Article

The Effect of Vitamin-Mineral Supplementation on Juvenile Delinquincy Among American Schoolchildren: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been cut almost in half after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization's guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios. Two controlled trials tested whether the cause of the behavioral improvements was psychological or biological in nature by comparing the behavior of offenders who either received placebos or vitamin-mineral supplements designed to provide the micronutrient equivalent of a well-balanced diet. These randomized trials reported that institutionalized offenders, aged 13 to 17 years or 18 to 26 years, when given active tablets produced about 40% less violent and other antisocial behavior than the placebo controls. However, generalization could not be made to typical schoolchildren without a controlled trial examining violence and antisocial behavior in public schools. To determine if schoolchildren, aged 6 to 12 years, who are given low dose vitamin-mineral tablets will produce significantly less violence and antisocial behavior in school than classmates who are given placebos. A stratified randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with pretest and post-test measures of antisocial behavior on school property. Two "working class," primarily Hispanic elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona. Approximately half of the potential schoolchildren participated, i.e., 468 students aged 6 to 12 years. Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. recommended daily allowance (RDA) for 4 months versus placebo. The supplement was designed to raise vitamin-mineral intake up to the levels currently recommended by the National Academy of Sciences for children aged 6 to 11 years. Violent and nonviolent delinquency as measured by official school disciplinary records. Of the 468 students randomly assigned to active or placebo tablets, the 80 who were disciplined at least once between September 1st and May 1st served as the research sample. During intervention, the 40 children who received active tablets were disciplined, on average, 1 time each, a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior than the 1.875 times each for the 40 children who received placebos (95% confidence interval, 29% to 65%, < 5 .020). The children who took active tablets produced lower rates of antisocial behavior in 8 types of recorded infractions: threats/fighting, vandalism, being disrespectful, disorderly conduct, defiance, obscenities, refusal to work or serve, endangering others, and nonspecified offenses. Poor nutritional habits in children that lead to low concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood, impair brain function and subsequently cause violence and other serious antisocial behavior. Correction of nutrient intake, either through a well-balanced diet or low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation, corrects the low concentrations of vitamins in blood, improves brain function and subsequently lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior by almost half. This paper adds to the literature by enabling previous research to be generalized from older incarcerated subjects with a history of antisocial behavior to a normal population of younger children in an educational setting.

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... A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 80 public school children (ages 6-12) with aggressive behaviors or disordered conduct. 186 A micronutrient formula (13 vitamins, 10 minerals, supplying about 50% of RDA) was administered for 4 months and resulted in a striking 47% reduction is disciplined violent and nonviolent misconduct, including threats, fights, vandalism, defiance, disrespect, and obscenities. In a similar 13-week study on 62 young delinquents (ages 13-17) in a maximum security hospital, treatment with micronutrients (12 vitamins at 3 times the RDA levels, 11 minerals at RDA level) led to an 83% reduction in the micronutrient group, compared with a 55% reduction in the control group, in both violent and nonviolent offenses (P<.005). ...
... [187][188][189] The findings of these 3 studies are comparable to the RDBPCT in 6-year olds to 12-year-olds in public schools showing a 47% reduction in aggressive behaviors or conduct disorder symptoms among 80 children who received a 23-ingredient formulation of vitamins and minerals, administered at about 50% of RDA levels for 4 months, without fatty acid supplementation. 186 The addition of omega fatty acid supplementation in 2 of the RDBPCTs 188,189 is sensible from a nutritional and public health perspective, in that it maximizes the likelihood of eliciting a positive response to nutritional intervention, but it has the unfortunate effect (from the point of view of this article) of obscuring how much of the observed behavioral improvements could be attributed to vitamins and minerals rather than to fatty acids. However, the 2 other RDBPCTs conducted in children and adolescents 186,187 showed that comparable results were obtained without fatty acids, supporting the notion that vitamins and minerals alone (without essential fatty acids) can be effective. ...
... 186 The addition of omega fatty acid supplementation in 2 of the RDBPCTs 188,189 is sensible from a nutritional and public health perspective, in that it maximizes the likelihood of eliciting a positive response to nutritional intervention, but it has the unfortunate effect (from the point of view of this article) of obscuring how much of the observed behavioral improvements could be attributed to vitamins and minerals rather than to fatty acids. However, the 2 other RDBPCTs conducted in children and adolescents 186,187 showed that comparable results were obtained without fatty acids, supporting the notion that vitamins and minerals alone (without essential fatty acids) can be effective. These 4 RDBPCTs constitute replicated demonstrations that broad-spectrum micronutrient treatment, with or without essential fatty acids, can have marked clinical effects on major misconduct and aggressive behavior. ...
Article
Several different vitamins and minerals appear to be effective augmenting agents for mood-modifying drugs, but are not potent monotherapies in themselves for treating psychiatric disorders. In contrast, broad-spectrum micronutrient interventions appear in early trials to be as effective as psychiatric medications with fewer adverse effects for treating mood disorders, ADHD, aggressivity, and misconduct in youth and adults. Broad-spectrum treatments also may improve stress responses, cognition, and sense of well-being in healthy adults, but have been less well studied in youth. Current clinical data justify an extensive expansion of research on micronutrient mechanisms and treatments in psychiatry.
... Previous literature has explored whether multivitamin, mineral and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may help to reduce aggressive behaviour. Hitherto, researchers in this field have studied young male prisoners [15][16][17][18] and children with behavioural problems, [19][20][21] some of whom were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, 22 attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 23 conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. 24 In total, five out of six randomised controlled trials showed reductions in aggression, and there were 26-47% fewer aggressive-related incidents in the group receiving nutritional supplements compared with those receiving a placebo. ...
... 24 In total, five out of six randomised controlled trials showed reductions in aggression, and there were 26-47% fewer aggressive-related incidents in the group receiving nutritional supplements compared with those receiving a placebo. [15][16][17][18][19] In addition, one of these studies demonstrated that participants with the lowest nutrient concentrations seemed to have benefited the most from nutritional supplementation. 17 Reductions in aggressive behaviour based on the number of disciplinary incidents were not found in a study among school-aged children. ...
... The sample size was based on results of previous literature. [15][16][17]19,45,46 We assumed a conservative delta of 26% reduction in the number of incidents, whereby incidents are modelled according to a Poisson distributed random variable. 47 Assuming 80% power, α = 0.05 and an overall rate of 4, a final total sample size of 132 was required to be able to reject the null hypothesis. ...
Article
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Background: Aggression and violent incidents are a major concern in psychiatric in-patient care. Nutritional supplementation has been found to reduce aggressive incidents and rule violations in forensic populations and children with behavioural problems. Aims: To assess whether multivitamin, mineral and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation would reduce the number of aggressive incidents among long-stay psychiatric in-patients. Method: The trial was a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Data were collected from 25 July 2016 to 29 October 2019, at eight local sites for mental healthcare in The Netherlands and Belgium. Participants were randomised (1:1) to receive 6-month treatment with either three supplements containing multivitamins, minerals and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, or placebo. The primary outcome was the number of aggressive incidents, determined by the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R). Secondary outcomes were patient quality of life, affective symptoms and adverse events. Results: In total, 176 participants were randomised (supplements, n = 87; placebo, n = 89). Participants were on average 49.3 years old (s.d. 14.5) and 64.2% were male. Most patients had a psychotic disorder (60.8%). The primary outcome of SOAS-R incidents was similar in supplement (1.03 incidents per month, 95% CI 0.74-1.37) and placebo groups (0.90 incidents per month, 95% CI 0.65-1.19), with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 0.67-1.74, P = 0.75). Differential effects were not found in sensitivity analyses on the SOAS-R or on secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Six months of nutritional supplementation did not reduce aggressive incidents among long-stay psychiatric in-patients.
... It has been suggested that the association between diet and behavior is due to compromised brain functioning in individuals who fail to meet their nutritional needs (Gesch, 2013;Schoenthaler et al., 1997;Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000). To grow and function normally, humans require regular consumption of macronutrients (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, fats) and micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals). ...
... Following this reasoning, a number of studies have explored whether providing dietary supplements to ensure nutritional requirements are met improves behavior. Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, these studies provide evidence to suggest that supplementing the diets of children (Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015;Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000), incarcerated adolescents (Schoenthaler et al., 1997), and young adult prisoners (Gesch, Hammong, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002;Zaalberg, Nijman, Bulten, Stroosma, & van der Staak, 2010) with vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids results in significant reductions in antisocial behavior. ...
... Nutritional factors may represent another opportunity to enhance the RNR model. Evidence suggests that behavioral problems are associated with nutritional deficiencies and consumption of unhealthy products (Holubcikova et al., 2015;Jackson, 2016;Liu, Raine, Venables, & Dalasi Mednick, 2004;Solnick & Hemenway, 2014), and that dietary changes or supplements can improve behavior (Gesch et al., 2002;Raine et al., 2016;Raine et al., 2015;Schoenthaler et al., 1997;Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000;Zaalberg et al., 2010). while the evidence that nutritional supplementation can be beneficial in modifying behavior continues to grow, the specific mechanism responsible for this association has not been clearly identified. ...
