the lakebed soil and sediments. It is hypothesized that there is a statistically significant difference between the current and previous shorelines with the highest concentrations being at the current shoreline. This study used systematic sampling to collect 32 samples from the current shoreline and previous shorelines (elevation of 1281 m and 1282 m, respectively) for a total of 64 samples. All samples underwent X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis to quantify heavy metal concentrations. Nearly all samples contained arsenic (highest concentrations near the current shoreline). The majority of samples (80%) showed mercury levels below the limit of detection (LOD). A statistically significant difference in heavy metal concentrations between the two locations for arsenic, zinc, iron, manganese, rubidium, zirconium, and strontium was found. In addition, it was determined that the relationship between sample size (the number of values above the LOD) and location was statistically significant for mercury, selenium, lead, nickel, copper, manganese, zirconium and thorium. Further research quantifying heavy metal concentrations in other parts of the Great Salt Lake and the potential for airborne exposures should be conducted.
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The Aral Sea Basin is located on the territory of Central Asia and in the center of Eurasian continent. Central Asia is a vast and landlocked region in Asia. Despite some uncertainty of its borders, the general characteristics of this region are singled out; in particular, Central Asia has historically been associated with the nomadic peoples inhabiting there and the Great Silk Road. Central Asia has always acted as a place where people, goods, and ideas converged from different ends of the Eurasian continent: Europe, the Middle East, South and East Asia.
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Social costs and benefits are costs imposed on society or benefits that society obtains that are not taken into account in market decisions. The social costs and benefits, in being external to markets, are known as ‘externalities’. Competitive markets are not efficient in the presence of externalities and market corrections are required. The corrections can in principle be made without government involvement, but usually externality problems require public policy. Prominent externalities involve the environment, education, public health, and crime. Contents: (1) Attributes of externalities; (2) Common private ownership as a solution for externalities; (3) The Coase Theorem; (4) Public policy to address externalities; (5) Domestic politics and environmental policy; (6) International trade and the environment; (7) The global environment; (8) The theory of the second best - monopoly and the environment (9) Summary; (10) Conclusions; (11) References; (12) Questions for discussion
Article
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The desiccation of the Aral Sea ranks among the largest man-made ecological catastrophes and has become a global symbol for the overexploitation of limited resources and the environmental and socio-economic consequences caused thereby. Formerly the fourth largest inland lake, large parts of the Aral Sea have been transformed into a salty desert – the Aralkum. The exposed lake bed sediments are subject to wind erosion, resulting in white sand and dust storms which have been tracked over several hundred kilometres using remote sensing images. Dust deposition data, on the other hand, requires excessive field work over prolonged periods of time and thus is scarce. But this kind of ground-based monitoring provides valuable insights into the physical and chemical composition of the transported material. The dust transported from the Aralkum contains, among other things, salts, heavy metals and agrochemicals deposited in the Aral Sea over decades. It can contribute to soil salinization, damage crops and technical infrastructure and impair the human health in the region surrounding the Aralkum, making the analysis of the aeolian dust deposition highly relevant. In the study presented here passive dust deposition data from 23 meteorological stations in the Turan lowland have been collected between 2003 and 2012 and analyzed for their grain size, mineralogical, and chemical characterization in order to identify the influence the newly formed Aralkum has on the Central Asian dust dynamic.
Thesis
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Proper consumer attitude towards textile products and optimal post-consumer waste management of textile waste is connected with many benefits. Despite this fact, little research has been conducted on these topics. Textile waste represented mainly by donated textile from households and its material flow in waste streams mirrors the behaviour of our consumer society as well as new technologies in textile and fashion industry. More information about consumer attitude and behaviour toward textile and textile waste is needed to provide suitable waste management processes according to the hierarchy of waste management, such as re-use and energy recovery, and to ensure sustainable development and minimal impact on the worlds wellbeing. This study takes into account not only waste management of textile waste, but also tries to understand all textile issues in a wider perspective. Particularly fashion industry is connected with many negative ethical aspects (e.g. sweatshops), and many environmental issues are connected with overproduction of lower-quality textile products. Proper handling of post-consumer textile products is only one of the product life cycle stages to be solved. The main goal of this study is to discuss the results of a consumer attitude and behaviour questionnaire toward textile and textile waste from households in the Czech Republic. The study also includes partial hypotheses and an analysis of interest groups as other possible sources of information to form proper textile waste management policy tools and strategies.
