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Adaptation to various environments and resistance to disease of the Improved Boer goat

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Abstract

The Improved Boer Goat is a remarkable small-stock ruminant that possesses distinctive qualities enabling it to excel as an efficient red meat producer. It is early maturing, reaching a mean maximum weight of approximately 62kg at 3.5 years of age on natural pasture under extensive grazing conditions. It boasts high fecundity, with approximately 2.09 kids born per doe kidded. A relatively large proportion of does ( approximately 33%) have triplets, whilst the occurrence of kids born as quadruplets and quintuplets have also been documented. The Boer goat is predominantly a browser, enabling it to convert shrub and bush into red meat, thereby playing a supplementary role to other farm stock in increasing meat production per unit area, rather than being in competition with them. As a browser, the goat is also extremely useful and effective in combatting undesirable bush encroachment. In addition, it appears to be fairly resistant towards certain diseases which are normally contracted by other small stock, such as sheep. Lastly, Boer goats produce red meat of high quality which is hardly distinguishable from that of mutton or lamb as far as flavour is concerned, provided animals are slaughtered at a relatively young age.

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... . (Malan, 2000) . (Erasmus, 2000) . Ratts et al., 1983) . ...
... (Greyling, 2000) . (Erasmus, 2000) . (Sitepu and Zaituni, 2018) . ...
... (Erasmus et al., 1985) . (Erasmus, 2000) . ‫جدول‬ 1 -‫خالصه‬ ‫بوئر‬ ‫بز‬ ‫مشخصات‬ ‫برخی‬ ‫از‬ ‫ای‬ (Das et al., 2012) (Erasmus, 2000) . ...
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Currently, several serious challenges such as the growing world population, the problem of climate change, the drought, and the associated decrease in rainfall have led directly to the loss of pastures. In this puzzle, the domestic goat species (Capra hircus) is one of the small ruminants that have minimal water requirements and are very resistant to harsh environments, and have little contribution to livestock species. However, keeping many native races is not cost-effective despite the importance of ecotourism and high levels of adaptability to the environment, and this issue is encouraging agricultural policy makers to open borders to exotic races, mostly without initial research and scientific evidence. Therefore, the first step in confirming the legal importation of an exotic breed is to understand all the details of its breeding and production and reproductive potential, as well as carefully paying attention to its survivability and adaptation to the new environment. In this regard, various countries around the world have started to import, plan and breed Boer goats. The Boer goat is one of the well-known commercial goat breeds that has the characteristics of fertility (large litter size) and high resistance to harsh environments and common diseases due to the desired meat and carcass. Here in this report, the authors try to introduce this candidate for an exotic goat breed with scientific support by talking about its detailed characteristics and the evaluation of its production and reproductive traits and prospects in the world and providing the source of information with the admixture of the highlighted possibilities alongside threats with emphasis on the Iranian state.
... Boer goats are also known for their fertility and fast growth (Casey and Van Niekerk, 1988). It has been reported that Boer goats can improve growth, reproduction and survival performances of many indigenous breeds (Erasmus, 2000). ...
... Reproductive qualification may be considered as one of the most important benchmark related to adaptation (Erasmus, 2000). Reproductive performances can be measured and expressed in terms of kidding and weaning rate, kidding interval, and litter size at birth and at weaning (Greyling, 1988). ...
... From such perspective, the Boer goat was recognized as a most productive and prolific breeder (Erasmus, 2000). However, current reports did not find a way to confirm this. ...
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Published literature was used to review the impact of the Boer goat crossbreeding programs on the performances of the indigenous goats in Ethiopia. Growth, reproduction, production, and adaptability performances were assessed. The overall growth rate of the Boer goats and their crosses in Ethiopia was generally low as compared to their native areas. Boer kids had better birth weight (3.05-3.50 kg) than their crosses (2.39-3.00 kg) however, this dominancy was not observed at the later ages. The maximum reported litter size at birth for the Boer (1.76) and Central Highland goats (1.75) was comparable while the value of their crosses was lower. Extremely low conception (37.64%), low kidding (21.94%), and high abortion (15.01%) of the Boer were reported while the performance of local goats for conception, kidding, and abortion was 54.38%, 47.50%, and 5.62% respectively. Their crosses performed better in conception (73.86%), kidding (60.23%), and abortion (9.09%). Meat production and carcass characteristics of local goats were better than the Boer crosses on poor nutrition, while Boer crosses outstand as the level of supplementation increases. Survival of Boer and the crossbreeds was quite low and below expected, which indicated their sub-optimal adaptability to the Ethiopian environment. Therefore, unless it is practiced in highly intensive farming where the health management and supplementation of feeding are appropriate, using Boer goats crossing or replacement cannot help in achieving the required results. At the small holders' level, achieving stable genetic improvement without harming the diversity (options like within breed selection) need to be considered.
... 12 Among the seasons, there was a higher BT in summer (P < 0.05). According to Niyase et al, 14 and Erasmus et al, 15 the reference value of rectal temperature in goats ranges between 38.5 and 39.7℃. In this current study, the average value observed in afternoon during summer was slightly higher than the reference values for adult goats, 38.5 to 39.7℃ 19 . ...
... Although there were seasonal effects and in the day shifts in BT, the goats were able to keep BT within normal range and thus maintain homeothermy. 15 The current findings showed that goats had significantly (P<0.05) lower RR in the morning. ...
... When subjected to thermal stress goats increase cardiovascular rhythmicity as the result associated to the increase of RR, which promote heat dissipation mechanisms. 15 The increase of PR is due to the increased muscle activity to control the simultaneous increase in respiratory rate and a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance promotes greater blood circulation to dissipate heat through the skin. 13,15 The high HSPs concentration observed in Boer groups and during summer may be justified by the origin and adaptability of this breed to hot-tropical climate. ...
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Abstract Background: It has been demonstrated that the composition of HSP70 heat shock protein 70 is temperature correlated HSP70 effects is one as cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. Goat also possess anatomical and physiological characteristics that qualify for their wide ability to ecological adaptability, nevertheless, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress .the study in the issuance of this article accomplished to analyze the level of concentration of heat shock protein variance heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. Ruslt: The investigation has been carried out in Alpin (brown colour), Saanen (Wightcolour), these breeds same age (1-2 year) and differ in size and production performance. The thermostress appreciation was at a temperature humidity index (THI) 80.8 during summer, 55.1 during winter and 70.1 during spring. Physiological parameters for thermal stress susceptibility was carried at by combining pulse rate (PR) (bpm), respiration rate (RR) (breath/min), body temperature (BT) °C, skin temperature (ST) °C and head temperature (HT). HSP70 level of concentrations were analyzed with ELISA, the gene expression pattern of HSP70 in different seasons indicated that the HSP70 for Saanen breed was 26.9, 18.3 and 14.1 during spring, summer and winter respectively. HSP70 for Alpine was 12.7, 13.7 and 14.7 in the spring, summer and winter respectively. Conclusion: The seasonal variation associated with changes of environmental variable, especially ambient temperature had great effects on physiological and cellular function of goats. Under adverse climatic conditions the body and skin temperature of goats increased due to the heat loading into the animal body. To maintain the homeothermy, goats increased their respiratory frequency to promote heat dissipation. Moreover, goats’ body develop a cellular pathway to cope thermal challenge. This later is expressed through the high synthesis of heat shock protein that was observed in this study. HSPs represents an important molecular indicator when assessing heat stress in goats. Keywords: HSP70, goat, physiological data, seasons, thermal stress
... It has gained worldwide recognition for excellent body conformation, fast growing rate and good carcass quality. Boer goat is famous for its large mature size and faster growth which results in heavy muscled carcasses (Erasmus, 2000). From the review of growth, development and carcass composition of 11 goat breeds around the world, it showed that Boer goats had the fastest growth rate as well as the highest mature weight (100-110 kg) (Hoover, 2000). ...
... According to Dwyer and Lawrence (2005), we critically examined the survival adaptations of our intensively managed imported Boer goats through the behavioural and physiological adaptations of does and kids during pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Erasmus (2000) also emphasized on 'reproductive fitness' as the most important criterion relating to adaptation. Therefore, judging the performances related to production and reproduction may be the best measures for the adaptation of a breed in certain environment compared to the performances where they are well adapted. ...
... Though relatively a very few information is available on the Boer goat's resistance towards diseases but it is resistant to diseases such as blue tongue, pulpy kidney (enterotoxaemia) and gall sickness (Steyl, 1966). On the other hand, regarding external parasites, Boer goats are particularly subject to blue tick infestations (Linognathus africanus), especially during the winter and spring (Erasmus, 2000). Moreover, it has also been reported that the Boer goat is immune to tuberculosis, and, therefore, the advantage of utilizing goat milk is that this disease cannot be contracted by humans (Boer Goat News, 1998). ...
... It has gained worldwide recognition for excellent body conformation, fast growing rate and good carcass quality. Boer goat is famous for its large mature size and faster growth which results in heavy muscled carcasses (Erasmus, 2000). From the review of growth, development and carcass composition of 11 goat breeds around the world, it showed that Boer goats had the fastest growth rate as well as the highest mature weight (100-110 kg) (Hoover, 2000). ...
... According to Dwyer and Lawrence (2005), we critically examined the survival adaptations of our intensively managed imported Boer goats through the behavioural and physiological adaptations of does and kids during pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Erasmus (2000) also emphasized on 'reproductive fitness' as the most important criterion relating to adaptation. Therefore, judging the performances related to production and reproduction may be the best measures for the adaptation of a breed in certain environment compared to the performances where they are well adapted. ...
... Though relatively a very few information is available on the Boer goat's resistance towards diseases but it is resistant to diseases such as blue tongue, pulpy kidney (enterotoxaemia) and gall sickness (Steyl, 1966). On the other hand, regarding external parasites, Boer goats are particularly subject to blue tick infestations (Linognathus africanus), especially during the winter and spring (Erasmus, 2000). Moreover, it has also been reported that the Boer goat is immune to tuberculosis, and, therefore, the advantage of utilizing goat milk is that this disease cannot be contracted by humans (Boer Goat News, 1998). ...
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability and morphometric characterization of Boer goat under the farming condition of Bangladesh. Data on adaptability and characterization were collected from the imported flock of Boer goat maintained at American Dairy Limited, Sreepur, Gazipur. A total of 31 Boer goats (15 males and 16 females) at birth (0), 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age were considered for morphometric characterization. From the study, it was revealed that Boer goats were adapted easily in our climatic and farming conditions. All the body measurements (body length, heart girth, height at wither, head length, head width, ear length, ear width, tail length) in both sexes were significantly (p [J Bangladesh Agril Univ 2020; 18(2.000): 0-0]
... The South African Boer goat has the oldest oicial history with the establishment of the South African Boer Goat Association in 1959 [4]. In the development of goat breeds during the late sixties and early seventies, the Boer goat breeders' society referred to ive potential types of Boer goat in South Africa [8]. These included unimproved types such as the ordinary goat, long haired types and polled types that originated from crossbreeding with dairy breeds and native goats. ...