Article
During the past four decades, researchers and practitioners working in corrections have shifted from a “nothing works” to a “what works” orientation. Emphasizing the importance of adopting evidence-based interventions, Andrews and Bonta have argued that efforts to rehabilitate offenders should adhere to a number of specified principles of effective intervention, three of which—risk, need, and responsivity—are considered the most critical. These principles were derived from Andrews and Bonta’s theory of the psychology of criminal conduct, which underscores the necessity to link correctional practice to empirically defensible theories of offending. The vast majority of research has provided evidence of the effectiveness of the risk-need-responsivity model; however, far less attention has been given to expanding its theoretical foundation. Given the wealth of evidence supporting biosocial explanations of criminal behavior, we consider potential avenues for enhancing the risk-need-responsivity model through the integration of key findings from biosocial research.
... Indicators of poor nutrition, such as high sodium intakes and dyslipidemia, and dietary risk factors such as substance use, infectious and chronic conditions are prevalent among incarcerated persons [3][4][5][6][7][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Providing appropriate nutrition and food services as a form of duty of care has the potential to generate critical benefits including the prevention of communicable diseases that poses threats to community health, reducing risk of developing non-communicable health conditions and associated cost burdens, improving chronic condition management, reducing problematic and self-harm behaviors, and preventing recidivism [3,9,11,[14][15][16]. ...
... Many investigations that focus on nutrition service delivery and incarceration are largely based on food services systems, particularly factors such as food adequacy and quality [20,21]. However, investigations of corrections-based MNT have been limited, despite reports that there are significant challenges in practice (e.g., limited resources, working with individuals that have several co-morbidities) [3,11,15]. A deepened understanding of the relationships and contextual factors that impact MNT in correctional systems could provide information to improve food and nutrition programs, practices, and policies which, in turn, could reduce health care and criminal justice system costs. ...
... It makes better physiological sense to use a broad selection of nutrients, given that no one ingredient on its own would support all the biochemical reactions necessary for optimal function (Rucklidge, Johnstone, & Kaplan, 2013). With only a few exceptions (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000;Schoenthaler et al., 1997), the multinutrient-intervention research relevant to mental health has been published in only the brief period since the beginning of this century. Most of this relatively new research has investigated the use of micronutrients in combination (vitamins, minerals, and amino acids usually given in amounts larger than the recommended daily allowance but not considered "mega" doses) as treatment for mental problems. ...
... Schoenthaler et al. (1997) reported an RCT that resulted in a 28% decrease in rule violations in 62 imprisoned delinquents given a daily micronutrient formula when compared with those who received a placebo. An RCT on delinquent behavior in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 yielded similar results (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000): 80 children given a broad-spectrum formula had a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior requiring discipline than did 80 children who received a placebo. In another RCT, there was a 35.1% decrease in disciplinary incidents for 231 young offenders who received a supplement that consisted of 25 vitamins and minerals, plus some essential fatty acids, compared with a reduction of only 6.7% in individuals who received a placebo (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
We live in a transformational moment for understanding the etiology of mental disorders. The previous leap in understanding occurred 60 years ago, which led us to incorporate psychopharmacology into our curricula to address the chemical basis of neurotransmitter function, especially as explained through the then-popular catecholamine hypothesis. The current revolution is broader, consisting of the rapidly accumulating knowledge of how inflammation, microbiome imbalance (gut dysbiosis), oxidative stress, and impaired mitochondrial output affect brain function. Suitable interventions for fighting inflammation, restoring normal gut function, reducing oxidative stress, and improving mitochondrial metabolism incorporate lifestyle variables, including nutrients and probiotics. This article invites readers to stay abreast of this emerging model of the biological basis of mental illness, given that it has particular relevance for those readers interested in alleviating the suffering of individuals with mental disorders. This overview describes the basis for a new field in mental health: nutritional psychiatry/psychology.
... It makes better physiological sense to use a broad selection of nutrients, given that no one ingredient on its own would support all the biochemical reactions necessary for optimal function (Rucklidge, Johnstone, & Kaplan, 2013). With only a few exceptions (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000;Schoenthaler et al., 1997), the multinutrient-intervention research relevant to mental health has been published in only the brief period since the beginning of this century. Most of this relatively new research has investigated the use of micronutrients in combination (vitamins, minerals, and amino acids usually given in amounts larger than the recommended daily allowance but not considered "mega" doses) as treatment for mental problems. ...
... Schoenthaler et al. (1997) reported an RCT that resulted in a 28% decrease in rule violations in 62 imprisoned delinquents given a daily micronutrient formula when compared with those who received a placebo. An RCT on delinquent behavior in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 yielded similar results (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000): 80 children given a broad-spectrum formula had a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior requiring discipline than did 80 children who received a placebo. In another RCT, there was a 35.1% decrease in disciplinary incidents for 231 young offenders who received a supplement that consisted of 25 vitamins and minerals, plus some essential fatty acids, compared with a reduction of only 6.7% in individuals who received a placebo (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
We live in a transformational moment for understanding the etiology of mental disorders. The previous leap in understanding occurred 60 years ago, which led us to incorporate psychopharmacology into our curricula to address the chemical basis of neurotransmitter function, especially as explained through the then-popular catecholamine hypothesis. The current revolution is broader, consisting of the rapidly accumulating knowledge of how inflammation, microbiome imbalance (gut dysbiosis), oxidative stress, and impaired mitochondrial output affect brain function. Suitable interventions for fighting inflammation, restoring normal gut function, reducing oxidative stress, and improving mitochondrial metabolism incorporate lifestyle variables, including nutrients and probiotics. This article invites readers to stay abreast of this emerging model of the biological basis of mental illness, given that it has particular relevance for those readers interested in alleviating the suffering of individuals with mental disorders. This overview describes the basis for a new field in mental health: nutritional psychiatry/psychology.
... Supplementary multinutrient intervention has been shown to significantly reduce disciplinary transgressions by schoolchildren in a working class environment (13) and by young prisoners (14)(15)(16) . However, studies in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren are lacking. ...
... Thus, all the pupils, taken together, increased their offence rates by 25 (95 % HPD 3; 48) %, and it appears that receiving the active treatment had little effect on offending as measured by these disciplinary records. Thus, our disciplinary findings did not confirm the findings of Schoenthaler and Bier (13) in schoolchildren, or those of Gesch et al. (15) , and Zaalberg et al. (16) , in prisoners; all these studies found reduced offending behaviour after supplementation. However their baseline levels of offending were higher, and different treatments were used in each of them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.
... A number of studies have also linked nutritional factors to an important correlate of psychopathic personality traits: violence [38]. Several researchers have randomly assigned study participants to receive micronutrient supplements to see whether doing so reduces violence and other problematic behaviors [20,39]. Results have generally been supportive of the link between ingesting supplements intended to mimic a well-balanced diet, reductions in violent and delinquent behaviors, and overall improvements in behavioral control. ...
... Results have generally been supportive of the link between ingesting supplements intended to mimic a well-balanced diet, reductions in violent and delinquent behaviors, and overall improvements in behavioral control. To illustrate, a study by Schoenthaler and Bier [39] found that, relative to controls, children whose diet was supplemented with key micronutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and vitamin C) exhibited a 47% reduction in the rate of antisocial behaviors. Non-experimental studies have also indicated that consuming inadequate and poor quality food can heighten the risk of various behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence [12,13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study explores whether: (a) nutritional factors among adolescent males predict their risk of exhibiting verbal deficits and psychopathic traits during adulthood and (b) the link between nutritional factors and these outcomes is conditioned by the MAOA genotype. The study analyzes data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative, genetically informative sample. We find evidence that meal deprivation increases the likelihood of both verbal deficits and psychopathic personality traits, whereas poor quality nutrition increases the risk of verbal deficits. We detect the presence of a number of gene-environment interactions between measures of food quality and MAOA genotype, but no evidence of GxE in the case of meal deprivation. Limitations are noted and avenues for future research are discussed.
... Studies that focus on the relationship between nutrition and antisocial individuals have been conducted since the seventies of the last century. Early studies (D'Asaro, Groesbeck, & Nigro, 1975;Schoenthaler, 1985) were poorly designed, but more recent studies were randomized and placebo-controlled (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002;Schoenthaler et al., 1997;Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000;Zaalberg, Nijman, Bulten, Stroosma, & van der Staak, 2010). ...
... In an RCT with 80 schoolchildren, the number of reported rule violations, including acts of aggression at school, decreased substantially (47%, p = .04) after treatment with micronutrients, dosed at 50% of the RDA (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000). Schoenthalers last study, with incarcerated male young adult offenders (18-25 years of age) from a Californian prison, was never published (Schoenthaler, no date). ...
... In imprisoned juveniles, Schoenthaler et al. (1997) reported that the incidence of violence was 28% less after consuming a 12 vitamin/11 mineral supplement (without fatty acids) rather than a placebo. Similarly, over a 4-month period, schoolchildren with a history of problem behavior, who took 12 vitamins/11 minerals, were disciplined significantly less frequently (Schoenthaler and Bier 2000). Thus, there is evidence that both vitamins/minerals and DHA, when given alone, reduce aggressive behavior. ...