Article
Aeolian dust is a significant factor influencing the atmospheric environment in arid and semi-arid areas, and one which deeply involves biogeochemical cycling, energy exchange, and the global carbon balance. In this study, we investigated the synoptic features of atmospheric dust in the inland region of Central Asia and analyzed its spatiotemporal variation using meteorological observation records, satellite products from the Multi-angle Imagine SpectroRadiometer (MISR), and land use and land cover (LULC) data. Results showed that aeolian dust in Central Asia is particularly significant in the arid Aral Sea region where annual average dust event frequency reached 56 d during 1984–2018. Blowing dust and intense dust storms dominated the aeolian dust weather in Central Asia, which may severely affect the regional atmospheric environment and local inhabitants' health. Dust events occurred frequently in the Aralkum Desert, Kyzylkum Desert, Caspian Depression, Kara-Bogaz-Gol and, generally, along the southern and southeastern borders of Central Asia in spring, summer and autumn seasons; such events resulted in both high particulate matter (PM) concentrations and high dust deposition rates. Meanwhile, aeolian dust event frequency around the Aralkum Desert area, Caspian Depression, and Kara-Bogaz-Gol region increased gradually from the 1980s–2010s. The Aral Sea region's Aralkum Desert is the chief dust source in the Central Asian region, emitting vast quantities of saliferous mineral dusts that are then transported into East Asia by strong westerly jets.
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The rapidly intensifying climate change is an impending threat to mankind. Rising temperatures over the past century have resulted in more frequent and intense droughts and increased dust activity. North Africa is major hub of dust generation followed by central Asia and China. The source of dust is not only the local droughts, but it is also transported over long distances. Dust can significantly impact health of exposed population. While PM10 is inhalable, PM2.5 can penetrate the epithelium and sit in the tissues and PM1.0 can enter systemic circulation translocating to different organs. Dust exposure has been implicated in increased incidence and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary conditions including, pneumonia, pro-thrombotic state, and myocardial ischemia. Chronic exposure is associated with condition including silicosis, asthma, cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s disease, and arsenic toxicity. Dust exposure is also associated with spikes in endemic infections including valley fever in the United States, meningitis in North Africa, and tuberculosis in India. African dust activity has been observed to accelerate algal blooms on the southeast coast of the United States, causing harm to marine and human life. In summary, the health effects of dust are far and wide in time and distance and significantly affect the health of exposed population.
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Climate change and desertification is a global problem, and Turkey and the Middle East region are among the mostly affected areas of the world. By the end of this century, Turkey and the Middle East region are expected to have an increased mean temperature about 3–5 °C and a 20–40% decline in precipitation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) warns that desertification is likely to become irreversible, if the environment becomes drier and the soil becomes further degraded through erosion and compaction. According to United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), most of areas in Turkey are under desertification and/or high potential for desertification and only small parts of the areas in Turkey are non-risky places. Climate models predict a hotter, drier, and less predictable climate for the Middle East region, and degradation and desertification are expected to accelerate due to global warming. Climate change and desertification is acting as a risk for water loss, decline in agriculture, and loss of biodiversity. Climate change has a negative impact on human health by indirect effects including air, water, and food supplies and by direct effects especially on elderly, children, and chronically ill population. This chapter examines the potential impacts of climate change and desertification on the environmental parameters and human health in Turkey and the Middle East.
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This paper analyzes a common property resource shared by two countries in the presence of two forms of bilateral externalities: the tragedy of the commons and the environmental damage resulting from the exploitation of the resource. We demonstrate that both cooperative and non-cooperative forms of regulation produce a negative effect on firms’ profits, as they increase firms’ unit production costs. However, regulation can also entail a positive effect on profits by mitigating industry overproduction. We show that the magnitude of these two effects depends not only on the type of regulatory instrument, but also on the rate of resource extraction and the environmental damage in each country. We identify conditions under which the positive effect of regulation dominates its negative effect, thus increasing firms’ profits and ultimately incentivizing them to support the introduction of regulation, either at the national or international level.
Article
Packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) using ultra-violet (UV) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) provides a versatile method for the identification and quantification of beta-agonists. We have achieved good separation of clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline and fenoterol with good resolution and reasonable retention times using a high concentration of methanol modifier in the supercritical CO2, together with small amounts of both acidic (trifluoroacetic acid, TFAA) and basic (triethylamine, TEA, or diethylamine, DEA) additives. APCI-MS gave unambiguous identification of the 4 analytes, and increasing cone voltage provided informative fragmentation patterns. The pSFC-MS technique was shown to be linear (R2 > or = 0.996) over the concentration range 1-50 micrograms ml-1. Single ion monitoring (SIM) gave detection limits (on-column) of 2.5 ng (clenbuterol), 0.83 ng (terbutaline), 7.6 ng (salbutamol) and 2.7 ng (fenoterol). The pSFC-MS system was shown to be reproducible within a day, between days, and between restrictors. Analysis of milk samples 'spiked' with beta-agonists showed that the matrix caused no interference, with detection limits of approximately 500 micrograms l-1 of beta-agonists. More dilute solutions could be analysed by pre-concentration before the SFC stage.
Turkmenistan: United Nations Development Program
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The analysis of ␤-agonists by packed-column supercritical field chromatography
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Report of the Scientific Research Institute of Pediatry, Ministry of Health
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The analysis of ß-agonists by packed-column supercritical field chromatography
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