Short report: Occurrence of Leishmania donovani DNA in donated blood from seroreactive Brazilian blood donors
Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Góes and Hospital Universitário-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 01/2000; 62(1):128-31.
Human visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) transmitted by blood transfusion has been described in previous reports. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Leishmania donovani was shown to be related to prior blood transfusions in multiply transfused hemodialysis patients in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In this study, a possible correlation between seroreactivity and the presence of L. donovani DNA was investigated in asymptomatic healthy blood donors. Sera were tested using the fucose mannose ligand (FML) ELISA, which was shown to have a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96-100%, reliability, and diagnostic and prognostic potential for the detection of human and canine kala-azar, respectively. Leishmanial DNA was assessed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot-blot hybridization techniques in blood and bone marrow samples. Among 21 FML-seroreactive asymptomatic blood donors, 5 (24%) were positive by the PCR and 9 (43%) were positive in a dot-blot assay of blood samples, showing a significant correlation (chi2 = 14.24, P < 0.01). No Leishmania DNA was detected in 20 FML non-reactive blood donors. Our results point to the need for control of transmission of kala-azar by blood transfusion in areas endemic for this disease.
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- "Occasionally, infection also occurs congenitally from mother to infant , sexual transmission  , laboratory accidents   , and through organ   and stem-cell transplantation  . Additionally, in recent years there have been studies regarding spread of the disease among donor blood       . These findings are important for the asymptomatic Leishmaniasis, which are characterized in individuals who are infected by the Leishmania parasite but are apparently healthy. "
ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The disease is transmitted to humans via bites of female phlebotomies sand flies that are infected with Leishmania parasites. Leishmaniasis affects 12 million people in the world, and it is known that nearly 350 million people are under risk of infection. Leishmania parasites are responsible for cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral forms of Leishmaniasis. Every year, approximately 1.5 million Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) and 500,000 Visceral Leishmaniasis cases are reported in the world. Due to several factors such as cross-country travel, co-infections between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Leishmaniasis, resistance to antileishmanial drugs in parasites, resistance to insecticides in vectors, and global warming, all types of Leishmaniasis are rapidly spreading all around the world. In order to combat Leishmaniasis, various approaches such as vaccine development, chemotherapy, physical treatment methods, immunotherapy, applications of natural plant products, phototherapy, and nanotechnologic approaches are used in the treatment. In this review, we will mention these approaches, which compose the basis of anti-infective therapy against Leishmaniasis and suggest new future perspectives for treatment of this serious disease.
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- "ZVL is considered a canid zoonosis in which sandflies become infected mostly by feeding on the skin of canids and humans are the final host of the parasites. Blood-parasitism in people with ZVL was at first considered not to occur  but has been shown recently [4,5]. Skin parasitism has also been found in human patients with severe patent infection, indicating they might also act as a competent reservoir for the parasite and be involved in the transmission cycle . "
ABSTRACT: 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.
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- "Congenital transmission to puppies has been confirmed experimentally (Rosypal et al. 2005), and there have been a number of case reports of congenital transmission of AVL and ZVL in humans, including from asymptomatic mothers with ZVL (Meinecke et al. 1999 ; Pagliano et al. 2005 ; Boehme et al. 2006). Additional transmission routes include infection through blood transfusion from infected to uninfected hosts, both in foxhounds (Owens et al. 2001) and humans (Otero et al. 2000), human organ transplantation (Antinori et al. 2008) and sexual transmission in dogs (Silva et al. 2009) and humans (Symmers, 1960). Transmission via shared syringes is another possibility, and has been indicated amongst IV-drug users in southwest Europe (Cruz et al. 2002 ; Alvar et al. 2008). "
ABSTRACT: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important disease of humans and dogs. Here we review aspects of the transmission and control of ZVL. Whilst there is clear evidence that ZVL is maintained by sandfly transmission, transmission may also occur by non-sandfly routes, such as congenital and sexual transmission. Dogs are the only confirmed primary reservoir of infection. Meta-analysis of dog studies confirms that infectiousness is higher in symptomatic infection; infectiousness is also higher in European than South American studies. A high prevalence of infection has been reported from an increasing number of domestic and wild mammals; updated host ranges are provided. The crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, opossums Didelphis spp., domestic cat Felis cattus, black rat Rattus rattus and humans can infect sandflies, but confirmation of these hosts as primary or secondary reservoirs requires further xenodiagnosis studies at the population level. Thus the putative sylvatic reservoir(s) of ZVL remains unknown. Review of intervention studies examining the effectiveness of current control methods highlights the lack of randomized controlled trials of both dog culling and residual insecticide spraying. Topical insecticides (deltamethrin-impregnated collars and pour-ons) have been shown to provide a high level of individual protection to treated dogs, but further community-level studies are needed.