... One explanation for the previous positive findings with vitamin/minerals supplementation (Schoenthaler et al., 1997;Schoenthaler and Bier 2000) is that they reflected the use of participants who at baseline were deficient in micronutrients. A previous study of a similar sample to the one presently reported used biochemical methods to establish vitamin status (Benton et al., 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Although a series of well-designed studies have reported that supplementation with vitamins/minerals and omega-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of aggressive behavior, to date, the relative contribution and interaction between these nutrients has not been examined. The aim was therefore to consider the relative contribution of supplementation with multivitamins/minerals and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on laboratory-based measures of aggression, impulsivity, and stress. Methods In a double-blind randomized trial, four groups of young adult men without a history of aggressive or impulsive behavior received a placebo (n = 42), multivitamins/minerals (n = 43), DHA (n = 47) or both (n = 41) for 3 months. Results With the Picture-Frustration Task, DHA decreased the display of aggressive behavior. DHA also decreased impulsivity as measured using the GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm that examines the ability to inhibit already initiated behavior. Although a multivitamin and mineral supplement did not influence these measures, it did decrease perceived stress. Conclusions The influence of supplementation on aggression and impulsivity can be conveniently studied in a sample without a history of antisocial behavior, using laboratory-based measures. No evidence was found of a synergistic interaction between vitamins/minerals and DHA.
... A broad spectrum of minerals and vitamins (sometimes combined with omega 3s) can reduce aggression and violent incidents. The results have been reported across a range of populations, from aggressive children to incarcerated adults (Gesch et al., 2002;Hambly et al., 2017;Kaplan et al., 2004;Kaplan, Hilbert, et al., 2015;Rucklidge et al., 2018;Schoenthaler et al., 1997;Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000;Tammam et al., 2016;Zaalberg et al., 2010). The earliest randomized trial was more than 20 years ago, when researchers conducted a fully blinded three-month RCT in 62 incarcerated youth aged 13-17. ...
... Another RCT conducted by these researchers found school children aged 6-12 who received a broad spectrum of nutrients for one school year also improved (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000). The 40 children in the experimental group who were randomized to receive the multinutrient supplement exhibited 47% fewer antisocial behaviors requiring discipline than the 40 children who received a placebo. ...
Article
Although current evidence confirms the importance of diet for mental health, many psychologists avoid discussing dietary intake with clients, questioning whether this information is within their scope of practice. This article provides psychologists with a review focused on the connection between what we eat and how we feel. Eating a healthy, whole-foods-based diet is an important tool to promote mental health recovery and maintenance. We begin by reviewing several mechanisms by which nutrients maximize brain health, including enabling metabolic reactions to occur, supporting mitochondrial function, reducing inflammation and assisting with detoxification. Understanding the vital role of nutrients for brain health will aid clients in understanding the importance of optimizing their intake of a range of nutrients in order to maximize their mental health: no single nutrient is sufficient. Next, we summarize evidence relating diet to mental health, followed by a consideration of circumstances that may contribute to a client requiring additional nutrients, such as chronic stress, medication use, individual biochemistry, and consuming nutrient-depleted food. The evidence base for treating psychological problems in children with supplementary nutrients is then reviewed, and a case study of a child whose self-regulatory skills improved with broad-spectrum multinutrients is used to illustrate this treatment. The breadth and consistency of the research highlights the importance of children receiving a good foundation of nutrients for optimizing brain health. Finally, we offer practical suggestions for psychologists to incorporate this information into their clinical practice and discuss these suggestions within the context of informed consent.
... Indicators of poor nutrition, such as high sodium intakes and dyslipidemia, and dietary risk factors such as substance use, infectious and chronic conditions are prevalent among incarcerated persons [3][4][5][6][7][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Providing appropriate nutrition and food services as a form of duty of care has the potential to generate critical benefits including the prevention of communicable diseases that poses threats to community health, reducing risk of developing non-communicable health conditions and associated cost burdens, improving chronic condition management, reducing problematic and self-harm behaviors, and preventing recidivism [3,9,11,[14][15][16]. ...
... Many investigations that focus on nutrition service delivery and incarceration are largely based on food services systems, particularly factors such as food adequacy and quality [20,21]. However, investigations of corrections-based MNT have been limited, despite reports that there are significant challenges in practice (e.g., limited resources, working with individuals that have several co-morbidities) [3,11,15]. A deepened understanding of the relationships and contextual factors that impact MNT in correctional systems could provide information to improve food and nutrition programs, practices, and policies which, in turn, could reduce health care and criminal justice system costs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Under- and over nutrition as well as nutrition risk factors such as communicable and non-communicable diseases are a common and major cause of morbidity and mortality in correctional facilities. Consequently, medical nutrition therapy (MNT), a spectrum of nutrition services aimed at optimizing individual well-being, is being recognized as integral to the health of people who experience incarceration. However, there is a paucity of research that explores the delivery of MNT in correctional facilities. Methods A scoping review combined with secondary analysis of qualitative data (field notes, in-depth stakeholder interviews) from a 2-year ethnographic study about food insecurity and incarceration was undertaken to gain insights about the delivery of corrections-based MNT in Canada. Thematic analysis of all documents was done using an interpretive framework. Results An understanding about MNT was developed within three themes: 1) specialized service provision in a unique environment; 2) challenges with the provision of MNT; and 3) consideration of corrections-based MNT alternatives. An incarcerated individual’s nutritional health was conceptualized as culminating from various factors that included dietary intake and health status, enabling environments, access to quality health services, and clinical nutrition services. Nutrition care practices, which range from health promotion to rehabilitation, are challenged by issues of access, visibility, adequacy, and environmental barriers. Their success is dependent on demand (e.g., ability of recipient to act) and factors that enable quality health and food services. Advancing corrections-based MNT will require policies that provide supportive food and health environments and creating sustainable services by integrating alternatives such as peer approaches and telehealth. Conclusions Professional associations, government, researchers and other stakeholders can help to strengthen corrections-based MNT by fostering shifts in thinking about the role of health practitioners in these contexts, preparing future health professionals with the specialized skills needed to work in these environments, generating evidence that can best inform practice, and cultivating collaborations aimed at crime prevention, successful societal reintegration, and the reduction of recidivism. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-019-3926-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Several clinical trials have established causal links between human mental acuity and/or violent behavior and dietary deficiencies in omega-3 oils and antioxidants [e.g., Ref. (36,40,41)]. A combination supplement containing both omega-3 oils and antioxidants produced a significant gain in academic performance (42) and reductions in antisocial and violent FiguRe 3 | Diagram of the synergistic interaction among key nutritional features of the western diet in promoting chronic diseases and disorders. Highlighted are the mechanistic links of how these factors promote excessive belly fat, and how this belly fat, together with excessively high ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and of oxidants to antioxidants, trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (wide arrows). ...
Article
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We connect modern, intensive agriculture’s role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture’s environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of optimal human health and environmental health, supported by sustainable practices, is intended as an inspiring image of what sustainability has to offer to individuals and society. Our goal is to provide a transparent overview and illustrations intelligible not only to non-experts in each of the other respective areas involved but also to policy makers and the public.
... Research with multi-ingredient formulas in the treatment of ADHD is relatively rare, although such combination therapies have been found to be effective in the treatment of low mood, cognitive deficits, stress, anti-social behaviour and disruptive behaviour [45][46][47][48][49]. Over the last decade, there has been a slow increase in the number of publications on multi-ingredient micronutrient formulas for the treatment of ADHD, with potentially more promising results than single-ingredient studies; however, well-controlled trials are still few. ...
Article
Full-text available
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic psychiatric illness, which often co-occurs with other common psychiatric problems. Although empirical evidence supports the short-term efficacy of pharmacological and behavioural treatments, families often search for alternative treatment methods because of concerns about side effects and safety, cost and access, as well as fears about long-term exposure to psychotropic medications. This review presents the published evidence on use of broad-spectrum micronutrients to treat ADHD symptoms. This approach makes physiological sense in that nutrients are required for many critical biochemical reactions to occur, ranging from manufacturing neurotransmitters, to providing the mitochondria with essential nutrients for energy production, to assisting the gut to heal from inflammation. Multi-nutrient treatment approaches are an intriguing yet under-researched area; all but one of the trials conducted in the last decade have shown benefit for the treatment of ADHD symptoms, and the one negative trial likely used doses too low to effect change. However, the methodologies have varied widely from case-controlled studies to open-label trials to one randomized controlled trial. Sample sizes have typically been modest, although the effect sizes have tended to be medium to large. What is required now is replication, as well as investigation into the optimal ingredient range and optimal doses of nutrients. We discuss the proven and potential benefits of the broad-spectrum nutrient approach, considering the heterogeneous nature of ADHD.
... This research suggests that multinutrient supplements and essential fatty acids may decrease antisocial behavior; the researchers speculate that physiological changes caused by dietary intervention affect mental health, and warrant further clinical investigation (Gesch et al., 2002). Schoenthaler and Bier (2000) Results suggest some benefit for depression, irritability and mood stability, which might provide either a primary or adjunctive treatment with a more favorable riskbenefit ratio for children suffering from mood dysregulation than currently available pharmacologic interventions (Kaplan et al., 2002;Kaplan et al., 2001;Simmons, 2003). ...
... There is growing evidence that low levels of omega-3 HUFA alongside other micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) deficits may be linked to antisocial and aggressive behaviors. [90][91][92][93][94] Gesch et al 95 conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the effects of combined omega-3/6 and micronutrients supplementation in a population of 231 young adult prisoners (ages 18 and over). The results revealed that nutrient supplementation at routine low daily doses produced a marked reduction (35%-37% versus 7%-10% in the placebo group) in antisocial behavior and violent offences in the active group compared to baseline. ...