... The SA Boer goat does are known for their good mothering ability and can kid every 7-8 months. Some literature indicates a lower susceptibility to diseases such as blue tongue, prussic acid poisoning and, to a lesser extent, enterotoxaemia [8,10]. ...
... They have however contributed to the development of the local meat-type goats such as the Boer goat [4] through crossbreeding. The indigenous types vary in size and are often promoted as having special adaptive characteristics, including a higher tolerance for tick-borne diseases compared to the commercial goat breeds [8,10]. In Figure 5, a typical South African veld goat is shown. ...
... Kambing Boerka juga memiliki berat sapih yang cukup tinggi seperti yang dilaporkan oleh Nurgiartiningsih (2011) yaitu sebesar 11,2 kg atau 13,02 kg (Setiadi et al., 2001). Kambing boer mampu beradaptasi pada berbagai kondisi di Afrika Selatan (Erasmus, 2000), dari daerah panas kering di Namibia, Australia sampai daerah bersalju di Eropa (Barry and Godke, 1991). Selain itu, boer mampu mencapai rataan berat badan 62 kg pada umur 3,5 tahun dan tahan terhadap penyakit (Erasmus, 2000), dengan fertilitas yang tinggi (Greyling, 2000). ...
... Kambing boer mampu beradaptasi pada berbagai kondisi di Afrika Selatan (Erasmus, 2000), dari daerah panas kering di Namibia, Australia sampai daerah bersalju di Eropa (Barry and Godke, 1991). Selain itu, boer mampu mencapai rataan berat badan 62 kg pada umur 3,5 tahun dan tahan terhadap penyakit (Erasmus, 2000), dengan fertilitas yang tinggi (Greyling, 2000). Sedangkan kambing kacang adalah bangsa kambing lokal unggul dengan populasi terbanyak (83%) dari 14 juta total populasi kambing di Indonesia pada tahun 2016 (Ditjennak, 2017). ...
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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian silase rumput gajah odot (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott) dengan aras yang berbeda terhadap berat badan konsumsi pakan hijauan dan variasi me- tabolik glukosa darah dari kambing boerka yang dipelihara di Desa Sanda, Kabupaten Tabanan, Bali. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari tanggal 1 Maret sampai dengan 31 Mei 2021. Total 12 kambing dalam studi ini diberi pakan hijauan sebanyak 10% dari berat tubuhnya. Rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan tiga perlakuan, yaitu: pakan hijauan tanpa diberikan silase rumput gajah odot (P0), pakan hijauan + 250 g silase rumput gajah odot (P1), pakan hijauan +750 g silase rumput gajah odot (P2) digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Masing-masing perlakuan memiliki 4 ulangan. Peubah yang diamati: konsumsi silase rumput gajah odot harian, total konsumsi pakan hijauan, total konsumsi pakan hijauan harian, kadar glukosa darah dan berat badan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan (P0, P1, P2) secara urut memiliki berat badan awal 32,58 ± 6,37 kg, 21,95 ± 6,37 kg dan 35,10 ± 6,37 kg dan berat badan akhir 33,69 ± 6,67 kg, 23,15 ± 6,67 kg, 39,45 ± 6,67 kg, total konsumsi pakan hijauan 994 ± 940 kg, 1.000 ± 940 kg, 995 ± 940 kg konsumsi pakan hijauan harian adalah 4.439 ± 3386 g/ekor/hari, 4.465 ± 3386 g/ekor/hari, dan 4.444 ± 3386 g/ekor/hari secara berurutan dan kadar glukosa darah 91,25 ± 4,89 mg/dl, 96,83 ± 4,89 mg/dl, 94,83 ± 4,89 mg/dl. Analisis data membuktikan bahwa pemberian pakan tambahan silase rumput gajah odot berbeda terhadap semua parameter antara perlakuan (P>0,05). Disimpulkan bahwa pemberian pakan tambahan silase rumput gajah odot memiliki hasil yang lebih tinggi terhadap pertambahan konsumsi pakan hijau- an, berat badan dan kadar glukosa darah pada tiap perlakuan.
... As browsers, they use different vegetation than cattle and thus allow farmers to make more efficient use of the available natural resources. They have very wide climatic adaptation and thrive well in dry areas where feed resources are limited (Erasmus 2000;Silanikove et al. 2000). ...
... The preponderance of singletons in the Damara and Swakara is in agreement with reports from other studies on the same breeds (Näsholm and Eythorsdottir 2011;von Wielligh 2003) whereby 80.5% singleton and 19.5% twin births were reported in Damara sheep (von Wielligh 2003). Findings of more twinning from Boer goats in this study are also in agreement with those from previous studies (Almeida 2011;Campbell 2003;Lehloenya et al. 2005) which, however, also reported substantial proportions of triplets and quadruplets (Erasmus 2000). Inferences regarding occurrence of quadruplets in the current study were inconclusive due to insufficient data. ...
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This study retrospectively investigated the effect of breed and season on the lambing/kidding dynamics, growth performance, neonatal viability, and weaning dynamics of sheep (Damara, Dorper, and Swakara) and goats (Boer goat and Kalahari Red) at a farm in the Khomas Region of Namibia between 2004 and 2015. Litter size was dependent on breed (X2(12, N = 3388) = 796, p < 0.001), with twinning more frequent in Dorper sheep and Kalahari Red and Boer goats than in the Damara and Swakara sheep (p < 0.05), while triplets were more prevalent in the Dorper sheep and Kalahari Red goats (2.8% and 1.0%, respectively; p < 0.05). Distribution of birth weight categories was dependent on breed. There was a significant difference in the proportions of birth weight categories between breeds (X2(12, N = 3388) = 467, p < 0.001) whereby Dorper lambs were mostly born weighing below 3 kg (2.6%, p < 0.05); Boer goat kids, Kalahari Red kids, and Damara lambs were mostly born weighing 3 to < 4 kg (4.3%, 6.3% and 19.9%, respectively; p < 0.05); Swakara lambs were mostly born weighing 4 to < 5 kg (12.2%, p < 0.05), and Swakara lambs were mostly born weighing ≥ 5 kg (3.3% and 2.3%, respectively, p < 0.05). Weaning age categories were dependent on breed (X2(12, N = 3388) = 241, p < 0.001) whereby Dorper lambs were mostly weaned at below 3 months of age (2.8%, p < 0.05); Damara lambs were mostly weaned at 3 to < 5 months of age (12%, p < 0.05), and Boer goat kids were mostly weaned at ≥ 5 months of age (0.9%, p < 0.05). Neonatal viability was dependent on breed (X2(8, N = 3388) = 49.2, p < 0.001) whereby Dorper lambs were more susceptible to abortions and neonatal deaths (0.6% and 1.5%, respectively; p < 0.05) than the rest of the breeds. Breed and lambing season interacted to produce effects on the birth weight of offspring although lambing season alone did not have a significant effect on Boer goat and Kalahari Red kids’ birth weights.
... Boer goats evolved in Southern Africa from indigenous African (and introduced European) goats (CASEY and VAN NIERKERK, 1988). This meat breed of goats has been described as having the ability of rapid acclimation and adaptation, low water turnover rates and low parasite infestation (ERASMUS, 2000;SHELTON, 1978), and therefore improved Boer goats are widespread throughout the world (MALAN, 2000). In southern Africa, the Boer goat is aseasonally polyoestrous, with the peak of sexual activity in autumn. ...
... Similar results were obtained by SEABO et al. (1994) of 16.04%. However, both these results are lower than the records of 33% triplets (ERASMUS, 2000) or 27% triplets (AUCAMP and VENTER, 1981) and higher than 6.6% triplets (SKINNER, 1972). Litter size reduces the birth weight and survival rate of indigenous South African goat kids (LEHLOENYA et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to determine the reproductive performance in Boer goats under semiintensive management in north-western Croatia over three consecutive years. Sixty Boer does, aged 2 to 6 years, were divided into three groups. A total of 1.80 kids were born per doe (435 newborn in 242 pregnancies). Boer goat fertility was 93.44%. Does with single kids accounted for 22.53% (n = 98), with twins 49.20% (n = 107), triplets 18.62% (n = 27), quadruplets 7.35% (n = 8) and quintuplets 2.29% (n = 2). The average birth weight of Boer kids was 3.48 ± 0.04 kg (1.70 kg to 5.4 kg). The birth weight of goat kids in pluriparous Boer does was significantly (P<0.05) higher in comparison to kids in primiparous does by gender. The birth weight of Boer male goat kids was significantly (P<0.05) higher than female Boer kids. There was no impact from goat age, number of kiddings and birth weight. More than 76% of Boer does delivered in the winter and spring. It is supposed that after transferring from the southern to the northern hemisphere, Boer goats have gradually acclimated to a new seasonality.
... The local indigenous Katjang goat is highly prolific (Ernie et al., 2010) but has a small mature size of 28.1 -28.8 (Tsukahara et al., 2008) with poor growth performance of 8 kg (Anothaisinthawee et al., 2010) compared to other improved goat breeds such as Boer crosses in Malaysia of 22 kg (Syahirah et al., 2016) at 3 months. In recent years, the Boer goat has been identified as a potential goat breed based on its robust adaptability to varied environmental conditions (Hirooka et al 1997;Erasmus, 2000) with high growth rate and reproductive performance (Hifzan et al., 2018). In a comparative study it was found that the mature weight of the male and female Boer goats was 80 and 60 kg, respectively, compared to the Katjang at 25 and 20 kg, respectively, whereas, Boer x Katjang crossbred goats reached maturity at 35 and 25 kg for male and female, respectively (DVS, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The local indigenous Katjang goat is highly prolific but has a small body size and poor growth performance compared to exotic breeds such as the Boer of South Africa. The need for an improved local breed to cater for local market led to a crossbreeding program between Boer and Katjang goats implemented through the 11 th Malaysia Development Project. The objective of this study was to describe the pre-weaning growth performance of the F1 and F2 crosses of Katjang and Boer (KxB) goats fed diets formulated to meet their requirements. A total of 13 F1 KxB kids (6 males and 7 females) from the mating of selected purebred Boer females with Katjang males, were kept with their dams and fed formulated creep feed ad libitum. Following that, a total of 21 F2 KxB kids (12 males and 9 females) were sourced from the inter se mating program of selected F1 KxB goats. The weaning weight at 16 weeks for F1 was lower at 11.47 ± 3.92 kg compared to the F2 at 12.76 ± 3.27 kg, which indicated better performance of the F2 through inter se breeding however no significant difference were found. The lower feed intake in F2 compared to F1 also suggests better feed conversion ratio. Overall, the study demonstrated the improvements in the performance of the F2 via inter se mating and therefore certifying the objectives of the crossbreeding program.
