Effects of Luminance and Resolution on Observer Performance with Chest Radiographs1
Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261-0001, USA. Radiology
(Impact Factor: 6.87).
04/2000; 215(1):169-74. DOI: 10.1148/radiology.215.1.r00ap34169
To examine the combined effects of image resolution and display luminance on observer performance for detection of abnormalities depicted on posteroanterior chest radiographs.
A total of 529 radiographs were displayed on a specially constructed view box at three luminance levels (770, 260, and 85 cd/m(2)) and three resolutions (100-microm, 200-microm, and 400-microm pixels). Each image was reviewed nine times by six radiologists who participated in this study. The abnormalities included nodule, pneumothorax, interstitial disease, alveolar infiltrates, and rib fracture. Negative (normal) radiographs were also included.
Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that the effect of image luminance was greater than that of resolution. The detection of pneumothorax, interstitial disease, and rib fracture showed statistically significant differences (P <. 05) due to luminance. The detection of pneumothorax was the only abnormality with a statistically significant difference due to resolution. There was no evidence that luminance was related to image resolution for any of the abnormalities.
At a resolution of 400-microm pixels or higher across the field of view and a luminance of 260 cd/m(2) or more, primary diagnosis with posteroanterior chest radiographs is not likely to be affected by the quality of display.
Available from: Won-Jin Yi
- "This might resulted in decreased discrimination of low contrast tissue such as mucosal shadows in the maxillary sinus. As the light stimuli from the low contrast mucosa is very faint to the human visual system, the decreased contrast sensitivity seems to cause deterioration in the radiological interpretation process.24 As Goo et al7 suggested that the observer performance was not affected under low ambient light, this study demonstrated that the detection performance might not be affected by an ambient light but was affected instead by a monitor luminance. "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor type and observer experience on the diagnostic performance in soft-copy interpretations of maxillary sinus inflammatory lesions on panoramic radiographs.
Ninety maxillary sinuses on panoramic images were grouped into negative and positive groups according to the presence of inflammatory lesions, using CT for confirmation. Monochrome and color LCDs were used. Six observers participated and ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The reading time, fatigue score, and inter-/intra-observer agreements were assessed.
The interpretation of maxillary sinus inflammatory lesions was affected by the LCD monitor type used and by the experience of the observer. The reading time was not significantly different, however the fatigue score was significantly different between two LCD monitors. Inter-observer agreement was relatively good in experienced observers, while the intra-observer agreement for all observers was good with monochrome LCD but not with color LCD.
The less experienced observers showed lowered diagnostic ability with a general color LCD.
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ABSTRACT: The authors attempted to assess experimentally the magnitude of reader variability and the correlations and interactions among cases, readers, and modalities during observer performance studies and their possible effects on study design and sample size.
Published data from 32 selected receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies were reviewed to compare the magnitude of the variance component from readers with the variance component from modality. Estimates of correlation and interactions among cases, readers, and modalities were also computed directly from ROC data ascertained during two large studies performed in our laboratory. Each of these two studies included 529 cases and six readers, but one study used eight modalities and the other nine.
Published results indicate that reader variability is task dependent and larger (P < .05) than modality variability in detection of interstitial disease. Measured correlations between modalities for the same reader were task dependent and ranged from 0.35 to 0.59. Modality-by-reader and modality-by-case interactions often are not important factors. The random error term was greater than the modality-by-reader interaction in 11 of 20 comparisons and greater than the modality-by-case interaction in eight of 20 comparisons.
Use of the same cases interpreted with different modes is justifiable in many situations because of the high variability from readers. This comprehensive review of existing ROC studies resulted in parameter assessments that can be used to better estimate sample-size requirements in multireader ROC studies.
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ABSTRACT: We propose a principled formulation of the ROC curve that is constrained in a realistic way by the mechanism of probability summation. The constrained and conventional ROC formulations were fitted to 150 separate sets of rating data taken from previous observer studies of 250 or 529 chest radiographs. A total of 20 different readers had used either discrete or continuous rating scales to evaluate those chest cases for likelihood of separate specified abnormalities: interstitial disease, pulmonary nodule, pneumothorax, alveolar infiltrate, or rib fracture. Both ROC formulations were fitted separately to every set of rating data using maximum-likelihood statistical procedures that specified each ROC curve by normally distributed latent variables with two scaling parameters, and estimated the area below the ROC curve (Az) with its standard error. The conventional and constrained binormal formulations usually fitted ROC curves that were nearly indistinguishable in form and in Az. But when fitted to asymmetric rating data that contained few false-positive cases, the conventional ROC curves often rose steeply, then flattened and extrapolated into an unrealistic upward "hook" at the higher false-positive rates. For those sets of rating data, the constrained ROC curves (without hooks) estimated larger values for Az with smaller standard errors. The constrained ROC formulation describes observers' ratings of cases at least as well as the conventional ROC, and always guarantees a realistic fitted curve for observer performance. Its estimated parameters are easy to interpret, and may also be used to predict observer accuracy in localizing the image abnormalities.
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