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The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated. Moderate evidence indicates that when fish consumption decreases and simultaneously omega-6 increases, the risk of clinical depressive symptoms are elevated. One meta-analysis examining tissue compositions provides moderate to strong evidence that higher levels of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) are associated with decreased risk of clinical depressions. Other meta-analytic reviews of randomized placebo-controlled trials provide moderate to strong evidence of significantly improving clinically depressive symptoms when the formulation given was >50% in eicosapentaenoic acid. Finally, a meta-analysis of omega-3 HUFAs provides modest evidence of clinical efficacy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article recommends that a rebalancing of the essential fatty acid composition of U.S. military diets, achieve tissue compositions of HUFAs consistent with traditional Mediterranean diets, may help reduce military psychiatric distress and simultaneously increase force efficacy substantially.
... However, zinc deficiency is often accompanied with a low general nutritional status so that the occurrence of aggression and violent behavior might not only be associated with low zinc levels but also with general malnutrition. Aggressive behavior was shown diminished by the supplementation of minerals and vitamins (Schoenthaler and Bier, 2000). Many infants with autism are suffering from marginal to severe zinc deficiency. ...
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Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.
... Otherwise, stress may be manifested in certain situations and coped with, for example, through aggression. Dogs that have undergone a socialization program are much more self-confident and can cope with stressful situations more easily than those that have been less socialized [64][65][66][67][68]. ...
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Aggression as a behavior is not always desirable, often ends in abandonment and/or euthanasia. However, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of unwanted aggression in domestic dogs. Aggression is not a fully understood phenomenon. In recent years, many studies have focused on the influence of diet and physiology (including the endocrine system) on the emergence of behavioral disorders. In particular, the emphasis was put on nutritional additives such as fatty acids, amino acids, and probiotics. In addition, the possibility of using neurocognition in the observation of abnormal behavior in dogs has also been discussed, which may allow for a more detailed determination of the basis of aggressive behavior in dogs. In this review, the concepts related to aggression and its potential causes have been gathered. In addition, the possible influence of diet and hormones on aggression in dogs has been discussed, as well as the application of neurocognition in the possibility of its diagnosis
... In the last 15 years, several studies have demonstrated that nutrient supplementation for school-aged children can improve their attention and emotional self-regulation, as well as decrease behavioral problems and disciplinary events. Schoenthaler showed that giving 40 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years a broad spectrum of nutrients resulted in 47 % fewer antisocial acts requiring discipline than the 40 children who received a placebo [1]. Outside the classroom, research by Harding and colleagues showed improved self-regulation in children diagnosed with ADHD or bipolar disorder who were treated with minerals and vitamins [2]. ...
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In clinical studies of adults and children, broad-spectrum micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) have proven beneficial for improving mood regulation and attention. We report here pilot work whose primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of studying micronutrient treatment in school-aged children with emotional and behavioral problems. Issues examined included feasibility of participant recruitment from a culturally diverse population, probability of sample retention for a 12-week trial, acceptability of the outcome measures, supplement adherence, as well as trends in treatment benefit. Case presentation The families of two boys (ages 5 and 6) and one girl (age 14) were invited to participate in a 12-week pilot trial of micronutrients carried out during the summer months. All children were enrolled in the private school at which future research was being considered. During the previous school year, all three had been extremely difficult to educate due to their inability to pay attention and learn, as well as their behavior problems. Although the two younger children had not been formally diagnosed, parents and teachers provided reports of hyperactivity and inability to focus on education in the classroom. The oldest child was often aggressive, and had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. All three children were Hispanic and spoke both Spanish and English. For 12 weeks, after signing consent forms, the children’s parents provided weekly ratings on the parent-report Child Mania Rating Scale; the children consumed the micronutrient formula daily and provided a daily rating of how they felt. The parent ratings revealed significantly improved behavior, p = .002. Children’s ratings approached the ideal level of 7, indicating “happy” self-reports. Parent interviews confirmed the weekly scores. Several feasibility questions were answered: all three children completed the 12-week trial, all scores were completed by parents and children, adherence to the protocol was excellent, and no adverse reactions emerged. Family physicians and pediatricians are often confronted with the challenge of improving the lives of families whose children experience school crises due to emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Three children, who participated in pilot work to determine the feasibility of further investigations, experienced impressive changes that clearly warrant both research and clinical exploration.
... Schoenthaler found a significant difference between the placebo and treatment group, with significant reduction in violent, antisocial behavior in the treatment group. The results of this study inspired a replication in California with 402 adult offenders between 18 and 25 years of age [27]. Participants taking the active tablet had 38% fewer rule violations than those on the placebo. ...
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Criminologists have long acknowledged the link between a number of cognitive deficits, including low intelligence and impulsivity, and crime. A new wave of research has demonstrated that pharmacological intervention can restore or improve cognitive function, particularly executive function (including the inhibition of impulsive response), and restore neural plasticity. Such restoration and improvement can allow for easier acquisition of new skills and as a result, presents significant possibilities for the criminal justice system. For example, studies have shown that supplements of Omega-3, a fatty acid commonly found in food such as tuna, can decrease frequency of violent incidents in an incarcerated population. Research has also begun to explore the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to reduce impulsivity in some violent offenders. However, there are significant legal and ethical implications when moving from dietary supplements to prescription pharmaceuticals and medical devices for cognitive intervention. This paper will explore the legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of pharmacological intervention on prisoners as an effort to reduce crime and recidivism.
... Research with multi-ingredient formulae in the treatment of ADHD is relatively rare, despite positive findings for combination therapies in other fields of research such as in the treatment of cognitive deficits, anti-social and disruptive behaviours (Gesch et al., 2002, Schoenthaler and Bier, 2000, Benton, 1992. This may in part be due to earlier studies which found that vitamins, given in "mega" doses (100 times the recommended daily intake) were not effective in the treatment of ADHD (Arnold et al., 1978, Haslam et al., 1984. ...
Chapter
Symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention, associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), can constitute a chronic, often debilitating psychiatric condition. Despite abundant research, there is no clear consensus on causes and treatments. The most commonly prescribed treatment is stimulant medication; however, there are concerns regarding safety, tolerability and long-term use. We provide an overview of published evidence for nutritional and dietary approaches to addressing ADHD symptoms. Although more research is needed, there is support for a role of food sensitivities with varying support for some nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, and there may be promise for a multi-ingredient approach.
... Anxious to consider a population that had not been selected for a history of violence or crime, schoolchildren were studied who had been disciplined at least once in the 8-month period prior to the study (Schoenthaler and Bier, 2000). Delinquency was measured using the official school disciplinary record. ...
Chapter
Although there is a widespread popular assumption that the consumption of refined carbohydrate rapidly increases blood glucose and therefore enhances mood, controlled studies do not support such a view. It is also commonly suggested that a marked increase in blood glucose is followed by a rapid fall, resulting in a hypoglycaemic reaction with associated anxiety-like symptoms. It is, however, uncommon for blood levels to fall to the levels required to diagnose clinical hypoglycaemia. There are, however, several reports of an association between a tendency for blood glucose to fall rapidly, but not to levels necessary to diagnose hypoglycaemia, irritability and aggression. The consumption of meals that are almost entirely carbohydrate can increase the levels of tryptophan in the blood with consequences for the synthesis of serotonin in the brain and hence an improvement in mood. The evidence is, however, that this mechanism is blocked by relatively small amounts of protein in the diet, such that it occurs very rarely when normal meals are consumed. Similarly, there is no support from well-controlled studies for the suggestion that sugar consumption causes hyperactivity in children. There is, however, evidence that pleasant tasting foods, for example chocolate, release endorphins with associated improvements in mood.
... The idea that nutrients can affect antisocial behaviour dates back to World War II when most children were supplemented with cod-liver oil and orange juice to reduce antisocial behaviour (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002). More recently, there have been four RCTs investigating the impact of micronutrients on offending behaviours in both incarcerated adults (Gesch et al., 2002;Zaalberg, Nijman, Bulten, Stroosma, & van der Staak, 2010) and adolescents (Schoenthaler et al., 1997) as well as children displaying antisocial behaviours (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000). All four trials reported superiority of nutrients over placebo in reducing offending and aggressive behaviours. ...
Article
Personality disorders are common, and the core problems of interpersonal dysfunction and social disturbance are difficult to treat. One area gaining international attention is the impact that diet and nutrients can have on psychiatric/psychological symptoms. There are no empirical studies studying the specific relationship between nutrition and personality disorders. A systematic search revealed longitudinal studies following malnourished children, either during pregnancy or in early life that reported malnourishment is a risk factor that can express as maladaptive behaviours later in life. Other studies show associations between nutrient intake and personality styles. A small body of literature reveals a potential benefit of consuming nutrients therapeutically in order to address behaviours often associated with personality disorders. If we consider the broad patterns of behaviour that typify personality disorders, such as cognition, affectivity, interpersonal functioning and impulse control, there is a research rationale for studying the role that nutrition could play in protecting against the development of these problems as well as possibly modifying them. Whether it is too late to intervene with nutrition once the pathological behaviours are entrenched is unknown. Given the dearth of good evidence-based treatments currently available for people with personality disorders, it is an area worth investing in. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Studies in children have shown that daily vitamin and mineral supplementation can reduce juvenile delinquency. For instance, in a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial of 486 unselected, public-school children, Schoenthaler and Bier (2000) found that children given a daily vitamin and mineral supplement showed a reduction of 47% in antisocial behavior after four months compared with children given the placebo. ...
