A neuropsychological study of the postpolio syndrome: Support for depression without neuropsychological impairment
This study aimed to examine cognitive functioning in postpolio syndrome (PPS) after controlling for the effects of depression and illness behavior.
Few studies have investigated the possible cognitive sequelae of PPS, despite widespread documented subjective complaints of "mental fatigue."
A total of 23 PPS sufferers, 20 polio survivors without PPS, and 22 matched controls were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory-II; the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire; a chronic fatigue syndrome symptom checklist; and several measures of memory, attention, and concentration, including the Brown-Petersen Task, Stroop Test, Austin Maze, California Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test.
In those participants with a medically confirmed diagnosis of PPS, there was a significantly higher level of depressive and hypochondriacal symptomatology as compared with the other two groups. Nevertheless, no significant differences existed between the three groups on neuropsychological measures.
These results indicate that the attention and memory difficulties reported by PPS sufferers may be linked to the physical or psychological manifestations of the illness rather than to objective decrements in cognitive performance.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "An important caveat is that overall rates of depression in polio survivors may be skewed by a significantly higher incidence in the subsample of persons diagnosed with PPS. For example, Hazendonk and Crowe (2000) originally set out to examine the cognitive differences between a sample of polio survivors (including those with PPS) and a nondisabled control group. The researchers used single-factor, repeated measures ANOVA with planned comparisons analysis. "
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ABSTRACT: Depression is a serious comorbidity in people with disabilities; however, few studies have focused on depressive symptoms in older adults with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This study used a resilience conceptual framework that focused on patient psychosocial strengths to investigate the relationship between psychological resilience factors (e.g., acceptance, self-efficacy, personal resources, interpersonal relationships, self-rated health, spiritual growth, stress management) and depressive symptoms in a large sample (N = 630) of people older than 65 years who were diagnosed with PPS. Forty percent of the sample scored > or = 10 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D10), which is a higher percentage than what has been previously cited in other studies; however, 53% of the sample had good or excellent self-rated health, suggesting psychological resilience. Depression scores were regressed on seven selected resilience factors after controlling for functional limitations. Four of the seven variables accounted for 30% of the variance in depressive symptoms, with spiritual growth representing the main predictor (beta = -.26). The implications for rehabilitation nurses in developing a patient-strengths perspective in the assessment and counseling of older adults with PPS are discussed.
Available from: bildarchiv.klinikum.uni-heidelberg.de
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ABSTRACT: Postpolio syndrome is defined as a clinical syndrome of new pareses in individuals who had been affected by acute paralytic poliomyelitis years before. The objective of this study was to describe neurologic and psychiatric signs of the disease. We evaluated the clinical signs and treatment of 16 patients with postpolio syndrome. Possible symptoms of depression were evaluated by the Hamilton and Geriatric Depression Scales. Postpolio syndrome manifested at a median age of 57.5 years (range 25-73) in a median of 41 years (range 16-70 years) after acute poliomyelitis. Muscles already affected during acute poliomyelitis were affected in all patients with postpolio syndrome. Six of 16 patients (37.5%) developed paresis in muscles formerly not affected by acute poliomyelitis. In eight of 15 patients (53%), depressive episodes were recognized according to the ICD-10 criteria. Symptoms of depression should be recognized in patients with postpolio syndrome and incorporated in therapy based on physiotherapy.
Available from: Joachim Westenhöfer
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ABSTRACT: Background: The intake of food and drink can influence brain functions, which in turn may have effects on mental state and performance. Therefore, in principle claims to improve mood or specific aspects of cognitive performance by the consumption of functional foods are possible and indeed are currently found on the market. Aim: The paper reviews existing methodologies, which may be used to substantiate and validate such claims of desirable effects of foods on mental state and performance. Results: Mood, arousal, activation, vigilance, attention, sleep, motivation, effort, perception, memory and intelligence have been identified as relevant aspects of mental state and performance. The basic scientific concepts within this field as well as the methodologies to measure these concepts have been reviewed and described. Conclusions: From this review it is concluded that, in principle, the phenomena in these fields are no different to those in other fields of life science. The scientific methods and protocols described in this report can positively demonstrate the effects of foods on mental state and performance in a scientifically valid way. A claim on mental state and performance like other claims must be based on scientific evidence. This report confirms that methodologies do exist to generate sound scientific evidence in this area. Therefore, claims on the enhancement of specific mental functions can and should be substantiated and validated using the methodologies described in this review.
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