Blastic transformation of splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
(Impact Factor: 2.84).
06/2000; 124(5):748-52. DOI: 10.1043/0003-9985(2000)124<0748:BTOSMZ>2.0.CO;2
To our knowledge, blastic transformation of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, a recently characterized low-grade lymphoproliferative disorder, has not been reported previously. In this regard, we report the unique case of a 70-year-old woman whose untreated splenic marginal zone lymphoma underwent blastic transformation 3 years after diagnosis. Her hematologic medical history started in 1988 as thrombocytopenia refractory to steroids associated with atypical lymphoid infiltrate in the bone marrow. She underwent splenectomy in 1989, which revealed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. One year later, the patient developed lymphadenopathy noted in the chest, axillary, abdominal, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Because she was asymptomatic, treatment was limited to a conservative supportive regimen. The nodal lymphoma cells had features associated with marginal zone lymphoma and expressed B-cell monotypic kappa light chain. She was readmitted for the last time 2 years later with findings of 16% blasts in the peripheral blood and massive infiltration of the bone marrow by large blastoid cells. The blasts showed dispersed chromatin and prominent nucleoli, and possessed a moderate amount of clear cytoplasm. The blasts, like the previous nodal and splenic lymphomas, had a CD20-, CD19-, IgM-positive phenotype, but lacked reactivity for CD5, CD10, and CD23. The patient displayed clinical remission after treatment with vincristine and prednisone, but died of aspiration pneumonia 1 month later. These observations suggest that, similar to the other low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders, an untreated splenic marginal zone lymphoma may undergo high-grade blastic transformation.
Available from: Alain Delmer
- "Thus , BMB can detect transformation into a DLBCL of the immunoblastic or centroblastic type , as observed in five of our patients . This transformation can occur at any time ( Lloret et al , 1999 ; Cualing et al , 2000 ) , even early in progression , and is not prevented by any current chemo - therapy . 410 J . "
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ABSTRACT: We studied 86 bone marrow biopsies (BMB) from 58 patients presenting with primary splenic marginal zone lymphoma (PSMZL). In 42 patients, a splenectomy was performed which enabled a histopathological diagnosis. In these patients, 44 biopsies were carried out before, and 25 after, splenectomy. In 16 recently observed patients, 17 BMB led to PSMZL diagnosis, and these patients were treated without splenectomy. Seven different patterns of infiltrates were recognized: intravascular, interstitial, nodular, massive, plasmacytic mimicking myeloma and transformation into large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The association of an intravascular infiltrate and nodules with a germinal centre and/or a marginal zone favoured a diagnosis of MZL. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of B cell-associated antigens and, in 40% of the patients, a monotypic lymphoplasmacytic cell component. These patients often presented a serum M component and autoimmune disorders. In the past, such cases have been diagnosed as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. BM involvement was present in all patients. Successive biopsies showed progression and, after chemotherapy, a slight decrease in infiltrates. Transformation into DLBCL occurred in 11 of 34 patients. The patterns described are not specific for PSMZL and occur also in primary nodal MZL and, more rarely, in MALT-type lymphoma.
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ABSTRACT: Reflecting the stepwise process of oncogenesis, lymphomas may cumulatively develop a more aggressive phenotype during the course of disease, a process referred to as lymphoma progression. Although morphological, clinical and biological aspects of lymphoma progression do not always overlap, changes in lymphoma morphology frequently indicate alterations in the clinical and biological behaviour of the disease. Indolent and aggressive lymphomas in disease progression can either be clonally related or represent clonally unrelated neoplasms. We propose to use the term 'lymphoma progression' in a biological sense denoting only clonal development of and within a lymphoma entity. The term 'composite lymphoma' should be used as a merely descriptive morphological designation for different lymphoma entities in one individual irrespective of clonal relationship. Many types of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's lymphomas are reported to secondarily develop in lymphoma progression. Genetic changes associated with lymphoma progression frequently abrogate the differentiating effects of alterations occurring in indolent lymphomas, leading to increased cell proliferation. Within different lymphoma entities, high-risk disease variants mimicking lymphoma progression exist.
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ABSTRACT: Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is considered to be an indolent extranodal B-cell lymphoma. Despite its low aggressivity, histologic progression has been described in sporadic reports, although the frequency, characteristics, and underlying molecular abnormalities of this phenomenon are largely unknown. We review here the clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a series of 12 SMZL cases that showed progression to large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). The most frequent location of secondary LBCL was in peripheral lymph node. This occurred between 12 and 85 months after diagnosis of SMZL. However, in two cases LBCL was diagnosed at the initial stage of the disease (one spleen tumoral nodule and one hilar lymph node). The histologic and immunophenotypic features of these cases were similar to those of transformed LBCL at other sites. In four cases the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene polymerase chain study revealed the same rearrangement pattern in both primary and secondary tumors, thereby confirming their identity and excluding the possibility of a second malignancy. As is the case with other low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders, SMZL may undergo high-grade transformation. These 12 cases represent 13% of our series of SMZL with adequate follow-up. The incidence of large cell transformation in SMZL seems to be lower than in follicular lymphoma (25-60%) and mantle cell lymphoma (11-39%), although it is similar to the frequency of transformation in B-chronic lymphocytic lymphoma/small lymphocytic lymphoma (1-10%). The mean proliferative index (MIB1 staining) in initial SMZL specimens of cases with LBCL transformation was 28.6%, higher than that of MIB1 staining in the overall SMZL series (21.8%), although not statistically significantly so. p53 or p16INK4a inactivation in this series was observed in only one case, in contrast with the situation observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, follicular lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. It seems that progression in SMZL is mainly independent of p53 or p16INK4a inactivation. The frequency of the 7q deletion in this series was 3 of 7 (42%). 7q loss may play an alternative role in the inactivation of the p53 and p16INK4a pathway, thereby favoring tumoral progression.
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