Article
This article reviews research on the personal characteristics of youth that predispose to crime, focusing on the biosocial origins of antisocial behavior. A significant empirical base suggests that certain biological characteristics interact with environmental risk factors to produce higher rates of delinquency. This theme is explored in reviewing research within the domains of genetics, neuroimaging, neurology, neuropsychology, psychophysiology, endocrinology, and early health risks. Efforts have been made to integrate biosocial findings into prevention programs. Although the juvenile justice system may not be in a position to alter biological risk factors, family courts that hear cases of child abuse and neglect may be able to mitigate psychosocial risk factors by mandating therapies for youth and parenting classes for caretakers. Intervention and prevention efforts that utilize this approach represent promising avenues for the future treatment and prevention of criminal and delinquent behavior.
... And in the line with (Rosen et al., 1985;Werbach, 1992;Corapci et al., 2010) who recorded the impacts of dietary iron deficiencies and zinc deficiencies in aggressive kids and behavioral disorders. Similar result was obtained with Schoenthaler and Bier (2000) who reported that Poor nutritional habits in E.-S. G. E. El-Sahar, H. R. A. Sopeah Psychology children (6 -12 years) that lead to low concentrations of water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C) impair brain function and subsequently cause violence serious antisocial behavior. ...
... Nutritional interventions and randomized controlled trials also provide persuasive evidence that malnutrition relates to criminal behavior. For example, a large randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial revealed that public-school children given a daily vitamin and mineral supplement showed a reduction of 47% in antisocial behavior after 4 months compared with children given the placebo, although findings from this study remain controversial and require replication (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000). Another randomized controlled trial found that an enrichment program from ages 3 to 5 significantly reduced antisocial behavior at age 17 and criminal behavior at age 23 (Raine, et al., 2003). ...
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Research into the biological underpinnings of antisocial behavior has not only been increasingly integrated into criminological research, but has also expanded its scope to focus on antisocial behavior that develops during childhood. Many of the biological risk factors that are associated with antisocial behavior during adulthood have also been found to characterize young antisocials. Structural and functional brain imaging studies have implicated several brain regions in the development of antisocial behavior in children, including the amygdala, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the temporal region. Neuropsychological studies indicate that antisocial children display multiple behavioral indices of brain dysfunction, including executive dysfunction and IQ deficits. Psychophysiological studies have revealed that antisocial children are characterized by underarousal and diminished responses to stimuli and stressors. Early health factors, including minor physical abnormalities and prenatal nicotine exposure, both independently and in interaction with social risk factors are associated with antisocial behavior in children. Future research should focus on incorporating a life-course criminological perspective into the study of the biology of childhood crime and antisocial behavior. Longitudinal studies that measure both biological and social risk factors over time will be critical to advancing our understanding of the development of antisocial behavior both during childhood and throughout the life-course.
... There have also been a handful of randomized control trials examining the benefits of comprehensive micronutrient supplementation in curbing antisocial behavior (Sinn, 2008). For instance, various micronutrients, including vitamin A, iodine, iron, and zinc, seem to influence the behavioral profiles of children (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000), adolescents (Schoenthaler et al., 1997), and adults (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002;Zaalberg, Nijman, Bulten, Stroosma, & van der Staak, 2010). Thus, it appears that providing nutrient-dense diets through supplementation significantly reduces various forms of antisocial behavior, including fighting, vandalism, endangering others, and other aggressive behaviors. ...
... Of these children, only 80 had a school discipline record at baseline. It was reported that antisocial incidents fell significantly by 47% for those children on active supplementation that had a discipline record at baseline (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000) compared to placebos. Gesch et al formed a multi-disciplinary team to conduct an RCT where the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids were provided as a dietary adjunct to prisoners existing diets in order to test a causal relationship with delinquency. ...
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The relationship between nutrition and delinquency is directly attributable to the role of the human brain in governing our behavior, and like any organ, the brain requires nutrition to function normally. Poor nutrition during pregnancy and childhood diets have both been shown to have life-course consequences associated with delinquency. Diet has also been shown to significantly modify antisocial behaviors under experimental conditions. This entry discusses evidence of how the brain's nutrient supply fuels our social behavior.
... However, factors like digestion capacity, absorption, metabolic system, and demand have a significant impact on nutritional status along with food intake. It has been focused on the interrelationship between possible causes and effects such as metabolic imbalances and developmental abnormalities that are closely related to attention deficit disorder (Breakey 1997;Garipardic et al. 2017), learning disorders, intellectual development violence, and other serious antisocial behavior, which probably are related to cell danger response (Carlton et al. 2000;Schoenthaler et al. 2000;Naviaux 2014). Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, immune dysregulation, and oxidative found in the brain of ASD individuals indicate the biological basis for the reported behavioral problems (Goh et al. 2014;Rossignol and Frye 2014;Naviaux et al. 2015). ...
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Vitamin or mineral supplementation is considered to be the most commonly used medical treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in addition to other interventions such as neurological and psychological interventions. There is not much evidence of therapeutic efficacy between vitamin and mineral supplementation and improvements in ASD. However, several researchers have noted that patients with ASD have various metabolic and nutritional abnormalities including issues with sulfation, methylation, glutathione redox imbalances, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is some evidence that vitamin and mineral supplementation may support these basic physiologic processes. Recently, the nutritional status of ASD patients has been gaining focus in this particular area. Pointing out the nutritional status as a potential etiological factor for attention/communication disorders, more importance has been given to this particular point. Moreover, autistic specific considerations like the feature and behavior of ASD might be increased or at least fall in the higher risk due to the sub-optimal nutritional status.
... Although research with broad spectrum formulas containing minerals and vitamins for the treatment of ADHD is relatively new, supplementing with a combination of nutrients has shown efficacy in treating low mood, cognitive deficits, stress, and antisocial and disruptive behaviors (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002;Long & Benton, 2013;Schoenthaler et al., 1991;Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000;Zaalberg, Nijman, Bulten, Stroosma, & van der Staak, 2010). The last decade has offered a steady increase in the number of publications on broad spectrum micronutrients (BSM) for the treatment of ADHD, with potentially more promising results than single ingredient studies; however, more well-controlled trials are still needed. ...
... Aggressive behaviors and conduct violations have been studied in preadolescent and adolescent students in working-class public schools (two RCTs) and in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (three RCTs). All five RCTs of broad-spectrum micronutrient treatments (involving 23-25 micronutrients) have shown marked effects on major disciplinary violations and on aggressive behavior, with 26-47% reductions in the frequency of conduct violations [4][5][6][7][8]. In three of these studies, the formulations included omega fatty acids, but two did not and the results were similar. ...
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Background Healthcare costs are skyrocketing, with mental health treatment amongst the most expensive, especially when hospitalization is involved. According to the Mental Health Commission of Canada, one in five Canadians is living with a mental disorder in any given year, at an annual cost of $50 billion. In light of this societal burden, alternative approaches are being evaluated, such as brief psychotherapy by phone, peer support, and, as part of the emerging field of nutritional mental health, treatment with micronutrients (minerals and vitamins). Effectiveness of micronutrients has been demonstrated for many types of psychiatric symptoms, in about 45 studies of formulas that are either multinutrient (e.g., several B vitamins) or broad-spectrum (usually over 20 minerals and vitamins). Although this literature demonstrates therapeutic benefits, the potential economic impact of micronutrient treatment has been evaluated in only one case study of childhood psychosis. Methods The current case study was initiated to evaluate mental health-related hospitalization costs from 1997 to 2003 for a female adult diagnosed with various mood and psychotic symptoms. She was treated for the first 5 years with conventional methods and then subsequently with a broad-spectrum micronutrient formula. ResultsThe patient’s annual mental health hospitalization costs during conventional treatment averaged $59,864 across 5 years (1997–2001), with a peak annual cost of about $140,000. Since transitioning to broad-spectrum micronutrients, she has incurred no provincial hospitalization costs for mental health care, though her self-funded costs are currently $720/year for the micronutrients. Conclusion Further exploration of the treatment of mental health problems with broad-spectrum micronutrient formulas has the potential to make two significant contributions: improved mental health, and decreased costs for governments.
... Similarly, an RCT of 326 incarcerated male youth receiving micronutrients, fish oil, and evening primrose oil reported a 34% reduction in aggressive incidents in those receiving treatment compared to a 14% increase in incidents in those receiving placebo ( Zaalberg et al. 2010). Furthermore, a study of delinquent behavior in 80 schoolchildren aged 6-12 found a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior requiring discipline (e.g., fighting, disorderly conduct, and endangering others) in those taking micronutrients compared to placebo ( Schoenthaler et al. 1991;Schoenthaler and Bier 2000). The ability to individualize therapy based on biochemical profiling and through personalized pharmaceutical compounding may be a novel way to provide better treatment outcomes. ...
Article
Objectives: To assess cytokine and chemokine levels in youth experiencing antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) compared to obese patients, hypothesizing a different "immune signature" between the two kinds of obesity. Methods: We compared a group of youth experiencing AIWG (N 19, mean age 159 months, mean body mass index [BMI] z-score 1.81) and an age-, gender-, and BMI-matched group of untreated obese patients (N 19, mean age 147 months, mean BMI z-score 2) for a wide range of cytokines and chemokines by using a multiplex ELISA test. Results: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin (IL)1-β, IL4, IL8, IL9, IL12, IL 17, eotaxin, FGF, GMCSF, IP10, MIP1b, and vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly lower in the AIWG group, whereas IL13 and RANTES were significantly higher. Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, PDGF, IL4, IL8, IL13, IL17, eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), IP10, MIP1b, and VEGF remain significantly different. Conclusion: A clearly different pattern of cytokines distinguishes the two kinds of obesity, suggesting a different immune signature. Interestingly, most of the cytokines and chemokines bearing proinflammatory effects resulted decreased in the AIWG group, whereas IL-13, which holds an immune-modulatory effect, resulted increased.