... oer goats have an interest of meat goat producers due to claims that they are fast growers, hardy and adaptable, resistant to diseases, fertile and produce meat of high quality (Erasmus, 2000). ...
Article
In this study twenty Boer goats (10 with pneumonia and 10 apparently healthy) were selected from 150 Boer goats that were recently transported from the Upper Egypt to Moshtohor farm. Nasal swabs and trans-tracheal aspiration were taken for bacteriological examination as well as whole blood and serum samples were collected for evaluation of pulmonary function tests, hematological and biochemical alterations in pneumonic Boer goats compared with apparently healthy ones. Bacteriological examination and PCR of nasal swabs and trans-tracheal aspiration revealed klebsiella pneumoniae. The results revealed that, significant (P<0.05) decrease in RBCs, Hb and PCV in pneumonic animals than that of healthy one. The significant (P<0.05) increase in WBCs and neutrophils were detected as well as significant (P<0.05) decrease in lymphocyte count. Pulmonary function tests revealed significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood pH and PO2 while there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in PCO2, tCO2 and BE. Serum biochemical revealed significant (P<0.05) increase in globulin, IgG, IgA, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, P and K, while total protein, albumin, Fe, Mg, Ca and Cl were significantly decreased. Pulmonary function tests and hematobiochemical alterations could be used as a diagnostic indicators for pneumonia in Boer goats.
... On the other hand, ARS requires high investments in facilities and machinery [3], which leads to an increase in costs [6], and thus, interest in MRS is maintained. Moreover, the average daily gain (ADG) of the Murciano-Granadina (MG) kids is very low (120-168 g/day) [7,8] compared to other Spanish goat breeds such as Florida (184-203 g/day) [9] or Verata (164-180 g/day) [10] or to foreign goat breeds such as Damascus (180 g/day) [11] or Boer (>200 g/day) [12,13]. Additionally, purebred MG kids have high feed conversion rates in ARS (1.55 kg/kg) [7], which compromises the profitability of their production. ...
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In dairy goats, the low average daily gain and the high conversion ratio for milk and concentrate of the kids mean that their sale price does not offset the costs generated. The hypothesis proposes that a crossbreeding of the Murciano-Granadina breed (MG) with the Boer breed (MG×Boer) will improve the profitability of the kids sold. Thus, the effect of two different groups of kids (purebred MG and crossbred MG×Boer) on birth weight (BW), mortality, average daily gain (ADG), the time for minimum slaughter weight (7 kg) and its variation factors were studied. MG×Boer kids had a 27% greater BW than purebred MG kids (2885 ± 84 g and 2275 ± 74 g, respectively), similar ADG (156 ± 6 g and 142 ± 6 g, respectively) and mortality (18% and 20%, respectively), and reached minimum slaughter weight a week sooner. ADG was less and less as the lactation period progressed due to a lower milk consumption and milk energy value, which highlights the importance of providing a concentrate that will compensate for this reduced energy content. In conclusion, the results show that MG×Boer crossbred kids reached the minimum slaughter weight a week earlier than purebred MG kids, and highlighted the improvement of farm profitability through the increase of milk sold and the need to provide a concentrate feed to enhance the growth of the kids.
... The Boer goat is a meat aptitude breed of South African origin that has spread all over the world to be exploited as a pure breed (body mature weight: 70-80 kg female, 100-120 kg male [11]), or for terminal crossbreeding with native goat breeds to improve growth and/or carcass quality of kids [10]. According to the literature, the animals of this breed are fast growers (>200 g/d), hardy and adaptable, disease-resistant, fertile and produce meat of high quality [11][12][13][14]. In crossbreeding, it has been shown to improve the growth of local breeds in some countries, such as: USA (Spanish breed [15,16]), Mexico (Creole breed [17]), Poland (White Improved breed [18]), Brazil (local goats [19]) or China (Chengdu Ma breed [20]). ...
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The aim of this work was to improve the growth characteristics of Murciano-Granadina (MG) kids through terminal crossbreeding of MG goats to Boer bucks. Four experiments were carried out, using a total of 354 MG goats, half of which were mated with MG bucks (n = 12) and the other half with Boer bucks (n = 12). The kids were raised in artificial rearing until slaughter weight (9 kg). The birth weight and average daily gain were recorded in crossed kids (n = 197 and 145, respectively) and purebred kids (n = 257 and 169, respectively). Crossed kids presented significant differences (p < 0.001) compared to MG purebred kids in birth weight (+ 24%), mortality in artificial rearing (−37%), average daily gain (+32%) and milk powder conversion rate (−16%). However, the reproductive performance rates of MG goats mated with Boer bucks were slightly worse (pregnancy rate: 78.5% vs. 86.6%, p < 0.05; kidding rate: 62.0% vs. 75.7%; p < 0.01; prolificacy: 1.9 vs. 2.1 kids/parturition), especially when the matings took place in non-breeding season (experiments conducted at latitude 38–39° N). It is concluded that the terminal crossbreeding of MG goats to Boer bucks (those not used to produce replacement kids) could be an interesting option for ethical goat production.
... Ovulation rate sets the upper limit to fecundity (the number of kids born per pregnant doe). Goats are prolific breeders and high rates of fecundity have been reported in numerous countries and breeds, including in Kalahari Red, 1.6 kids/ doe (Oderinwale et al. 2017), and Boer, 2.0 kids/doe (Erasmus 2000). However, fecundity can be low with reports of 95% of does producing single kids (Aldomy et al. 2009). ...
Article
Goat meat production is an expanding industry in Australia. However, there is limited data quantifying the levels of reproductive performance, particularly under extensively grazed rangeland conditions, which would inform interventions to improve performance. This review aimed to quantify the levels of reproduction, time and causes of reproductive wastage in goats. It considers the levels of fertility, fecundity, embryonic loss, fetal loss and post-natal survival reported under Australian conditions, and comparisons are made with international reports. Key management factors that may contribute to reproductive performance include breed, seasonality, nutritional conditions, and weather conditions at kidding. While goats are potentially prolific breeders, in Australia, the variation in weaning rate (kids/doe joined) among properties is large (51–165%), although the causes of this variation are not well defined. Generally, conception and kidding rates are high, although fetal loss associated with undernutrition is more likely in goats than sheep. As with sheep, perinatal losses are generally the largest source of wastage, with an average 20% kid mortality, but this level is influenced by litter size and appears to be higher under extensive rangeland systems. The causes of perinatal kid loss under Australian conditions are similar to those in sheep, with starvation–mismothering–exposure and dystocia or stillbirth the key causes. Studies are needed to accurately quantify the level and causes of reproductive wastage in commercial herds, including a range of management situations, to enable effective interventions to be developed.
... Similarly, Kadel et al. [15] found the weaning weight of Boer cross was 7.62 ± 1.37 kg which was also far lower than our findings. Because of high fecundity of Boer goat (2.3) which is higher than most goat breeds [16] and genetic traits for meat production of boer goat, productive performance of indigenous goats through cross breeding is improved especially body weight and growing rate [2,3]. However, these body weight measurements can be varied by genetic influence, nutrition, health, disease, body age, methods and management. ...
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The popularity of exotic goats and its crosses with indigenous breeds has been increasing amongst the Nepali farmers as it improves the productive and growth performance of indigenous breeds through cross-breeding. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on the growth performance of Boer crosses with Local khari and Jamunapari cross breeds of goats in Jagatpur Farm, Chitwan, Nepal. Data of 60 registered kids were recorded in Jagatpur Agro Farm for five-month period and was analyzed using general linear model (univariate) in IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The mean birth weight of Boer × Khari, Jamunapari × Boer and Local khari was 3.19 ± 0.09, 3.45 ± 0.08 and 3.21 ± 0.08 respectively. The effect of breed was significant on 3 month weight (p<0.001), 5 month weight (p<0.05) and pre-weaning average daily gain (p<0.05). Boer × Khari was heavier than Local Khari followed by Jamunapari cross in all the three aspects; 3 month weight, 5 month weight and pre-weaning average daily gain. Sex was significant on 3 month weight (p<0.05), 5 month weight (p<0.05), pre-weaning average daily gain (p<0.05) and overall average daily gain (p<0.05). Male had higher weight and weight gains than female. The mean 3 month weight, 5 month weight, pre weaning average daily gain and overall daily gain of male was 14.85 ± 0.48 kg, 23.88 ± 0.41 kg, 127.64 ± 4.84 g/d and 136.8 ± 2.43 g/d whereas female was 13.56 ± 0.49 kg, 22.2 ± 0.42 kg, 115 ± 4.98 g/d and 126.79 ± 2.5 g/d respectively. Parity and season had no significant (p>0.05) effects on any weights and daily gains. Similarly, post-weaning average daily gain was not significantly affected by any factors. It was concluded that cross breeding of Boer goat with Jamunapari and Khari breeds with ability to adapt to local conditions can add much more value to productive performance including body weights and weight gains. Similarly, the fixed effects such as sex, breed and parity should always be taken into consideration as it had significant effects in goat performance. Thus, cross breeding and effects of these factors need to be studied in more detail to determine impacts on productivity and profitability of the meat goat industry.
... Boer goats are considered to be one of the most desirable mutton type breeds globally with the highest mature weight of (100-110 kg). It has been reported that the Boer goats can improve productive performance of many indigenous breeds where the crossbreds have outperformed the native breeds at many aspects (Erasmus, 2000). The traits which showed significant improvement among the crossbreds were birth weight, and growth related traits (weaning weight, weight at mating, mature body weight), prolificacy and fecundity besides the carcass quality (Cameron et al., 2001). ...
Conference Paper
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Data on 381 kiddings, performance and pedigree records of 512 Boer and their crosses with Central Highland Goats CHG (Boer (B), F1 (B X CHG), F2 (a) (F1 X F1), F2 (b) (B X F1)) maintained at Ataye site of Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center during the period 2012 - 2017 were utilized to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate performances of growth traits. GLM procedure of SAS (9.0) was used to analyze growth performances while the genetic parameters were estimated using Animal model of WOMBAT®. The overall least-squares means in kg for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (6MW), yearling weight (YW) and body weight gain in grams to weaning, weaning to six-months and six months to yearling were 2.68±0.04, 9.11±0.19, 11.69±0.26, 16.41±0.38, 69.73±1.89, 30.48±1.54 and 24.33±1.21, respectively. Genotype and all the studied non-genetic factors affected the body weight and weight gain from birth to yearling age. However, parity of the doe only influenced body weight gainsat six-months to yearling. WW were not affected by sex of the kids. YW were not affected by breed and season of birth. Similarly season of birth did not affect 6MW. The genetic parameter estimates were slightly over estimated due to small sample size. The h2 among the (B and F1) for body weight at birth, at weaning, at six-months and at yearling ages were (0.43±0.28 and 0.73±0.17), (0.78±0.50 and 0.67±0.27), (0.75±0.52 and 0.65±0.27) and (0.23±0.70 and 0.65±0.27). This study revealed that improvement in growth performances is possible by minimizing the effect of non-genetic factors and within breed selection.
