A prospective randomized study of alpha-2b interferon plus hydroxyurea or cytarabine for patients with early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia: the International Oncology Study Group CML1 study.
The International Oncology Study Group, Houston, Texas 77401, USA.Leukemia and Lymphoma (Impact Factor: 2.89). 05/2000; 37(3-4):367-77. DOI: 10.3109/10428190009089437
A prospective randomized international study of 143 patients showed no apparent early survival advantage conferred by combining cytarabine, rather than hydroxyurea, with INF as first-line CML therapy. Combinations of alpha-interferon (INF) and chemotherapeutic agents are currently first-line therapy for the majority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The International Oncology Study Group conducted a prospective randomized study comparing INF combined with hydroxyurea or cytarabine. The primary study aim was to compare the survival durations in these patient cohorts. Patients with early chronic phase CML were randomized to receive INF 5 million units (Mu) given five times per week subcutaneously plus hydroxyurea or cytarabine as required to achieve a complete hematologic response and to maintain a WBC count between 2x10(9)/L and 10x10(9)/L and a platelet count between 75x10(9)/L and 100x10(9)/L. Therapy continued as tolerated unless progressive or blast phase disease occurred. At 36 months, the actuarial survival rate was equivalent in both groups: HI group (79 patients) survival was 85% (95% CI, 68-100%), as compared to 95% (95% CI, 79-100%) in the CI group (64 patients). In conclusion if seems that there is no apparent early survival advantage conferred by combining cytarabine, rather than hydroxyurea, with INF as first-line CML therapy.
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ABSTRACT: In interferon-alpha (IFN) treated chronic phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients, survival depends on individual risk profile and achievement of a complete haematological response (CHR) and a major cytogenetic response (MCR) (< 35% Philadelphia-chromosome-positive metaphases). The highest cytogenetic response rates have been achieved with the combination of IFN and low-dose sc. AraC (10 mg daily to 10-20 mg/m2 for 10-14 days/month). Whether the higher cytogenetic response rates are also associated with a significant improvement of survival still remains controversial. The different results obtained from large randomised and observational trials may be due to the numbers of patients enrolled, distribution of risk profiles and the treatment schedule, which is influenced greatly by the haematological and gastrointestinal toxicity of AraC. An oral formulation (YNK01), which is lipophilic and resistant to deamination, is currently under investigation. Clinically, it has similar activity, but toxicity leads to discontinuation of treatment in a considerable proportion of patients. The clinical benefits may therefore be outweighed by the dose-limiting toxicity for both application forms. Combinations with other drugs, e.g., STI571 or homoharringtonine, have shown promising early results in vitro and in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Subcutaneous Ara-C plus interferon (IFN) produces more cytogenetic responses than IFN in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but a greater toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerance of IFN plus oral Ara-C ocfosfate (YNK-01) in IFN-resistant CML patients. A phase II pilot study was conducted in 19 CML patients primarily resistant or with minimal cytogenetic response to IFN. Patients were scheduled to receive 6 monthly 14-day cycles of YNK-01 (500 mg/day), with progressive escalation if tolerated, in addition to IFN. Cytogenetic assessment was performed thereafter. Of the first 7 patients, 5 had severe hematologic and 5 moderate gastrointestinal toxicity; IFN was reduced in 6, YNK-01 in 5, and treatment discontinued in 2; hematologic response was achieved in 2 of the 5 evaluable patients. In the following 4 patients the Ara-C was reduced to 300 mg: 2 had severe hematologic and 2 moderate gastrointestinal toxicity; IFN and Ara-C were reduced in 2 patients and treatment discontinued in 2 due to progression or toxicity; the other 2 achieved a minor cytogenetic response, progressing in one to a major response after 6 more cycles. In 8 patients the starting Ara-C dose was 200 mg: 5 had moderate-severe hematologic and 5 mild gastrointestinal toxicity; IFN was reduced in 5, Ara-C in 1, and treatment discontinued in 1; Ara-C was increased in 7 cases; hematologic response was obtained in 4 patients, 2 of whom attained a minor and 1 a major cytogenetic response. These results provide background for future studies aimed at ascertaining the role of oral Ara-C combined with IFN or STI571 in newly diagnosed CML.
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