... As mentioned in the Results section, participants in the low-fat milk group, who consumed 250 ml/day of milk, showed no significant improvement in their mental health and cognitive performance. It has been suggested that the impact of micronutrients as supplements or as qualified food on mental health is more robust among individuals who are deficient in micronutrients than it is among normal participants (27). Following this logic, the participants in the present study, who were recruited from students of boarding school and provided with school-prepared food, we speculate that they would not be expected to suffer from micronutrient deficiency. ...
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Introduction: Regular aerobic exercise and low-fat milk consumption can improve certain cognitive functions and reducing emotional distress. However, the impacts of combining these modalities are less explored. Thus, the present study examined the effects of combining aerobic exercise and low-fat milk intake among sedentary female students. Methods: Using a nonrandomized pretest-posttest with a control group research design, 85 sedentary females aged 16 years old were assigned into either milk (n = 21), exercise (n = 22), combined low fat milk and exercise (n = 23), or control (n = 19) groups. One serving of low-fat milk was provided to the students during each school day, and a 1-hour supervised step aerobics exercise was conducted twice per week for 3 months. Emotional distress and sustained attention were measured at baseline, 6th and 12th weeks after the intervention. A mixed factorial ANOVA was used to analyse the data. Results: The results revealed significantly less emotional distress in the combined (p < 0.01) and exercise groups (p < 0.05) compared with the control group after 12 weeks. Additionally, significant reductions were observed in the total time taken and errors of omission for both digits 6 and 9 of the Digit Vigilance Test in the combined group (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) compared with the control group. Conclusions: The results showed that low fat milk alone did not provide any additional benefits related to distress regulation, but the combination of exercise and low-fat milk contributed to improving sustained attention.
... First, these were dual diagnosis enhanced programs, and it is unknown as to what percent of patients had disorders as severe as to need their enhanced services. Second, all three dual diagnosis sites also incorporate holistic practices such as dialectical behavior therapy [18], acupuncture [19], nutrient dense food/education [20] and yoga since there is growing evidence of effectiveness when used in conjunction with other interventions with high efficacy in these areas [21][22][23]. The American Psychiatric Association has recently adopted a consistent position [24] namely, that holistic practices may be worthy to use in conjunction with evidence-based practices, but not as an alternative. ...
Article
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This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p < .005). A comparison between patients with and without weekly relapse produced significant differences in hospitalization (odds ratio 11.3:1; 95% C.I., 5.5 to 23.2). Eight ANCOVAs used mean intoxication days per month after discharge as the outcome variable, pre-admission intoxication days per month as a covariate, and eight variables associated with relapse (e.g. depression) as factors. Patients with these factors at admission did not have significantly higher intoxication rates after discharge than patients without them. This suggests that these DD programs successfully integrated treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve.
... First, these were dual diagnosis enhanced programs, and it is unknown as to what percent of patients had disorders as severe as to need their enhanced services. Second, all three dual diagnosis sites also incorporate holistic practices such as dialectical behavior therapy [18], acupuncture [19], nutrient dense food/education [20] and yoga since there is growing evidence of effectiveness when used in conjunction with other interventions with high efficacy in these areas [21][22][23]. The American Psychiatric Association has recently adopted a consistent position [24] namely, that holistic practices may be worthy to use in conjunction with evidence-based practices, but not as an alternative. ...
Article
Full-text available
This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p < .005). A comparison between patients with and without weekly relapse produced significant differences in hospitalization (odds ratio 11.3:1; 95% C.I., 5.5 to 23.2). Eight ANCOVAs used mean intoxication days per month after discharge as the outcome variable, pre-admission intoxication days per month as a covariate, and eight variables associated with relapse (e.g. depression) as factors. Patients with these factors at admission did not have significantly higher intoxication rates after discharge than patients without them. This suggests that these DD programs successfully integrated treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve.
... r Other studies have sought to correct nutritional deficits. One randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in a sample of 486 state schoolchildren to see if a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement could reduce antisocial behavior (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000). The treatment group had a 47% reduction in antisocial behavior after four months, compared to controls. ...
Chapter
Brain development and organization is an extremely long and complex process, given that it contains approximately 86 billion neurons, and has around 100 trillion synaptic connections. Brain development through the formation of neurons (brain cells) begins shortly after conception, continues throughout a person's life, and is subject to specific developmental milestones. This chapter examines the risk factors that can impact upon the developing brain. It expresses that understanding how these risk factors affect the brain is the first step in being able to ameliorate such risk factors, by the use of appropriate brain-based interventions. Social/antisocial behaviors are underpinned by neurobiological action. The chapter analyses the prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal risk factors in offenders. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has also been implicated as a precursor of antisocial behavior. The chapter briefly examines some interventions that would appear to be useful in modifying the environmental risk factors.
... Subsequently, the considerable human research has suggested that broad-spectrum micronutrient treatment approaches have been more beneficial for the improvement of mood and behaviour than single nutrient studies (for reviews see: (Kaplan, Crawford, Field, & Simpson, 2007;Popper, Kaplan, & Rucklidge, 2017;Rucklidge, Johnstone, & Kaplan, 2009;Rucklidge & Kaplan, 2013). There are now a number of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCT) supporting the positive effect of broad-spectrum micronutrients for the treatment of symptoms associated with clinical conditions, including autism (Adams et al., 2011), ADHD (Rucklidge, Frampton, Gorman, & Boggis, 2014), conduct disorder (Schoenthaler & Bier, 2000) and depression (Mech & Farah, 2016). ...
Article
Background: Evaluation of broad-spectrum micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) treatment for childhood ADHD has been limited to open-label studies that highlight beneficial effects across many aspects of psychological functioning. Method: This is the first fully blinded randomized controlled trial of medication-free children (n = 93) with ADHD (7-12 years) assigned to either micronutrients (n = 47) or placebo (n = 46) in a 1:1 ratio, for 10 weeks. All children received standardized ADHD assessments. Data were collected from clinicians, parents, participants and teachers across a range of measures assessing ADHD symptoms, general functioning and impairment, mood, aggression and emotional regulation. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant between-group differences favouring micronutrient treatment on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (ES = 0.46), with 47% of those on micronutrients identified as 'much' to 'very much' improved versus 28% on placebo. No group differences were identified on clinician, parent and teacher ratings of overall ADHD symptoms (ES ranged 0.03-0.17). However, according to clinicians, 32% of those on micronutrients versus 9% of those on placebo showed a clinically meaningful improvement on inattentive (OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-16.3), but no group differences on improvement in hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.4-2.5). Based on clinician, parent and teacher report, those on micronutrients showed greater improvements in emotional regulation, aggression and general functioning compared to placebo (ES ranged 0.35-0.66). There were two dropouts per group, no group differences in adverse events and no serious adverse events identified. Blinding was successful with guessing no better than chance. Conclusions: Micronutrients improved overall function, reduced impairment and improved inattention, emotional regulation and aggression, but not hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, in this sample of children with ADHD. Although direct benefit for core ADHD symptoms was modest, with mixed findings across raters, the low rate of adverse effects and the benefits reported across multiple areas of functioning indicate micronutrients may be a favourable option for some children, particularly those with both ADHD and emotional dysregulation. Trial registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000896774.
... Public Health and Safety: The Social Determinants of Health and Criminal Behavior Page 12 evidence that low levels of omega-3 alongside other micronutrient deficits may be linked to antisocial and aggressive behavior (Gesch, et al. 2002;Corrigan et al. 1994;Schoenthaler 1983aSchoenthaler , 1983bSchoenthaler and Bier 2000). ...
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There are a number of important links and similarities between public health and safety. In this extended essay, Gregg D. Caruso defends and expands his public health-quarantine model, which is a non-retributive alternative for addressing criminal behavior that draws on the public health framework and prioritizes prevention and social justice. In developing his account, he explores the relationship between public health and safety, focusing on how social inequalities and systemic injustices affect health outcomes and crime rates, how poverty affects brain development, how offenders often have pre-existing medical conditions (especially mental health issues), how involvement in the criminal justice system itself can lead to or worsen health and cognitive problems, how treatment and rehabilitation methods can best be employed to reduce recidivism and reintegrate offenders back into society, and how a public health approach could be successfully applied within the criminal justice system. Caruso's approach draws on research from the health sciences, social sciences, public policy, law, psychiatry, medical ethics, neuroscience, and philosophy, and he delivers a set of ethically defensible and practically workable proposals for implementing the public health-quarantine model. The essay begins by discussing recent empirical findings in psychology, neuroscience, and the social sciences that provide us with an increased understanding of the social and neurological determinants of health and criminal behavior. It then turns to Caruso's public health-quarantine model and argues that the model provides the most justified, humane, and effective approach for addressing criminal behavior. Caruso concludes by proposing a capability approach to social justice grounded in six key features of human well-being. He argues that we cannot successfully address concerns over public health and safety without simultaneously addressing issues of social justice—including the social determinants of health (SDH) and the social determinants of criminal behavior (SDCB)—and he recommends eight general policy proposals consistent with his model.