... It has been reported that the Boer goats are less susceptible to heat stress and tolerate heat better than many of the other temperate goat breeds (Lu, 1989). They are also moderately tolerant to drought and tannins, and are efficient fiber digesters and they can adapt to various ambient temperature and have lower water turnover rate (Erasmus, 2000). Because of their browsing habit, Boer goats are considered less susceptible to infestation by internal parasites (Casey and Van Niekerk, 1988). ...
Conference Paper
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The study was conducted at Ataye site of Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center. Data from 381 kidding of Boer does (B), Central Highland does (CHG), and their F1 cross does (B X CHG) were collected within the period of 2012 and 2017. The objective of the study was to access the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting the reproductive and survival performances of the above genotypes. The data on reproductive performances were analyzed using GLM procedure and non-parametric tests of SAS (9.0), while proportional hazard model was used to investigate genetic and non-genetic factors affecting kid survival. Chi square was used to separate means. The overall conception, kidding and abortion (%) of the does were recorded to be 48.75, 77.05 and 20.49 respectively. The overall least-squares means for litter size at birth, at weaning, litter weight (kg) at birth and at weaning were1.40±0.03, 0.67±0.03, 3.63±0.07 and 10.68±0.28 respectively. The overall survival (%) of the kids at day 4, 90, 180 and 365 were 73.99, 53.57, 47.98 and 40.27 respectively. Genetic and non-genetic factors influence the studied traits. So from this study we can conclude that the overall reproductive and survivability performances of the studied genotypes were quit low which indicates their sub-optimal adaptability to the study area.
... South Africa is the origin of Boer goat [5], and it is specialized for meat production. Boer goat is well adapted for tropical and semitropical conditions, high fertility rates, and resistance for the disease [6]. Boer goat is one of the most meat breeds spread in the world due to fast growth rate and excellent carcass qualities, where the average litter size is 1.9 kids/doe, the litter birth weight is 6.0 kg, and the average kid birth weight is 3.2 kg [7]. ...
Article
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Background: Identification of molecular characterization of genes underlying livestock productive traits may allow applying advanced biotechnology techniques to improve animal productivity. Growth hormone (GH) controls body growth rate, milk production, reproduction as well as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the genetic variations of growth hormone cDNA sequences between Assaf sheep (As_GH) and Boer goat (Bo_GH) that mainly used for genetic improvement in Egypt using bioinformatics analysis. Growth hormone cDNA was isolated from the pituitary gland tissue of Assaf sheep Boer goat and subcloned into pTZ57R/T cloning vector for sequencing. Results: Molecular weight of As_GH cDNA was 665 bp and was 774 bp for Bo_GH cDNA. The complete coding sequences (CDS) of As_GH and Bo_GH were registered in the GenBank database under accession number (AC: MH128986 and AC: MG744290, respectively). High homology percentage was observed (99.5%) between AS_GH and Bo_GH protein sequences with one different amino acid in the As_GH protein sequence (Arg194). The protein sequence of As_GH has only one motif signature; Somatotropin_1 from 79 to 112 aa compared to Bo_GH protein sequences and GenBank database that had two motifs signature. The growth hormone cDNA sequence of Assaf sheep has a unique three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (A637A638G639) that encodes for arginine (Arg194); this insertion mutation (AAG) was not found in the growth hormone cDNA sequences of Boer goat in the present study and GenBank database breeds. This mutation can be used to develop SNPs markers for Assaf sheep. Conclusions: GH sequence of Assaf and Boer goat is highly conserved and the homogeny in the codon region (99.5%). The Assaf sheep GH sequence has a unique three SNPs that may be used to develop SNPs markers for such breed. Further studies are needed to investigate the genetic variations of growth hormone gene in different sheep and goat breeds in Egypt and document the relationship between these variations and the productive performance of animals.
... Bobot hidup pejantan Boer dewasa yang terseleksi dengan baik (improved Boer) dapat mencapai antara 100 -120 kg dan berat sapih umur 120 hari dapat mencapai 29 kg (Malan, 2000). Erasmus (2000) ...
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AbstrakPemberian pakan merupakan unsur yang sangat menentukan pertumbuhan, reproduksi dan kesehatan ternak, sehingga penambahan kadar protein dalam ransum akan dapat meningkatkan bobot badan ternak, salah satu usaha untuk meningkatkan kandungan protein pakan adalah dengan pemberian nutrisi pakan imbuhan berupa susu pengganti atau Calf Milk Replacer (CMR) pada cempe masa pasca sapih disamping pemberian pakan konsentrat dan hijauan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian susu pengganti terhadap peningkatan berat badan harian (PBBH). Pengamatan ini menggunakan 10 ekor cempe Boer lepas sapih yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok perlakuan. Perlakuan pertama yaitu dengan pemberian susu pengganti dan perlakuan kedua tanpa pemberian susu pengganti. Kemudian penimbangan berat badan berkala selama satu bulan. Hasil yang didapatkan menunjukkan peningkatan berat badan harian cempe lepas sapih dengan pemberian susu pengganti yaitu sekitar 0,031 kg dan untuk cempe tanpa pemberian susu pengganti yaitu sekitar 0,03 kg. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik bahwa Peningkatan berat badan harian cempe lepas sapih yang diberikan susu pengganti tidak berbeda dengan yang tidak diberikan susu pengganti. Disarankan agar lebih memperhatikan komposisi dari susu pengganti.Kata kunci—susu pengganti, peningkatan berat badan harian, cempe Boer
... It is reputed to be a poorer meat producer than some exotic meat breeds such as the Boer goats. Therefore, Boer goat bucks have been used in many countries to crossbreed with indigenous does, and their offspring are more efficient red meat producers (Erasmus 2000;Malan 2000). This motivated the Government of Burundi to import Boer bucks from Tanzania and Uganda since 2005, with the consequence that the goat population in Burundi is presently a mixture of indigenous goats and Boer crossbreds in unrecognized proportions (MINEAGRIE 2010). ...
Article
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Abstract As part of a national action plan to manage animal genetic resources in Burundi, we characterized smallholders’ goat production systems and assessed the effect of Boer crossbreeding on animal body measures. To that end, 319 farmers were surveyed in the five agro-ecological zones of Burundi and the zootechnical measures of 939 adult goats were taken. Cluster analysis of the goat production systems resulted into two opposed groups and one intermediate. On the one hand, there are the dry lowlands systems characterized by large herds composed mainly of indigenous animals grazing freely, and having high market characteristics. On the other hand, there are the humid highlands systems characterized by small herds composed of indigenous and crossbred animals in stall feeding or herding/tethering systems, and by low market characteristics. Fixed effect linear models were used to evaluate the effect of Boer crossbreeding on body weights and linear body measures, after adjustment for age, sex, grazing systems and agro-ecological zones. Results showed that least square means for body weights of adult Boer crossbreds were 4.74 kg higher than those of indigenous goats, which was lower than expected. Least square means for linear body measures of Boer crossbreds were significantly higher than those of indigenous breeds: differences in chest girth, body length and height at withers were 4.88 cm, 5.59 cm and 4.82 cm, respectively. Goats were heavier and greater in linear measures in lowlands than in highlands. The advantages and issues of a selection programme within indigenous breeds are discussed as an alternative to the crossbreeding programme.
... It has been reported that the Boer goats are less susceptible to heat stress and tolerate heat better than many of the other temperate goat breeds (Lu 1989). They are also moderately tolerant to drought and tannins, and are efficient fiber digesters and they can adapt to various ambient temperature and have lower water turnover rate (Erasmus 2000). Because of their browsing habit, Boer goats are considered less susceptible to infestation by internal parasites (Casey and Van Niekerk 1988). ...
Article
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Doe reproduction and kid survival performances of Boer and their crosses with Central Highland goats were evaluated in Ethiopia. Survival data on a total of 519 kids born from an on-station Boer x Central Highland goats cross-breeding program recorded within the period 2012-2017 were analyzed using Weibull proportional hazard models of the survival kit version 6.0. Reproduction data were analyzed using the General Linear Model and logistic regression procedures of SAS 9.0. The overall percentages of conception, kidding and abortion of does were 48.9%, 37.6%, and 10% respectively. Breed group and non-genetic factors influence the studied traits, indicating Boer does had the lowest conception and kidding rate. The overall least-squares means for litter size at birth and at weaning, litter weight (kg) at birth and at weaning were 1.4±0.03, 0.67±0.03, 3.63±0.07 and 10.68±0.28 respectively. The litter size at birth and at weaning were not affected by the doe breed group while the litter weight at birth and at weaning was highest for the Boer does. The overall kid survival up to day 4, 90, 180 and 365 were 73.99%, 53.57%, 47.98%, and 40.27% respectively. Kid survival was affected by the type of birth, the season of birth and year of birth, indicating single born kids had higher survival rates than multiple born kids throughout the studied ages. Kid breed, kid sex, and doe parity did not affect survivability at all ages. The attempt which was aimed at genetic improvement through crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats in Ethiopia was blocked by their poor reproduction and survival. Therefore, it is advisable to try to bring genetic improvement through within breed selection among the indigenous goat breeds (CHG) in terms of reducing importation cost, conservation, and adaptation.
... Awassi sheep is a local breed distribute in South-West Asia (Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine) Talafha and Ababneh (2011). Boer goats evolved in Southern Africa from indigenous African goats Casey and Van Nierkerk (1988), this breeds are breeding as a meat breeds in addition to acclimation, adaptation, and low parasite infestation Erasmus (2000). Minerals are required for all biological process of animal body functions. ...
... The greatest muscle:bone, muscle:fat, and bone:fat ratios obtained in the carcass of goats may be related to the Boer breed genetic potential, a fact highlighted by Erasmus (2000) when studying the potential of this breed, mainly in terms of muscle mass distribution, also underscoring the lower deposition of subcutaneous fat when compared with sheep. ...
Article
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To compare the fatty acid (FA) composition, and chemical and tissue composition of meat, 24 uncastrated males, 12 sheep of the Santa Inês breed, and 12 crossbred goats (F1 Boer × undefined breed) with the weight of 24.3 ± 2.38 kg. The animals were distributed in a randomized block design and treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, two small ruminant species/breed (Boer crossbreed goat × Santa Inês breed sheep), and two supplementation strategies (energy × protein energy). There was not an interaction between the small ruminant species and the supplementation on average daily gain, tissue composition, chemical composition, or FA profile of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Sheep presented greater weight and yield of fat in the subcutaneous, intermuscular, and total depots than goats, which results in better finishing of the sheep for slaughter. Goat meat presented a lower lipid concentration than sheep meat. The protein-energy supplementation increased oleic acid, ΣUFA, ΣMUFA, hypocholesterolemic/ Hypercholesterolemic index, and enzymatic activity Δ9–desaturase C18 and decreased SFA capric acid in the muscle when compared with energetic supplementation. In Caatinga biome conditions, Boer crossbreed goats meat has a lower concentration of lipids and a healthier FA composition compared with Santa Inês breed sheep because it has a lower SFA and greater PUFA content, which are sources of n−3 and n−6, which may contribute to the reduction of blood cholesterol (LDL). In addition, protein-energy supplementation also improved the quality of animal fat compared with supplementation only with the energetic concentrate, regardless of species.
