Prognostic significance of the metastasis-inducing protein S100A4 (p9Ka) in human breast cancer

School of Biological Sciences, Cancer Tissue Bank Research Center, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 03/2000; 60(6):1595-603.
Source: PubMed


The calcium-binding protein S100A4 is capable of inducing metastasis in rodent models for breast cancer. We now show that rabbit antibodies to recombinant rat S100A4 recognize specifically human S100A4 using Western blotting techniques and use them to assess the prognostic significance of S100A4 in primary tumors from a group of 349 patients treated between 1976 and 1982 for stage I and stage II breast cancer. The antibody stains normal breast tissue heterogeneously, but stains positively 41% of the carcinomas, leaving the remaining 59% as negatively stained. In addition to the carcinoma cells, some host stromal cells and lymphocytes are also stained, but these have been discounted in subsequent analyses. There is an association of staining of carcinomas for S100A4 with some tumor variables considered to be associated with poor prognosis for patients: tumor present in axillary lymph nodes (borderline P = 0.058), staining for c-erbB-3 (P = 0.002), cathepsin D (P = 0.024), and c-erbB-2 (P = 0.048). The association of staining for S100A4 with patient survival has been evaluated using life tables and analyzed using generalized Wilcoxon statistics. Eighty percent of the S100A4-negative patients but only 11% of the S100A4-positive patients are alive after 19 years of follow-up, and this association is highly significant (P < 0.0001); the former have a median survival of >228 months and the latter 47 months. The other tumor variables that show significant association with survival time are nodal status (P < 0.0001), tumor size (P = 0.0035), histological grade (P = 0.013), staining for c-erbB-2 (P = 0.0015), estrogen receptor (P = 0.028), and p53 (P = 0.032). Analysis of the association of patients with carcinomas staining for S100A4 and their survival in subgroups defined by these other tumor variables shows that in each subgroup, staining for S100A4 is associated with poorer survival. Patients whose tumors stain for S100A4 and possess involved lymph nodes (P < 0.0001), which are fixed to the chest wall (P = 0.015) or which stain for c-erbB-2 (P = 0.050), show a significant reduction in survival times over those with only S100A4-staining tumors. Patients with involved lymph nodes, or staining for c-erbB-2 in the S100A4-negative group fail to show any significant reduction in survival times. Multivariate regression analysis for 137 patients shows that staining for S100A4 is most highly correlated with patient deaths (P < 0.0001), but involved lymph nodes (P = 0.001), fixed tumors (P = 0.0002), and high histological grade (P = 0.022) are also significant independent prognostic variables. These results suggest that in this group of patients, the metastasis-inducing protein S100A4 is most tightly correlated with patient demise.

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Available from: Christopher West, Aug 18, 2014
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    • "S100A4 protein regulates myosin dynamics by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation on C-terminus of myosin heavy chain [17] [18]. Secreted S100A4 is a candidate maker predicting metastatic and prognostic potential in breast cancer [19]. S100A7 is up-regulated in inflammatory epidermis, correlating with Clinica Chimica Acta 436 (2014) 121–129 Abbreviations: OSCC, oral squamous cell carcinoma; NanoLC–MS/MS, automated nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) shows low 5-year survival; early treatment greatly reduces mortality and morbidity. Saliva is a non-invasive sample, with good potential to discover biomarkers for early detection. Methods NanoLC–MS/MS served to analyze saliva proteome from control subjects (n = 35) and OSCC patients T1 (n = 29), T2 (n = 36), T3 (n = 14) and T4 (n = 21) stages. Identified biomarkers were verified by Western blot and ELISA assays. Results NanoLC–MS/MS analysis of salivary proteins between 10 and 15 kDa identified S100A8, hemoglobin delta and gamma-G globin in T3 and T4 stage OSCC as well as S100A7 in T1 and T2 stage OSCC. Western blot and ELISA indicated positive correlation between salivary S100A8 increment and tumor size stage. High level of S100A8 appeared in 3.4, 13.9, 92.9, and 100% of saliva OSCC patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 stages, respectively. Significant increase of salivary S100A7 was observed in 20.7% and 11.1% of those with T1 and T2, respectively. AUROC curve indicated high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of S100A8-based ELISA as a detector. Conclusions NanoLC–MS/MS, Western blot and ELISA manifested salivary S100A8 as a specific and sensitive marker for detection of OSCC patients. Salivary S100A8 protein could be applicable in developing OSCC diagnostics.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinica Chimica Acta
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    • "S100A4, also called metastasin, has been shown to promote tumor growth and metastasis in several tumor models [3]–[5]. S100A4 has also been shown to be involved in the control of tumor growth in human cancer [6], and to be a potential prognostic marker [7]–[9]. S100 proteins can have both intra-cellular and extra-cellular functions and S100A4 has been shown to have a role in both compartments. "
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    ABSTRACT: S100A4 and S100A9 proteins have been described as playing roles in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. We show here that a chemical probe, oxyclozanide (OX), selected for inhibiting the interaction between S100A9 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) interacts with both S100A9 and S100A4. Furthermore, we show that S100A9 and S100A4 interact with RAGE and TLR4; interactions that can be inhibited by OX. Hence, S100A4 and S100A9 display similar functional elements despite their primary sequence diversity. This was further confirmed by showing that S100A4 and S100A9 dimerize both in vitro and in vivo. All of these interactions required levels of Zn(++) that are found in the extracellular space but not intracellularly. Interestingly, S100A4 and S100A9 are expressed by distinct CD11b(+) subpopulations both in healthy animals and in animals with either inflammatory disease or tumor burden. The functions of S100A9 and S100A4 described in this paper, including heterodimerization, may therefore reflect S100A9 and S100A4 that are released into the extra-cellular milieu.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Beside the loss of epithelial markers the expression of mesenchymal markers like FSP-1 is also an important step in the process of EMT [7]. FSP-1, also called S100A4, correlates with the metastatic potential in neoplasms and some authors demonstrated that a high level of FSP-1 is associated with poor prognosis in various cancer types [8]–[10]. EMT is regulated by several transcription factors [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death worldwide with more than a million deaths per year. The poor prognosis is due to its high aggressiveness and its early metastasis. Although the exact mechanisms are still unknown, the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) seems to be involved in these neoplastic processes. We already demonstrated that serum levels of CCL18, a primate specific chemokine, are highly elevated in patients with lung cancer and correlate with their survival time of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCL18 may be directly involved in pathological processes of lung cancer, e.g. EMT. We investigated the effect of CCL18 on A549, an adenocarcinoma cell line of the lung, on EMT and other cell functions like proliferation, chemotaxis, invasion, chemoresistance and proliferation. Exposure of A549 lung cancer cells to CCL18 in various concentrations decreases the epithelial marker E-cadherin, whereas FSP-1, a marker of the mesenchymal phenotype increases. Accordingly, CCL18 induced the transcriptional EMT regulator SNAIL1 in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast, an increasing CCL18 concentration was associated with a decline of cell proliferation rate. In addition, CCL18 induced chemotaxis of these cells and increased their chemoresistance. Therefore, CCL18 may be an interesting therapeutic target for NSCLC.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
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