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Background: Experimental research has shown that nutrition influences behavioral deviance. Objectives: The current project addresses the impact of nutrition on problem alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: The study relies on the daily dietary nutrition data and the substance use measures in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: The findings generally show that macronutrients increase the odds of substance use and micronutrients decrease the odds of substance use, especially among females. In addition, nutrient imbalance is a particularly strong predictor of substance use for both males and females. Depression partially accounts for the relationship between dietary nutrition consumption and substance use. Conclusions: Nutrition represents a promising extension of the biosocial perspective in substance use disorders.
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Thematic areas of the conference: 1. Modern directions of pharmacy and pharmaceutical production. 2. Problems in health care and their resolution. 3. Information and logistics problems in pharmacy. 4. Current trends in bioinorganic, bioorganic, biological and medicinal chemistry. 5. Teaching at medical university.
Article
Might differential nutrition contribute to racial differences in violent crime and intellectual performance (SAT scores)? Nutritional intake across the 50 states in the US differed by race, such that states with a higher percentage of Whites and a lower percentage of Blacks had poorer nutritional intake. Crime rates and SAT scores also differed by race, such that violent crime rates were higher in states with a lower percentage of Whites and a higher percentage of Blacks, and Whites scored higher and Blacks scored lower on the SAT than did other racial groups. Nutritional intake partially mediated the link between race and violent crime and fully mediated the link between race and SAT performance. These findings suggest that improving the diet of Black citizens may be a promising avenue toward reducing socially problematic racial disparities in crime and school.
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Criminologists have long acknowledged the link between a number of cognitive deficits, including low intelligence and impulsivity, and crime. A new wave of research has demonstrated that pharmacological intervention can restore or improve cognitive function, particularly executive function (including the inhibition of impulsive response), and restore neural plasticity. Such restoration and improvement can allow for easier acquisition of new skills and as a result, presents significant possibilities for the criminal justice system. For example, studies have shown that supplements of Omega-3, a fatty acid commonly found in food such as tuna, can decrease frequency of violent incidents in an incarcerated population. Research has also begun to explore the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to reduce impulsivity in some violent offenders. However, there are significant legal and ethical implications when moving from dietary supplements to prescription pharmaceuticals and medical devices for cognitive intervention. This paper will explore the legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of pharmacological intervention on prisoners as an effort to reduce crime and recidivism.
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Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possible relations between nutrients and behaviour were investigated. In the first study, levels of nutrients in blood samples of forensic psychiatric patients were measured. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids appeared to occur mainly in aggressive patients. In a second study, young detainees were provided with food supplements (multi-vitamins and fish oil). As compared to detainees in a placebo group their antisocial behaviour decreased. A literature search was conducted to find out if environmental neurotoxicants and criminal behaviour are related. Evidence indicates that lead in the environment decreases intelligence in children and might cause violent behaviour later in life. Studying other environmental pollutants on these effects is recommended.
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In reviewing introductory texts available to criminologists, one is left with the impression that biological factors are irrelevant to the formulation of criminal behavior. Where biology is mentioned at all, it receives infinitesimal coverage. This dearth of attention could at one time be blamed on shoddy research and the legitimate fear that evidence gathered along this path would be used to support eugenics extremists. However, in the past 20 years, tremendously valuable work has been accomplished that legitimately correlates biological factors such as genetics, biochemistry, diet, and brain disease to criminal behavior. Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior fundamentally questions the way most criminologists attempt to explain, let alone ameliorate the problem of human criminal behavior. Written by Gail Anderson, a highly respected expert in forensics, who also brings a much-needed biological background to the task, this resource champions contemporary biological theory by introducing criminologists to areas of research they might not otherwise encounter. Dr. Anderson discusses basic biological concepts such as natural selection and evolution in relation to behavior, and considers genetic factors including patterns of inheritance, sex-linked traits, and propensities toward aggression. She explores studies on hormonal effects, as well as brain chemistry, and delves deeply into organic brain dysfunction. She also looks at investigations into fetal conditions and birth-related difficulties, as well as research on nutrition and food allergies. While it is steeped in scientific research, the material is presented in a way that does not require a scientific background. The author does not suggest that biology plays the major role in criminal behavior; however, her carefully researched work does prove that we can gain a far deeper and more useful understanding when we objectively assess all of the factors involved. A professor of forensic entomology in the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University, Gail S. Anderson has a Ph.D. in medical and veterinary entomology. She serves as a forensics consultant to the RCMP and city police across Canada. Among her many accolades, she was listed in TIME magazine as one of top five innovators worldwide in criminal justice and recently received the Derome Award from the Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences.
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Background Breakfast is deemed the most important meal of the day. We examined the prospective associations of breakfast habits with emotional/behavioral problems in adolescents and potential effect modification. Methods 115,217 Primary 6 students (US grade 6, age 11.9±0.59 years) who attended the Student Health Service of Department of Health in Hong Kong in 2004/05, 2006/07, 2008/09 were followed till Secondary 6 (US grade 12). Emotional/behavioral problems were biennially examined using Youth Self-Report since Secondary 2 (US grade 8). Lifestyles were biennially examined using standardized questionnaires since Primary 6. Prospective associations of breakfast habit with emotional/behavioral problems and potential effect modification were examined using generalized estimating equations. Results Compared with eating breakfast at home, eating breakfast away from home was significantly associated with total emotional/behavioral problems and 7 syndromes, including withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors and aggressive behaviors (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] 1.22-2.04), while skipping breakfast showed stronger associations with the above problems and social problems (AORs 1.34-2.29). Stronger associations were observed in younger students for total and attention problems (P<0.03) and in those with lower weight status for delinquent behaviors (P=0.005). Conclusions Eating breakfast away from home and especially skipping breakfast were prospectively associated with more adolescent emotional/behavioral problems. The associations weakened with increasing age for total emotional/behavioral and attention problems, and weakened with higher weight status for delinquent behaviors, highlighting the vulnerability of younger and underweight children. If the associations are causal, increasing home breakfast may reduce adolescent emotional/behavioral problems and benefit psychosocial health.
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Aggressive behavior has several useful functions which were of particular importance to our ancestors' survival and reproduction. However, some of the conditions in our novel environment which either lowered the threshold for aggression or released such behavior in contexts which were adaptive in our evolutionary past, no longer apply. Violence and aggression may be triggered by today's nutritionally depleted foods, a nutrient intake that is much lower than what we are genetically adapted to, reactive hypoglycemia caused by habitual intake of foods with a high glycemic index (GI), food allergies/intolerances, and exposure to new environmental toxins (heavy metals, synthetic poisons).
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This study investigated the relationship between lifestyle choices and substance addiction in young adults by applying the Relapse Prevention model of addiction. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 926 young adults aged 18∼24 residing in 24 countries. Of these, 17.6% reported that they had serious substance addiction, with alcohol addiction being the highest (11.2%), followed by nicotine (10.3%) and illicit drug (8.7%) addiction. Results of chi-square test and logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between all lifestyle factors (spirituality, regular exercise, intake of nutrients like tryptophan, folic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, and micronutrients) and substance addiction (illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine). And depression was also found to be a significant factor influencing substance addiction. In particular, the risk of alcohol addiction was the highest at 9.870 (95% CI: 4.525-21.525) times among those who said they did not read the spiritual content than those who did. And the risk of nicotine and illicit drug addiction was the highest among those who said their intake of micronutrients was ‘less than 1 serving’ per day compared to ‘more than 5 servings,’ with odds ratios of 9.606(95% CI: 2.726-30.111) and 8.642(95% CI: 2.022-37.378) respectively. These findings suggest that holistic lifestyle interventions may help prevent and reduce substance addiction in young adults.
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Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co and V were evaluated in paddy (Oryza sativa) and foreign rice collected from thirteen local government areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Concentration of Cu was below WHO/FAO and NAFDAC (40.00 mg/kg) regulatory limit. Concentration of Zn was within the WHO/FAO limit, Ni (0.03 mg/kg) was above the WHO/FAO threshold limit in samples Le3, Kc1, Ik2, TO and KG. Pb was detected in all samples except inKa2. Co, Fe, Pb, Cd, Mn and Cr were below WHO/FAO and NAFDAC regulatory limits in all samples. Guidance value was not available for V. Associated health risks of these metals show the daily intake of metals (EDIM)for Cd (0.0000935 mg/kg), Cr (0.001105 to 0.002125 mg/kg), Mn (0.00034 to 0.00765 mg/kg). EDIM of As was below the daily limit Target hazard quotient measured for Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn and Co in all samples were < 1, except for As. There exists cancer risk at a lower limit of 64 chances in 1000 lifetime exposure and an upper limit of 14 chances in 100 lifetime exposure for any combination of two or more of Ni, Pb, Cd, As and Cr available for consumption. Statistical analysis reveals no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the concentrations of Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, As and V but revealed significant difference in the concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cd, Fe and Co. Hg was not detected in all samples.