... oer goats have an interest of meat goat producers due to claims that they are fast growers, hardy and adaptable, resistant to diseases, fertile and produce meat of high quality (Erasmus, 2000). ...
... These are important outcomes to consider since a sizeable proportion of U.S. commercial meat goat does are Boerinfluenced. Observations that infusion of Boer germplasm into the doe herd through crossbreeding did not improve doe performance were noteworthy because large-scale Boer importations were expected to make sweeping improvements in meat goat fitness and other aspects of herd performance (Erasmus, 2000;Malan, 2000), including that of the landrace Spanish goat in the United States. Boer germplasm did not improve the reproductive merits of the Kiko or Spanish populations. ...
Article
Understanding fitness level among various breeds is essential for sustainable meat goat production. Research on the relative fitness of Boer F1 does and straightbred base breed has been limited. Meat goat does of various genotypes (Boer, Kiko, Spanish, Boer × Kiko reciprocal F1 crosses, and Boer × Spanish reciprocal F1 crosses) were studied to evaluate breed effects on doe fitness traits and the expression of heterosis over 7 production years. The herd was semi-intensively managed under humid subtropical pasture. Doe age affected (P < 0.05) various traits. Boer × Kiko does were heavier (P < 0.05) than Boer does at fall breeding, but Boer × Spanish does did not differ (P > 0.05) from Boer does for breeding weight. The body weights of Boer × Spanish and Boer × Kiko crosses did not differ (P > 0.05) from the weights of their respective Kiko and Spanish base cohorts at breeding, kidding or weaning. Boer does had lower (P < 0.05) kidding rate (KR) and weaning rate (WR) than the other breeds and crosses. Boer × Kiko and Kiko were similar for KR and WR. Boer × Spanish and Spanish were also similar for KR and WR. However, the combined group of Boer F1 does had lower (P < 0.01) KR and WR than the combined purebred biotype group of Kiko and Spanish does. Boer does weaned smaller (P < 0.05) litter sizes per doe exposed compared to Kiko, Spanish, Boer × Kiko and Boer × Spanish does with the latter four doe breedtypes not differing from each other. The combined Boer F1 doe group weaned smaller (P < 0.05) litter sizes per doe exposed than the combined purebred group of Kiko and Spanish does. Boer × Kiko dams had higher (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts at parturition than Kiko dams. Significant heterosis was observed for reproductive traits within each of the two-breed diallels. Boer F1 does exhibited reproductive output similar to or lower than Kiko and Spanish straightbred does and higher than Boer straightbred does.
... Boer goat does are known for their good mothering ability and can kid every seven to eight months. This breed has an exceptional ability to resist and survive diseases such as blue tongue, prussic acid poisoning and, to a lesser extent, enterotoxaemia (Erasmus 2000;Malan 2000). ...
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The importance of small dairy ruminants has increased significantly in last years and goats have shown to be well adapted to harsh conditions. On the Canary Islands, an insular territory of Spain, goat population is higher than 300,000 heads adapted to this subtropical Archipelago with different microclimates, being disseminated through the seven islands. This census supposes about 70% of the total livestock population on the islands. There are three local dairy goat breeds, Majorera, Tinerfeña, and Palmera. The three breeds are considered high-yielding dairy goats. Majorera breed is adapted to arid climates; conversely, Palmera goats are adapted to rainy and abrupt areas. Regarding Tinerfeña breed, two ecotypes are recognized, one adapted to rainy (North ecotype) and the other to dry environments (South ecotype). Additionally to the Canary Islands, Majorera goats have shown to be well adapted in other places, especially in arid, semiarid, and even tropical regions.
... Weight gain is therefore another important parameter. Many authors argued that growth and development of animals are the basis for meat production (van Niekerk and Casey, 1988;Dzazuma et al., 2000;Erasmus, 2000;Dhanda et al., 2003). Increasing reproductive performances, reducing mortality rate, accelerating growth rate and improving carcass merit are multiple and interdependent objectives. ...
Article
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This research was carried out at Gisting sub-District, Tanggamus Regency, in order to find out doe productivity of Boerawa goat on rural on condition. This research involved 120 doe Boerawa goat housed in elevated barns. Measurements were performed to evaluate the litter size, birth weight, weight at weaning, and pre-weaning mortality. The results of the present research showed that birth weight of the kids was 3.10 kg and 2.94 kg for male and female, respectively. The average birth weight was based on the type of birth 3.20 kg and 3.04 kg for the single versus twin born kids. It was documented that the average weight at weaning of the kids were 17.12 kg and 16.23 kg for male and female, respectively. Whereas based on birth type, the average weight was of the single born kids and the twin at weaning were 17.30 versus 16.63 kg. In addition, doe reproduction index was 2.36 weaned kids/year, and the average doe productivity was 41.52 kg. Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kecamatan Gisting Kabupaten Tanggamus, dalam rangka untuk mengetahui produktivitas induk kambing Boerawa pada kondisi pedesaan. Penelitian ini melibatkan 120 induk kambing Boerawa yang dipelihara di kandang panggung. Pengukuran dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi ukuran jumlah cempe sekelahiran, bobot lahir, bobot sapih, dan kematian pra-sapih. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa bobot lahir cempe adalah 3,10 kg dan 2,94 kg (masing-masing untuk jantan dan betina). Bobot lahir rata-rata didasarkan pada tipe kelahiran tunggal dan kembar adalah masing-masing 3.20 kg dan 3,04 kg. Diperoleh hasil bahwa bobot sapih adalah 17,12 kg dan 16,23 kg (masing-masing untuk jantan dan betina). Sedangkan berdasarkan tipe kelahiran, bobot sapih rata-rata dari tipe kelahiran tunggal dan kembar adalah 17.30 dan 16.63 kg. Selain itu, indeks reproduksi induk sebesar 2,36 cempe sapihan/tahun, dan produktivitas induk rata-rata adalah 41,52 kg. Kata kunci: Kambing Boerawa, produktivitas induk , kondisi pedesaan.
... In intensive dairy goat production, the loss of body condition is a common problem, particularly at the peak of lactation. Unlike dairy goat breeds, Boer goats are very well adapted to survive in the nutrition deficient conditions of its indigenous habitat (ERASMUS, 2000;MALAN, 2000). However, in intensive production systems these goats are frequently over fed and tend to be obese due to their efficient deposition of body reserves (SAMARDŽIJA et al., 2013). ...
Article
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In goats, during the puerperal period, a lack of energy is one of the most frequent causes of sudden metabolic changes and the consequent reproductive disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of the body condition on the serum profile of metabolites such as: total proteins (TP), albumin (ALB), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), glucose (GLU) and β-hydroxybutirate (BHB) in Boer goats during late pregnancy (Day 120), at parturition (Day 0) as well as on Days 30 and 60 after parturition. A total of 15 female Boer goats (does), from a commercial farm in north western Croatia were used. The body condition status of the goats was established using the standard protocol for scoring. Based on the body condition score (BCS), each doe was categorized into one of three groups: group 1 (n = 5) or obese does with BCS ≥3.50-5.00, group 2 (n = 5) or medium does with BCS ≥2.75<3.50 and group 3 (n = 5) or thin does with BCS <2.75. The concentrations of does serum TP, ALB, TG, CHOL, GLU and BHB were measured spectrophotometrically. On Day 120 of pregnancy the level of TG was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the obese does than the medium does. The levels of TP or CHOL were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the obese than in the thin does on Day 30 and Day 60, respectively, following parturition. The recorded changes in the metabolites tested could be of significance for monitoring the metabolic status of goats during intensive production, and of practical interest for preventing/controlling economic losses in goat breeding.
... The challenge now lies in selecting for sustainable production under extensive farming conditions. This selection should include emphasis on maintaining the strong characteristics of local breeds with regard to their adaptive capacities for relatively poor nutrition and their superior ability to survive tick-borne diseases compared with commercial goat types (Erasmus, 2000;Malan, 2000). ...
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Organization and shifts in genetic selection and breeding of goats to face current environmental issues in livestock activities
... They are selected for meat production due to fast growth rate and excellent carcass qualities [2]. Furthermore, their ability to adopt and thrive in harsh dry environment combined with their natural resistance to diseases [3] direct us to rear it in Egyptian arid subtropical area. In these districts, due to extended absence of food in harsh environmental conditions, ovaries pass through a period of transient inactivity [4]. ...
Article
The present study aimed to improve ovarian follicle development and plasma metabolites and hormone concentrations upon supplementation of Boer goats with green microalga (Dunaliella salina; 10 g/head/day) (N = 20; MAT group) compared to control (N = 10; not receive microlagae) in subtropics. Estrus was synchronized in all animals by two intramuscular administration of 12.5 mg dinoprost 11 days a part. MAT group was supplemented with Dunaliella salina for 11 days (from the day of first injection of dinoprost till the second injection). Ovarian performance, steroids, LH, FSH and blood metabolites were assessed every three days during the estrous cycle. Numbers and sizes of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in MAT group. Progesterone, estrogen, FSH and LH were higher in MAT group during estrous cycle. Blood metabolites including glucose, total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were significantly (P < 0.05) increased upon D. salina administration. On the other hand, supplementation of D. salina resulted in significant decrease of plasma total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. In conclusion, supplementation with D. salina could improve ovarian follicle development and concentrations of plasma metabolites and hormones which subsequently improves reproductive performance of Boer goats.
... Kambing Boer merupakan satu-satunya kambing tipe pedaging di dunia yang pertumbuhannya cepat dan telah teregistrasi selama lebih 65 tahun (Shipley and Shipley, 2005). Kambing Boer memiliki kemampuan beradaptasi dengan baik pada berbagai kondisi iklim, sistem produksi dan tipe pastura (Erasmus, 2000). ...
