A neuropsychological study of the postpolio syndrome: Support for depression without neuropsychological impairment

ArticleinNeuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, and behavioral neurology 13(2):112-8 · May 2000with24 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
This study aimed to examine cognitive functioning in postpolio syndrome (PPS) after controlling for the effects of depression and illness behavior. Few studies have investigated the possible cognitive sequelae of PPS, despite widespread documented subjective complaints of "mental fatigue." A total of 23 PPS sufferers, 20 polio survivors without PPS, and 22 matched controls were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory-II; the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire; a chronic fatigue syndrome symptom checklist; and several measures of memory, attention, and concentration, including the Brown-Petersen Task, Stroop Test, Austin Maze, California Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test. In those participants with a medically confirmed diagnosis of PPS, there was a significantly higher level of depressive and hypochondriacal symptomatology as compared with the other two groups. Nevertheless, no significant differences existed between the three groups on neuropsychological measures. These results indicate that the attention and memory difficulties reported by PPS sufferers may be linked to the physical or psychological manifestations of the illness rather than to objective decrements in cognitive performance.
    • "In fact, the prevalence of depressive disorders in people with physical disabilities, according to bibliography, varies between 6-77% regarding the acquired physical disabilities, such as traumatic brain injury (Alderfer, Arciniegas, & Silver, 2005; Hibbard, Uysal, Kepler, Bogdany, & Silver, 1998; Hughes, Swedlund, Petersen, & Nosek, 2001; Jorge & Starkstein, 2005; Koponen et al., 2002; Kreutzer, Seel, & Gourley, 2001), spinal cord injury (Dryden et al., 2005; Hughes et al., 2001; Kennedy & Evans, 2001; Kennedy & Rogers, 2000; Smith, Weaver, & Ullrich, 2007; Woolrich, Kennedy, & Tasiemski, 2006) and amputations (Cansever, Uzun, Yildiz, Ates, & Atesalp, 2003; Cheung, Alvaro, & Colotla, 2003; Crawford, Henry, Crombie, & Taylor, 2001; Rybarczyk, Szymanski, & Nicholas, 2000; Whyte & Niven, 2001). In addition, depression is also prevalent in chronic illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis (Arnett & Randolph, 2006; Chwastiak et al., 2002; Feinstein & Feinstein, 2001; Figved et al., 2005; Galeazzi et al., 2005; Miller, 2001; Patten, Beck, Williams, Barbui, & Metz, 2003; Patten, Svenson, & Metz, 2005; Siegert & Abernethy, 2005; Zorzon et al., 2001) and poliomyelitis (Bruno & Frick, 1991; Hazendonk & Crowe, 2000; Kemp, Adams, & Campbell, 1997). Traumatic events –such as physical disabilities– precipitate meaning crisis, raising questions regarding the purpose and meaning of life (Emmons, Colby, & Kaiser, 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the most frequent psychological symptoms in people with physical disabilities, as the acquisition of a physical disability is a stressful situation, demanding an individual’s adjustment to a new distressing reality. While some individuals manage to adapt to their physical disability’s implications, others fail to accept this new situation, manifesting depressive symptoms. One factor that seems to facilitate adaptation process to physical disabilities and thus prevent from depression prevalence is meaning of life. Viktor Frankl has emphasized the importance of experiencing meaning of life in the maintenance of physical and psychological health, especially in painful and distressing situations. The present study focused initially on the assessment of meaning in life and depressive symptomatology in individuals with physical disabilities. Moreover, the relationship of meaning in life and depression with adaptation to physical disability was examined. A sample of 522 participants with various types of physical disabilities completed three questionnaires on depressive symptomatology, meaning in life and adaptation to disability. Our assumptions regarding the negative relationship between meaning of life and depression were confirmed. Additionally, meaning of life was found, as expected, to play in important role in facilitating individuals’ adaptation to their physical disabilities, a finding indicating the great utility of Frankl’s existential theory as a psychotherapeutic tool for people with physical disabilities.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
    • "Studies of patients with PPS have shown that this syndrome has a negative impact on both functional capabilities and quality of life (QOL) [7,14151617181920. Negative manifestations connected to PPS include depression, anxiety, hostility, low life satisfaction [8,14], fatigue [21] and hypochondriacal symptoms [22]. In spite of the associated psychological burdens, patients with PPS are better educated and have higher rates of employment compared to other disabled populations [23]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of future-oriented coping strategies on the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). A correlative study, in which a cohort of 61 patients was surveyed and a group of 40 healthy, age-matched individuals served as controls. Patients were surveyed as to their QOL, levels of hope and utilization of proactive coping, employment status and degree of functionality. PPS patients had lower total, physical and mental QOL indices compared to controls. Future-oriented coping strategies associated with hope were positively associated with physical and mental QOL in the PPS group, but not in the controls. In a multivariate analysis, hope and employment status predicted higher QOL among those with PPS. Future-oriented coping strategies, particularly hope are distinctively associated with improved QOL benefits in PPS patients. Fostering future-oriented coping related to hope may improve the self-perceived mental and physical status of patients with PPS.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
    • "An important caveat is that overall rates of depression in polio survivors may be skewed by a significantly higher incidence in the subsample of persons diagnosed with PPS. For example, Hazendonk and Crowe (2000) originally set out to examine the cognitive differences between a sample of polio survivors (including those with PPS) and a nondisabled control group. The researchers used single-factor, repeated measures ANOVA with planned comparisons analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a serious comorbidity in people with disabilities; however, few studies have focused on depressive symptoms in older adults with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This study used a resilience conceptual framework that focused on patient psychosocial strengths to investigate the relationship between psychological resilience factors (e.g., acceptance, self-efficacy, personal resources, interpersonal relationships, self-rated health, spiritual growth, stress management) and depressive symptoms in a large sample (N = 630) of people older than 65 years who were diagnosed with PPS. Forty percent of the sample scored > or = 10 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D10), which is a higher percentage than what has been previously cited in other studies; however, 53% of the sample had good or excellent self-rated health, suggesting psychological resilience. Depression scores were regressed on seven selected resilience factors after controlling for functional limitations. Four of the seven variables accounted for 30% of the variance in depressive symptoms, with spiritual growth representing the main predictor (beta = -.26). The implications for rehabilitation nurses in developing a patient-strengths perspective in the assessment and counseling of older adults with PPS are discussed.
    Article · Jul 2010
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