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Two independent groups suspected that poor diets in school children might impair intelligence. Because dietary changes produce psychological effects, both groups conducted randomized trials in which children were challenged with placebo or vitamin-mineral tablets. Both reported significantly greater gains in intelligence among the actives. The findings were important because of the apparent inadequacy of diet they revealed, and the magnitude of the potential for increased intelligence. However, 5 of 11 replications were not significant, leaving the issue in doubt. To determine if school children who receive low-dose vitamin-mineral tablets produce significantly higher IQ scores than children who receive placebo. A macrolevel analysis of the 13 known randomized, double-blind trials was undertaken. A total of 15 public schools in Arizona, California, Missouri, Oklahoma, Belgium, England, Scotland, and Wales participated, with 1477 school children, aged 6 to 17 years, and 276 young adult males, aged 18 to 25 years, in 2 American correctional facilities. All studies used 1 of 3 standardized tests of nonverbal intelligence: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, or the Calvert Non-verbal test. The activities in each study performed better, on average, than placebo in nonverbal IQ, regardless of formula, location, age, race, gender, or research team composition. The probability of 13 randomly selected experimental groups always performing better than 13 randomly selected independent control groups is one-half to the 13th power (p = 0.000122). The mean difference across all studies is 3.2 IQ points. Furthermore, the standard deviation in the variable "IQ change" was also consistently larger in each active group when compared to its controls. This confirms that a few children in each study, presumably the poorly nourished minority, were producing large differences, rather than a 3.2 point gain in all active children. There are important health risks when school children's dietary habits depart substantially from government guidelines; poor dietary habits may lead to impaired intelligence. Low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation may restore the cognitive abilities of these children by raising low blood nutrient concentrations. However, there is also evidence that supplementation has no measurable effect on the intelligence of well-nourished children with normal blood nutrient concentrations.
Article
This paper reviews the major empirical studies at California State University, Stanislaus, over the past decade on nutrition and human behavior. They have shown that: (1) implementation of nutritional policies requiring nutrient dense diets in 813 state facilities resulted in significantly improved conduct, intelligence, and/or academic performance based on time-series analyses; (2) dispersement of vitamin-mineral supplements in correctional facilities resulted in significantly improved conduct; and (3) double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have shown that children placed on vitamin-mineral supplements exhibited significantly less violence, less non-violent antisocial behavior, higher gains in non-verbal intelligence and higher academic achievement than children on placebos. Collectively, these studies show that inadequate vitamin-mineral intake can adversely impact behavior in children who often have neither physical signs nor symptoms of deficiency diseases. The existence of subclinical malnutrition needs to be considered in the presence of inexplicable violence, conduct disorders, poor academic performance, and low non-verbal intelligence.
Article
In a randomised controlled trial the effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation for seven months on performance in tests of reasoning was studied in 86 schoolchildren aged 11-13. A small, non-significant difference between the control and supplementation groups was found in a non-verbal test. The net difference in change in scores between the active and placebo groups was 2·4 units (95% Cl -1·5 to 6·3). This direction of effect was not consistently seen with three other tests of non-verbal reasoning. Vitamin and mineral supplementation does not improve the performance of schoolchildren in tests of reasoning.
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Initial and 3-year follow-up peer ratings of 19 boys with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) were compared. When the entire group was considered, nominations on the Aggression and Likability factors of the Pupil Evaluation Inventory (PEI) improved. Subgroups were created using teacher ratings on the Iowa Conners Aggression (ICA) scale. Peer ratings of Aggression improved for boys whom teachers rated below the median on the ICA scale but not for boys rated above the median. Subgroups reflecting other teacher and peer ratings were less effective in predicting differential change in peer ratings of ADDH boys.
Article
Ten juvenile correctional institutions in three states had a 47% reduction in assaults, insubordination, horseplay, suicide attempts, and general rule violations in 6,033 youths following similar dietary intervention. Seven theories have been offered to explain these improvements in behavior: placebo effects, maturation effects, reactive hypoglycemia, the reduction of marginal malnutrition, neurotransmitter (serotonin) uptake, food intolerances, and absolute low blood sugar. Juvenile facilities in Alabama, Florida and Virginia empirically tested these 7 theories. A 36 month time-series design involving 125 Alabama juveniles showed a 61% reduction in antisocial behavior which was only consistent with the malnutrition theory. The Virginia site used an a-b-a-b-a design for 24 months. Support was present for the marginal malnutrition hypothesis on 856 children. The testing of the reactive hypoglycemia-causing-crime theory with 35 Florida delinquents showed that hypoglycemia does exist in delinquents, but the frequency is too low to explain the 47% improvements in behavior. However, a significant but weak correlation was found between low blood sugar and behavior which is also consistent with marginal malnutrition theory. The data was not consistent with placebo effects, maturation effects, neurotransmitter changes, food intolerances, nor reactive hypoglycemia as the primary causes of the 47% improvements in behavior.
Article
Presents an empirical multistate examination of the behavioral changes in 10 correctional institutions after diet was modified. In 1982, a juvenile detention home lowered the frequency of antisocial behavior resulting in formal disciplinary actions 48% during the 12-mo experimental stage of a 2-yr double-blind study by using dietary intervention. Widespread dissemination of this study resulted in numerous states adopting similar or identical programs: Nine additional institutions, involving over 5,000 institutionalized juveniles. All 10 facilities were successful in significantly reducing their institutional behavior problems from a low of 21% to a high of 54% under controlled experimentation. The primary dietary revisions involved reducing foods and liquids high in sucrose and food additives (e.g., candy and soft drinks). These foods were replaced with complex carbohydrates (e.g., fruit juices and vegetables). Theories concerning the ways in which food affects behavior are listed. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a study in which the incidence of antisocial behavior resulting in formal disciplinary actions was lowered 48% using a double-blind design over a 2-yr period with a sample of 276 incarcerated juveniles by reducing the quantity of sugar Ss consumed. The primary dietary revisions involved the replacement of soft drinks and "junk" food with fruit juices and nutritious snacks and the elimination of high sugar content desserts and cereals. The percentage of well-behaved Ss increased 71% and the percentage of chronic offenders decreased 56%. Adding controls for gender, race, age, and type of offender (violent, property, or status) did not diminish the reduction in antisocial behavior. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There appear to be no brain imaging studies investigating which brain mechanisms subserve affective, impulsive violence versus planned, predatory violence. It was hypothesized that affectively violent offenders would have lower prefrontal activity, higher subcortical activity, and reduced prefrontal/subcortical ratios relative to controls, while predatory violent offenders would show relatively normal brain functioning. Glucose metabolism was assessed using positron emission tomography in 41 comparisons, 15 predatory murderers, and nine affective murderers in left and right hemisphere prefrontal (medial and lateral) and subcortical (amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, and thalamus) regions. Affective murderers relative to comparisons had lower left and right prefrontal functioning, higher right hemisphere subcortical functioning, and lower right hemisphere prefrontal/subcortical ratios. In contrast, predatory murderers had prefrontal functioning that was more equivalent to comparisons, while also having excessively high right subcortical activity. Results support the hypothesis that emotional, unplanned impulsive murderers are less able to regulate and control aggressive impulses generated from subcortical structures due to deficient prefrontal regulation. It is hypothesized that excessive subcortical activity predisposes to aggressive behaviour, but that while predatory murderers have sufficiently good prefrontal functioning to regulate these aggressive impulses, the affective murderers lack such prefrontal control over emotion regulation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
615 schoolchildren were examined on multiple measures of intelligence, randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 12 weeks, and post-tested on the same measures of intelligence. One cohort received placebos while the other three were given different strength vitamin-mineral supplements. The trial was completed under ‘blind’ conditions, i.e. the subjects, the testers, and the scientists conducting the data analyses did not know any subject's group assignment. This created a triple-blind placebo-controlled, classical design capable of determining whether supplements could produce significant gains in standardized validated indices of intelligence/performance. The study was carried out in Stanislaus County, California, using 4 different schools. Results showed that for non-verbal Wechler Tests there were highly significant improvements in I.Q., whereas for the verbal tests there were none; a conclusion expected on the basis that ‘fluid’ intelligence, as measured by the non-verbal test, might be improved by supplementation, whereas ‘crystallized’ ability tests (verbal tests) would be unlikely to be so improved. This difference was predicted on the basis of previous studies also finding similakr results. Other tests (Raven's Matrices, the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, the Matrix Analogies Test, and measures of Reaction Time and Inspection Time) gave additional confirmatory evidence on the contribution which supplementation of the diet by vitamins and minerals can make to the improvement of I.Q.
Article
Recent research on intelligence and delinquency suggests that (1) the relation is at least as strong as the relation of either class or race to official delinquency; (2) the relation is stronger than the relation of either class or race to self-reported delinquency. In an analysis of the history of the research on the IQ-delinquency relation, we trace the developments leading to the current textbook position that IQ is not an important factor in delinquency. This position, which came into vogue about forty years ago and is still held by many sociologists, has its roots in: (1) a medical to sociological paradigm shift in this century; (2) the failure of subsequent research to substantiate the early exorbitant claims that low IQ was a necessary and sufficient condition for illegal behavior; (3) early negative reviews of research on this question by Sutherland and others; (4) reservations about the validity of the measurement of both IQ and delinquency; (5) erroneous interpretation of research findings; (6) speculation regarding factors which might account for the relation. It is noted that many currently prominent sociological theories of delinquency implicitly or explicitly use IQ as a crucial theoretical element. We show that IQ has an effect on delinquency independent of class and race, and we argue that this effect is mediated through a host of school variables.
Article
In a randomised controlled trial the effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation for seven months on performance in tests of reasoning was studied in 86 schoolchildren aged 11-13. A small, non-significant difference between the control and supplementation groups was found in a non-verbal test. The net difference in change in scores between the active and placebo groups was 2.4 units (95% CI-1.5 to 6.3). This direction of effect was not consistently seen with three other tests of non-verbal reasoning. Vitamin and mineral supplementation does not improve the performance of schoolchildren in tests of reasoning.
C: 1977. National Research Council. National Survey Data on Food Consumption: Uses and Recommendations
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