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p>The objective of research were to evaluate grading up program of Boer buck and Ettawa grade goat (EGG) doe at Village Breeding Centre (VBC) Dadapan village, Sumberejo subdistrict, Tanggamus regency by studying growth performance EGG, Boerawa grade 1 (BG1), and Boerawa grade 2 (BG2). Survey method was used in this research. Recording for growth performance of 525 heads EGG, 450 heads BG1, and 175 heads BG2 possessed by Karya Makmur III farmer group that was member of the VBC. Variables observed were body weight and body measurements at birth, weaning, and yearling. Data was analysed by analysis for variance of Completely Randomized Design for one way lay out. Difference of mean were analysed by Duncant’s Multiple Range Test. The average of birth weight of EGG (2,79±0,66 kg) were lower than that of BG1 (3,22±0,64 kg), however that of BG1 were not different with BG2 (3,02±0,89 kg). The average of weaning weight of EGG (18,28±0,053 kg) were lower than that of BG1 (19,89±5,72 kg) however that of BG1 were not different with that of BG 2 (19,67±1,54 kg). The average of yearling weight of EGG (39,89±7,26 kg) were lower than that of BG1 however that of BG1(43,49±6,15 kg) were not different with BG2 (42,27±2,12 kg). The absolute preweaning and postweaning average daily gain (ADG) of EGG, BG1, and BG2 were not different. Relative preweaning ADG of EGG (7,95±0,69%) were higher (P<0.05) than that of BG1 (3,57±0,14%) and BG2 (4,77±0,64%) however that of BG1 were not different with BG2. Relative postweaning ADG of EGG (0,60±1,31%) were higher than that of BG1 (0,37±0,01%) and BG2 (0,43±0,07%). Average of postweaning ADG of BG1 and BG2 were different (P<0.05). Its conclusion that growth performance of BG2 have not optimum.</p
... Kambing Boer merupakan satu-satunya kambing tipe pedaging di dunia yang pertumbuhannya cepat dan telah teregistrasi selama lebih 65 tahun (Shipley and Shipley, 2005). Kambing Boer memiliki kemampuan beradaptasi dengan baik pada berbagai kondisi iklim, sistem produksi dan tipe pastura (Erasmus, 2000). ...
Article
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p>The objective of research were to evaluate grading up program of Boer buck and Ettawa grade goat (EGG) doe at Village Breeding Centre (VBC) Dadapan village, Sumberejo subdistrict, Tanggamus regency by studying growth performance EGG, Boerawa grade 1 (BG1), and Boerawa grade 2 (BG2). Survey method was used in this research. Recording for growth performance of 525 heads EGG, 450 heads BG1, and 175 heads BG2 possessed by Karya Makmur III farmer group that was member of the VBC. Variables observed were body weight and body measurements at birth, weaning, and yearling. Data was analysed by analysis for variance of Completely Randomized Design for one way lay out. Difference of mean were analysed by Duncant’s Multiple Range Test. The average of birth weight of EGG (2,79±0,66 kg) were lower than that of BG1 (3,22±0,64 kg), however that of BG1 were not different with BG2 (3,02±0,89 kg). The average of weaning weight of EGG (18,28±0,053 kg) were lower than that of BG1 (19,89±5,72 kg) however that of BG1 were not different with that of BG 2 (19,67±1,54 kg). The average of yearling weight of EGG (39,89±7,26 kg) were lower than that of BG1 however that of BG1(43,49±6,15 kg) were not different with BG2 (42,27±2,12 kg). The absolute preweaning and postweaning average daily gain (ADG) of EGG, BG1, and BG2 were not different. Relative preweaning ADG of EGG (7,95±0,69%) were higher (P<0.05) than that of BG1 (3,57±0,14%) and BG2 (4,77±0,64%) however that of BG1 were not different with BG2. Relative postweaning ADG of EGG (0,60±1,31%) were higher than that of BG1 (0,37±0,01%) and BG2 (0,43±0,07%). Average of postweaning ADG of BG1 and BG2 were different (P<0.05). Its conclusion that growth performance of BG2 have not optimum.</p
... Aharon et al., 2007;Celaya et al., 2010;Jauregui et al., 2008). Boer goats, which were grazed in the investigated areas in the lower Saale River valley, are well adapted to remove or control shrub encroachment (Erasmus, 2000;Aharon et al., 2007). ...
Article
Shrub encroachment is one of the main causes of dry grassland loss in Central Europe. Abandoned semi-natural grasslands are often overgrown by thorny or spiny shrubs. Such unpalatable shrubs have frequently established by selective foraging during periods with low grazing pressure, particularly if sheep herding was performed. Feeding behaviour and diet selection vary between different livestock species and especially browsing goats are increasingly recognized for preventing woody encroachment. However, little is known about the appropriate timing of the grazing regime and the selection of woody species on abandoned dry grasslands already dominated by thorny and spiny shrubs.
... values for weaning weight were observed in Boer kids (12.84 kg) than Baladi (8.54 kg). Results of the present study (Table, 5) for birth and weaning weights from kids of pure Boer are somewhat lower than the reports of earlier literature, where Boer goats averaged up to 3.9 kg at birth and 29 kg at weaning (weaned at 4 months) [29,30]. Boer kids with higher birth weight (3.08 kg) in the present study indicated also significant (P<0.05) ...
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This study was carried out at the Goat Research Unit of the Department of Animal Production at El-Noubaria Experimental Farm, National Research Centre, Al-Imam Malik, El-Noubaria, Behira Governorate, and Laboratories of Animal Production Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza. A number of 20 Egyptian Baladi and Boer does were separated into two groups, the first Egyptian Baladi group (n=10) was mated with one Baladi buck and the second Boer group was mated with purebred Boer buck. The performance (i.e. milk production, twinning and fertility rate) of Baladi and Boer goats was studied for one year under local environmental conditions. Average milk yield (from 0-120 days at weaning) was lower (P > 0.05) in Baladi goats (752.50 ± 113.91 g) compared to Boer (1321.6 ± 152.63). Average twinning rate was also higher in Boer goats (66 %) compared to Baladi (50 %). Baladi does have greater fertility (80%) than purebred Boer does (60%). Body weight of Baladi goats ranged from 28.25 ± 1.03 kg at parturition to 24.90 ± 1.76 kg after 120 days whereas that of Boer goats ranged from 36.16 ± 2.48 kg to 32.30 ± 1.50 kg. Average daily growth (g/day) of kids after birth was higher (P < 0.05) for Boer kids (80.45) as compared to Baladi kids (56.45). Pre-weaning mortality rate was also higher of Baladi kids (28.57%) compared to Boer kids (20%). Boer goats have a higher twinning rate and kid growth rate than Baladi goats, so they can be considered as a dual purpose breed. Apparently, Boer goats seem to adapt well to the environmental conditions (climate, diseases and nutrition) of Egypt. The present study shows that conditions in Egypt are favorable for raising Boer goats due to increased potential for reproductive rate and enhance meat production.
... In the current scenario of global warming, animals which show adequate adaptation to adverse climatic conditions should have a production advantage over non-adapted animals which necessitates the need to investigate breeds and genetic groups which are adapted to the region [1][2][3]. Among the domestic ruminant species, goats are best adapted to harsh hot environments [4][5][6]. ...
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Objectives: An experiment was conducted to assess the adaptability of Attappady black does to summer heat stress under humid tropical climate of Kerala. The adaptability to heat stress was measured in terms of variations in physiological responses, haematological parameters, feed and water intake, and growth traits. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in twelve Attappady black does for a period of four weeks during the summer season. The does were divided into two groups, viz. control (n=6) and thermal stress group (n=6). The control group does were maintained in a shaded housing facility, such that the animals were protected from direct solar radiation all day. The thermal stress group was exposed to the natural sunlight for 6 hrs per day from 09.00 to 15.00 Hrs from day 7-28. The mean solar radiation was 6.24 kwh/m2 /day. The temperature humidity index (THI) inside and outside the shaded facility were 29.37 and 33.46 respectively. Results: The thermal stress group experienced a pronounced increase (p<0.05) in the respiration rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, and water and roughage intake during the first week of onset of solar exposure. The substantial increase (p≤0.05) in the rectal temperature and roughage intake in the thermal stress group continued over the second week of heat exposure. However, thermal stress group recuperated from the heat stress within three weeks of outset of solar exposure as evidenced from comparable physiological responses, feed and water intake in both groups. Body weight, average daily gain and blood parameters like packed cell volume and haemoglobin were analogous in two groups all through the experiment. Conclusion: Results indicate the adaptability potential of Attappady black-does to chronic heat exposure.
... The consumption of goat meat increases particularity in the summer season, as it could become an ideal choice for health conscious consumers since goats being a much leaner animal, and present a good source of desirable fatty acids and deposit higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids than other ruminants (Banskalievaet al 2000). Furthermore, goats are better adapted than sheep to extensive conditions and to harsh environments (Erasmus 2000). Arid and semi-arid areas are characterized by limited resources, herbaceous and rare green forage production particularly during hot season (summer), so animals are heavily supplemented with concentrate (Nefzaoui and Ben Salem 2002; Atti et al 2006). ...
... Alguns pesquisadores já testaram esta espécie (Aita, 1995;Martins et al., 2000) Boer se destaca e apresenta-se como alternativa para cruzamentos com outras raças e/ou tipos raciais criados no Brasil (Erasmus, 2000). Moraes et al. (1990). ...
... For instance, their ability to browse and propensity for diverse diets make them strong candidates for the system. Both Donaldson (1979) and Erasmus (2000) concluded that goats complement grazers in savanna areas by utilizing the woody component, but doubted their efficiency as bush control agents in extensive production systems and in the absence of fire. Meat goats have a great potential to be used as an integrative part of a silvopasture system. ...
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The study assessed the impact of using different stocking rates of goats under pine plantation on plant species occurrence and animal productivity. It was conducted on an 11 year-old loblolly pine plantation site in Epes, Alabama from July to October 2011. Thirty-six Kiko crossbred male goat kids of 4 to 5 months of age were assigned to different stocking rates, namely, low (4 goats/acre), medium (8 goats/acre), and high (12 goats/acre) with three replications each. Forage composition, animal daily gain (ADG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were monitored. Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) was the most dominant grass species across all treatments. Quantities of understory plant species decreased across all stocking densities with season, but there were no statistical differences (p > 0.05); ADG and BUN were similar. Long-term studies need to be conducted before any meaningful inferences can be drawn. Keywords: Silvopasture, Loblolly Pine, Goats, Understory Species Composition
... Most of the authors concluded that more than half of the Boer goats have had twins (Seabo et al. 1994;Skinner, 1972;Djuricic et al. 2012c) as dairy goats in our study. However, our results were lower two to three times for triplets but higher for singles as compared to the other authors (Skinner 1972;Aucamp and Venter 1981;Erasmus, 2000). ...
Article
ContentsOne of the major post-parturient complications in dairy goats is the retention of foetal membrane (RFM), which negatively influences their health, reproductive efficacy and welfare. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of intrauterine either ozone (OZ) or antibiotic (AB) treatments to establish the use of OZ as a novel and potential alternative to AB therapy in does with the RFM. The study was performed on 7 herds of dairy goats (n = 563) kept in the farms in Croatia. The conception rate was 563 of 641 total matings or 87.83%. The does from selected farms were observed during early puerperium and were divided into animals without the RFM (n = 522) and with the RFM (n = 41), treated either with foam spray OZ (n = 21) or with foaming AB oxytetracycline tablets (n = 20). The does with the RFM were mated successfully and became pregnant next kidding season, regardless of the treatment applied. Treatment with OZ attained similar results to the standard AB therapy, indicating that it could be novel potential alternative therapy of the RFM in dairy goats.
