Pseudomembranous gastritis: a novel complication of Aspergillus infection in a patient with a bone marrow transplant and graft versus host disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med
A 36-year-old Hispanic man who had undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, complicated by graft versus host disease, was admitted with acute gastrointestinal symptoms, including severe diarrhea and diffuse abdominal pain. He also had a persistent cough with sputum production. Blood cultures yielded Escherichia coli, and sputum cultures grew Apergillus species. The patient was treated with antifungal agents and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Despite aggressive medical therapy, the patient died 10 days after admission. Postmortem examination disclosed severe, bilateral confluent bronchopneumonia, with numerous septated branching hyphae consistent with Aspergillus species fungal organisms that involved the pulmonary parenchyma and tracheobronchial tree. Although the small and large bowels were only mildly congested, the entire gastric mucosa was covered with a 1.5-cm-thick pseudomembrane that contained numerous Aspergillus organisms. Our report represents the first description, to our knowledge, of a diffuse inflammatory pseudomembrane in the stomach, a complication that to date has only been associated with small and large bowel involvement.
- "When involvement of the sinuses occurs, IA often clinically resembles Zygomycosis (mucormycosis) of the sinuses. Profoundly immunocompromized patients can occasionally develop gastrointestinal IA from swallowed organisms that subsequently invade the gut mucosa, which can present with gastrointestinal bleeding or nonspecific signs of an acute abdomen and fever and might be confused with GVHD in allo-HCT recipients or neutropenic eneterocolitis in severely neutropenic patients  . A very serious complications occur when fungal invasion directly spreads to central nervous system involving various anatomic structures of the brain  or to ethmoid sinus with a farther advance to cavernous sinus . "
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ABSTRACT: Primary intestinal invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in leukaemic patients. We describe a case of jejunal invasive aspergillosis in the setting of aplasia following chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy obtained during surgery and our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed Aspergillus flavus as the fungus responsible. This patient had high levels of circulating galactomannan, an antigen secreted by Aspergillus sp., in serum. The ELISA test for galactomannan has been developed to improve the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis but presents a 5-15% false positive rate. We suggest that some false positive results might be due to non-respiratory invasive aspergillosis, the usual localization of invasive aspergillosis. Our PCR test was also positive in serum. In case of positive results in serum with antigen and/or PCR tests without respiratory symptoms, the intestinal localizations should be investigated.
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ABSTRACT: Advances in public health have reduced the risk of contracting certain enteric diseases, but many remain, and new pathogens have emerged and/or recently have been discovered. The pathogenic agents are varied and consist of a variety of bacteria and select viruses and parasites. Selected use of microbiologic assays to detect these pathogens is encouraged. When tests are ordered non-judiciously, costs rapidly accrue. The age of the patient, time of year, travel history, and clinical presentation all provide clues to the etiologic agent. Microbiologic assays should be used judiciously to confirm or exclude the likely infectious agents.
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