Article
Chinese goats are an important group of goats worldwide. However, there are few studies on the conservation priority, genetic relationship and potential gene flow between Chinese and global goat breeds. Here, we genotyped 239 goats from conservation populations of the Chinese Guangfeng and Ganxi breeds using the GoatSNP50 BeadChip. The conservation priority, population structure, selection signatures and introgression of these goats were analyzed in the context of 36 global goat breeds. First, we showed that Guangfeng and Ganxi goats had the largest effective population sizes across the global breeds 13 generations ago. Nevertheless, Ganxi goats have recently experienced a high degree of inbreeding, resulting in their conservation priority based on total gene and allelic diversities being lower than that of most other Chinese breeds (including Guangfeng goats). Population structure and admixture analyses showed that an average of 18% of Guangfeng genomic components were introgressed from Boer goats approximately 18 years ago. Next, we reconstructed the subfamily structure of the core populations of Guangfeng and Ganxi goats, and proposed reasonable conservation strategies for inbreeding management. Moreover, a list of candidate genes under selection for fertility, immunity, growth and meat quality were detected in Guangfeng and Ganxi goats. Finally, we identified some genes related to body development and reproduction, which were introgressed from Boer goats and may be beneficial for improving performance and productivity of Guangfeng goats. In conclusion, this study not only provides new insights into the conservation and utilization of Guangfeng and Ganxi goats but also enriches our understanding of artificial introgression from exotic goats into Chinese local goats.
Experiment Findings
The study revealed the performance of Boer goat raised at NLBO, Pokhara which can be representative result in context of Nepal. The secondary data of FY 2074/75 and 2075/76 were collected and arranged in MS Excel 2016 Pro plus. The analysis of data of total population of goats was done by descriptive statistics. The average birth weight of kids(n=71) and average weaning weight (n=28) was 3.34±0.77 kg and 14.59±4.13 kg respectively. The male was found to be significantly(p<0.05) heavier than female. There was no significant (p<0.05) effect of birth type in birth weight. The average preweaning daily gain for male and female was 137.86±43.57 g/day and 107.15±41.57 g/day respectively. The average gestation length in 1st and 2nd parity was 149.59±6.14 (n=37) and 149.06±4.32 (n=17) respectively. The kidding rate seems increasing with each parity viz. 126.5% (1st parity) and 161.1% (2nd parity). The twinning rate was 49.29%. The kidding interval (n=18) was lengthy 307.61±40.41 days. The above findings were based on short duration of time so further research should be done to evaluate long term data to find more precise parameters.
Chapter
Meat goats play an important role in terms of food security, socio-economic welfare and cultural importance in South Africa. The meat goat industry is differentiated into a formal, commercial market served by mainly three breeds (Boer goat, Savanna and Kalahari Red) and an informal, mostly communal industry where unimproved indigenous veld goats are kept. Goats are mostly farmed within the grassland, savanna and Karoo biomes, in extensive production systems. The meat goat breeds are well-adapted to the harsh extensive farming systems in which most of them are farmed, which are characterized by limited feed and water resources, extreme temperatures and a high prevalence of diseases and parasites. The indigenous goat has superior adaptability with regards to extremely challenging environments. The commercial breeds have been subjected to artificial selection and have limited participation in the South African small stock improvement scheme, while almost no effort has been made to improve the indigenous veld goat or to conserve its unique genetic attributes.
Article
Data collected over a period of 15 years in a herd of Boer goats in Brazil were used to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive and growth traits. The analyses included weights of about 1300 kids and nearly 750 reproductive records by 345 goats. The mixed model analyses of reproductive traits (kidding interval, litter size, litter weight at birth and weaning, doe weight at parturition) included the fixed effects of contemporary group and parity, and the random effects of additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. For growth traits (birth weight, weaning weight, average daily gain and relative growth rate) the fixed effects considered were contemporary group, sex, number born and parity, while the random effects were the direct and maternal genetic effects (allowing for their covariance), permanent environmental effect of the dam and litter common environmental effect. The mean performance in the Boer goats included in our study was 56.4 ± 11.5 kg for live weight at parturition, 456 ± 198 days for kidding interval, 1.70 ± 0.66 kids for litter size, 5.8 ± 2.2 and 23.4 ± 9.7 kg for litter weight at birth and weaning, respectively, while the kids had means for birth and weaning (112 days) weight of 3.4 ± 0.8 and 15.2 ± 4.7 kg, with average daily gain and relative growth rate of 105.2 ± 40.0 g and 1.3 ± 0.3%, respectively. The heritability (h2) estimate for reproductive traits was near zero for litter size and litter weight at birth, about 0.1 for kidding interval and litter weaning weight, and close to 0.4 for doe weight at parturition. The estimated repeatability was about 0.5 for doe weight at parturition and near 0.1 for all the other reproductive traits. The h2 of direct effects for growth traits was consistently higher than h2 of maternal effects. For birth weight, h2 estimates of direct and maternal effects were smaller than for the other traits, in the range of 0.05 to 0.08. For growth and weight traits measured after birth, h2 of direct effects ranged from 0.23 to 0.31, and h2 of maternal effects was about 0.13 for the various traits. There was a strong antagonism between direct and maternal effects, with a genetic correlation of −0.67 for birth weight, and about −0.8 to −0.9 for the other traits. Relative to the phenotypic variance, the influence of the permanent environmental effect of the dam represented about 0.11 to 0.15 and the common environmental effect of the litter corresponded to 0.32 for birth weight and ranged from 0.13 to 0.18 for the other traits. These results indicate that selection for some reproductive traits such as litter size may be difficult, given the low levels of genetic variability, but could be more successful for other traits like litter weaning weight and kidding interval. Selection for weight at and growth rate up to weaning should take into account the importance of direct and maternal genetic effects as well as the genetic antagonism between these two components. Factors which are seldom considered in mixed model analyses, such as the common litter effect, were found to be of major importance, and must be considered in the linear models used to estimate genetic parameters and predict breeding values in meat goats.
Article
The aim of this study was to define the influence of birth weight, litter size and parity on gestation length of Boer goats in north-western Croatia; other parameters were the influence of gender of the kids, parity, and litter size on birth weight. Sixty Boer does under semi-intensive management between 2-8 years old were used throughout 5 years. After kidding, does were together with kids three to four months until weaning. The mean gestation length of Boer does in northwestern Croatia was determinated with 148, 36 ± 0, 86 days, from 142 to 159 days. Data on 291 pregnancies and 529 newborn goat kids showed 1,82 kids per doe, i. e. 2,56 goat kids per year. The Boer goat breed is well known for fecundity. Does with singles were 32,98 % (n = 96), does with twins were 54,64 % (n = 159), triplets 9,97% (n = 29) and quadruplets 2,41 % does (n = 7) (one doe had quintuplets, but stillbirth (no statistics value)). Mean birth weight for primiparous were 3,16 ± 0,12 kg for male kids (n = 50) and 3,04 ± 0,09 kg for female kids (n = 57). The birth weights of male kids were from 3,69 ± 0,10 kg (in second parturition) to 3,91 ± 0,13 kg (in sixth parturitions). Mean weight of female kids were from 3,41 ± 0,10 kg (in second parturition) to 3,83 ± 0,09 kg (in sixth parturition). Mean birth weight was 3-0 ± 0,10 kg for female kids (n = 259) and 3,71 ± 0,11 kg for male kids (n = 270).
Article
Post-arrival mortality pattern and the causes of those mortalities were studied in a Boer goat breeding farm in Malaysia. The farm was established in October 2005, following an importation of 597 breeder Boer goats from Australia. Further importations of 534 Boer goats were made in July 2007, and 166 goats in March 2008. Farm records covering the period between October 2005 and December 2008 were analyzed for monthly mortality pattern with special attention on the post-arrival weeks. Upon arrival, goats were provided with vitamins, anti-stress and antibiotic cover. They were fed with cut grasses and supplemented with goat pellets at 350g/goat/day. Drinking water was also available ad libitum. During the study period of 2005 to 2008, there were significantly (p<0.05) higher rates of annual mortality during rainy months (7%-14%) as compared to dry months (2%-5%). Meanwhile, the post-arrival mortality showed an average of 27%, ranging between 13% and 43%, of the Boer goats died during the first 6 weeks of post-arrival. In particular, the goats arriving in the rainy months of October 2005 and March 2008 showed higher post-arrival mortality than those arriving in the dry month of July 2007. The post-arrival mortality pattern revealed a gradual but significant (p<0.05) increase as early as week 1, with an average of 5% mortality to reach peak at week 3 with 35% mortality before it gradually decreased to 6% at week 6 and 3% at week 7. The major causes of post-arrival mortalities were pneumonic mannheimiosis and helminthiasis, which were associated with the stresses of handling, loading and unloading during shipment.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine season influence on duration of service-period and interkidding period of Boer goats in north-west Croatia (Europe) as well as influence on the duration of interval from partus to next conception. We investigated 55 Boer does between 2 - 8 years old through 6 year period. After kidding, does were kept with kids three to four months until weaning. A few bucks were in groups too. The mean interval from partus to conception (service-period) recorded in our investigation was 108,22 ± 4,42 days. In north-west Croatia the intervals from partus to conception were between 64,4 ± 8,30 and 64,4 ± 8,30 days and. We have determinated that interkidding-period lasts, in average from 183,00 ± 3,63 in October till 317,94 ± 3,12 days in January. Comparing the results of the mean interkidding period we have determinated significantly longer mean interkiding period in winter and spring (P < 0,05) than in summer and autumn. The mean interkidding period in Boer goats was the longest in a winter 309,70 ± 2,66 days and the shortest in autumn 229,73 ± 8,29 days. While, in Boer goats interkidding period lasts 279,56 ± 2,44 days in spring and 242,41 ± 4,30 days in summer. Most of does give birth in late winter (43 %), early spring (33 %) and only 24 % in summer and autumn period (15 % and 9 %, respectively). We have established that 30 years after importing to Europe, Boer goat is becoming seasonal polyoestrus animal.
Article
The Bezoar, Savannah and Nubian types of goat that were domesticated from their respective wild Bezoar, Markhor and Ibex ancestors are the predecessors of the 1183 breeds, populations and landraces in the world. More than 10,000 years of exposure to the forces of evolution and creative human activity have contributed towards a colossal amount of variability in morphological characteristics and production performance. Despite the available diversity, goats have not benefited from scientific achievements in quantitative genetics, nutrition and disease prevention to the same extent as other livestock and poultry species. This is because goats were often a neglected species, kept in developing countries by the poor and the landless at the end of the social scale. At the same time, goats were considered responsible for soil erosion due to controversy and ignorance ascribed to their destructive nature. Only in the last three decades has their role in alleviating poverty and sustaining food production by increasing household income gained recognition. In goats, the primary source of knowledge prior to the 1970s has been from their use as an experimental animal in biomedical research. A great deal of attention continues to be directed towards dairy and pashmina goats, often impeding efforts to allocate the resources necessary to develop meat goats. Researchers have provided irrefutable evidence to confirm that climate, terrain, breed (or population, or landrace), availability of feed and grazing land, diseases, culture, economic status of the producer and government policy, which vary from country to country and from region to region within a country, significantly influence the productivity of goats. Studies of breeds and their crosses under varying management schemes, although mostly from institutional herds, have identified breeds with the necessary potential to improve efficiency of meat-goat production. Estimates of heterosis demonstrate prospects for improving vigour, reproduction and the maternal ability of the dam, as well as survival, growth, uniformity of the carcass and meat quality of the kid. Crossbreeding of complementary breeds such as Alpine, Beetal, Boer, Damascus, Jamunapari, Nubian and Saanen with indigenous goats, as well as composite populations derived from the combination of two or more breeds, has improved the productivity of goats worldwide. Consumer acceptability of meat and meat products from crossbred animals has been well established. Genetic parameter estimates for reproduction, growth, meat quality and milk yield in goats assembled from numerous studies offer theoretical promise in direct selection for efficiency of meat production. Likewise, purebred selection has benefited from a greater proportion of additive genetic variance associated with economically important production traits. As additive genetic variance is exhausted, the role of direct selection for non-additive genetic covariance among crossbred offspring needs to be exploited. The breeding of populations with as broad a genetic base as possible is therefore critical in sustaining the genetic response to selection. Improvement in meat quality and production in goats can be accomplished with a comprehensive and technically sound assessment of important production traits that have sufficient flexibility to meet diverse environmental and managerial conditions in harmony with social, religious and cultural attributes. An integral and indispensable part of breeding strategies to maximize production efficiency in other domestic livestock and poultry has been the establishment of optimal breeding objectives along with the use of multi-trait mixed animal model methodology to obtain precise estimates of genetic parameters and the prediction of breeding values of the offspring and their parents. In practice, genetic improvement of meat goats can be accomplished by a simple procedure that involves the identification, measurement, recording, selection criteria based on realistic economic values, estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values intended for pertinent morphological characteristics and production performance. In the future, novel technology based on molecular markers associated with economically important morphological characteristics and production performance could be integrated into genetic improvement of productivity in meat goats.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate hygienic conditions in a goat house with regard to selected health parameters of goats and external air contamination around the goat farm. The study was carried out in three seasons (winter, spring and summer) on a goat farm with 600 foundation females. The analysis included basic microclimatic parameters, measurements of ozone concentrations inside and outside the building, microbiological analysis of air inside and outside the building, analysis of milk for somatic cell count, and basic blood analyses. The building showed a good hygienic potential with regard to most microclimatic (except thermal) parameters and poor sanitary standards, as evidenced by the presence of potentially pathogenic staphylococci in the air. Milk somatic cell count exceeded permissible standards and revealed subclinical udder infections. Blood tests showed malnutrition or diseases of animals, especially in the spring period. It is worth noting that despite the increasing consumption of goat milk and goat milk products, no detailed standards have been determined for them.
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Due to climatic variability in semi arid tropics, livestock production faces many challenges that threaten its viability. This is a review that looks at the potential of goat production as one of the many mitigating strategies in confronting climate change in semi arid tropics. The discussion focuses on specific goat ethological, morphological and physiological characteristics that have environmental adaptation implications. Physiological, behavioral and morphological responses let goats effectively thrive in unfavorable climate change induced environmental conditions. These responses are important in matching goats to specific environmental conditions and ensuring a sustainable level of production. Severe feed shortages resulting from changes in rainfall pattern, and water scarcity are some of the major climate change induced environmental stressors, which have caused livestock capacity decline. Their negative influence on livestock production calls for use of adapted livestock species to cope with unavoidable climate change effects. Goats have shown to be a remarkable animal species that possess distinctive qualities enabling it to excel efficiently in harsh tropical environments. As climate change takes a center stage in defining livestock productivity in semi arid tropics, there is greater need to stress what type of livestock species to keep. Therefore, the selection of adapted livestock species will be critical in sustaining productivity under this increasingly challenging environment. Identification of livestock species adaptable to semi arid tropics, is recommended for achieving sustainable levels of production. This is on the understanding that selection of adapted livestock species counteracts the negative effects of climate change in such a way that productivity can be maintained and improved. While other species tend to be highly vulnerable, goats have evolved a unique and fascinating array of physiological, morphological and reproductive characteristics, which have contributed to their survival and proliferation in unique unfavorable tropical environmental niches. This points to the fact that promotion of goat production may be a viable mitigation strategy in the context of climate change. It is thus suggested that as climatic variability worsens, goats will assume a critical role in livestock production due to their adaptive features, such as feeding behavior, disease and heat tolerance. These behavioral, morphological and physiological characteristics enable goats to effectively cope with the stressful nature of the vast semi arid tropics. The discussion concludes with the understanding that promotion of goats becomes a key component of semi arid tropics livestock production systems. Due to goats’ numerical strength and greater adaptability to varying harsh tropical environmental conditions, they offer a compelling solution to livestock production capacity utilization to minimize destabilizing factors associated with the uncertainties of climate change.
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The performance of British Saanen, Boer × British Saanen and Anglo-Nubian kids from weaning to slaughter at 28, 33 or 38 kg live weight (LW) was examined in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Kids were reared on a concentrate and hay ration, after weaning at 8 weeks of age. Intakes were measured individually. At slaughter, carcasses and body fractions were weighed, left half-carcasses were dissected into muscle, fat and bone, and the carcass and non-carcass fractions were analysed chemically. There ivas no significant effect of breed type on mean daily intakes, but there was a significant breed-type effect on mean daily LW gains in the order British Saanen > Boer × British Saanen > Anglo-Nubian kids. Compared with the pure British Saanen kids, the Anglo-Nubian kids produced heavier carcasses yielding more muscle and less subcutaneous and intermuscular fat at each slaughter weight. By contrast, the Boer × British Saanen carcasses contained proportionately more fat, mainly intermuscular fat, than the British Saanen when slaughtered at 28 or 33 kg LW. When taken on to slaughter at 38 kg LW, the Boer × British Saanen kids showed little further increase in fat deposition at the internal and intermuscular sites compared with the British Saanens, resulting in carcasses with slightly more subcutaneous fat but lower overall carcass fat content.
Article
Fire has been a factor of the environment in Africa since time immemorial and it is often caused by natural agencies such as lightning. It is maintained that there is much prejudice against veld burning, often ill‐founded. Fire has caused and maintained most of the world's grassland. When fire has been prevented plant succession has resulted in bush encroachment in the savanna and surrounding areas or in fynbos encroachment in others. Fire results in much old grass being wasted but, if this is not removed in some manner, the grazing deteriorates. Old grass can be removed by fire, mowing or grazing, using high protein supplements. The consequences of the different methods of removal, other than mowing, may be equally deleterious.
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An investigation was conducted in the Eastern Cape sweetveld to determine the effect of frequency of burning, extended sparing and controlled grazing on the establishment of seedlings of A. karroo. After eradication of a mature. A. karroo stand, seedling establishment in the area concerned was recorded annually in permanent transects on paddocks neither grazed nor burnt, burnt annually, burnt biennially and burnt triennially. Grazing and resting treatments were superimposed on the burning treatment. After seven years reinfestation of A. karroo was determined on all paddocks and population height was sampled for evidence of layering.None of the treatments proved effective in preventing seedling establishment and there was no difference between treatments, seedling establishment being directly correlated to the original thorn tree density. Despite severe drought conditions there was a continuous establishment of seedlings, and at the termination of the trial no layering was evident in the community. Fire, while not preventing establishment, did retard seedling development.
Article
An existing model describing the influence of Aeacia karroo density on forage production, animal production and profitability is reviewed and amended to introduce recent research results. The refined model predicts that maximum forage production can be attained at 1 220 tree equivalents (TE) per ha, maximum livemass production at 1 320 TE per ha and maximum gross margin at 1 000 TE per ha. This compares with 850, 2 600 and 1 620 TE per ha, respectively, in the original model. The original model thus over‐estimated the potential for livestock production by approximately 51 % and generally presented an over‐optimistic view of the potential of bush utilization. Its direct application could result in overstocking by as much as 67 %. An algorithm is developed as a field guide for determining optimal long‐term stocking rates of grazers and browsers.
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The variation of weight, degree of lipid infiltration and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were studied in seven adipose tissues of Alpine and Saanen kids during five trials where animals were fed with milk replacer, were either weaned or unweaned, were either unfasted or fasted during 24 h and were slaughtered at 8, 10, 12, 14, 18 or 20 kg live weight. At every live weight, kid carcasses were characterized by a relatively-high proportion of visceral adipose tissues: omental, mesenteric, perirenal and pericardic tissues (about half of total adipose tissues) and by a low deposition of external fat and a low lipogenic activity in the subcutaneous tissues. The intermuscular adipose tissue of the leg was the most rapidly developing tissue (coefficient of allometry 2·26) followed by omental (2·13), mesenteric (1·55), perirenal (1·48) and pericardic (1·38) tissues. The perirenal, omental and inguinal tissues had the highest lipid content and LPL activity, and the sternal, caudal and mesenteric the lowest. There was a positive intertissue correlation (+0·80) between the lipid concentration and the LPL activity of adipose tissues, However, the lipid concentration of the omental tissue increased while its LPL activity per g tissue decreased with increasing live weight of the animal. After a 24-h fast, a tendency to a proportional decrease in the weight of all adipose tissues by 0·20 to 0·35 and in the LPL activity by 0·36 to 0·88 was observed; the weight and LPL activity losses of the perirenal tissue were the greater. Fourteen days after weaning the weight losses of adipose tissues remained high but the LPL activities increased again, showing an early recovery of lipogenic activity after weaning. However, they did not reach the values recorded during the pre-weaning period. In kids, each adipose tissue had its own characteristics and played a specific role in lipid metabolism both during lipogenesis and lipolysis.
Article
Relationships of number of fetuses, placental mass, and lactogenic activity of plasma to development of mammary gland during pregnancy and of litter size to milk yield were examined in British Saanen goats. In late pregnancy lactogenic activity, measured in plasma by radioreceptor assay, increased with number of fetuses. Total weight of placentomes increased with total fetal weight and, hence, fetal number. The weight of the lobulo-alveolar component of the udders was correlated positively with placental mass and fetal number. In hand -milked goats which bore triplets or twins, mean milk yield was 47% and 27%, respectively, higher than in mothers of single kids after correction for lactation number. Milk yield was correlated with the weekly mean of placental lactogen titers between wk 11 and term. This supports the view that placental lactogen has a significant role in the control of normal mammary development and function in goats.
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