Basic aspect of food preservation by hurdle technology

ArticleinInternational Journal of Food Microbiology 55(1-3):181-6 · May 2000with625 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00161-6 · Source: PubMed
Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. Since about 20 years the intelligent application of hurdle technology became more prevalent, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, a(w), Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behaviour of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multitarget food preservation emerged. In the present contribution a brief introduction is given on the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology. However, emphasis is placed on the homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, and stress reactions of microorganisms related to hurdle technology, and the prospects of the future goal of a multitarget preservation of foods.
    • "One of the more fascinating issues in the field of food microbiology is the " hurdle technology, " a concept that was first introduced by Lothar Leistner (Leistner, 1995; Leistner and Gorris, 1995). He said that hurdle technology is used for the gentle but effective preservation of foods (Leistner, 2000 ). The antimicrobial packaging can be certainly considered a hurdle within the food technology, and its efficacy is widely proved. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial substances used to activate packaging materials can be included in the groups of metals, chemicals, plant extracts, enzymes, and bacteriocins. The activities of each address a more or less restricted group of microorganisms, but their actions can be combined with those of other hurdles to enlarge the spectrum of microbial targets. They can be physically separated by packaging materials (e.g., sachets, dispensers, or capsules) or included in or coated onto the packaging. Only the latter are taken into account in this chapter. After an excursus on their mechanisms of action to control the growth and the activity of microorganisms, applications of antimicrobial packaging are reviewed. Distinctions are made between these applications on the basis of microbial targets, first foodborne pathogens, and then food spoilage microorganisms.
    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2016 · Food Control
    • "By applying hurdle technology, the combination of these preservative factors can be optimized in order to get a maximum lethality against microorganisms while keeping the damage to the sensory parameters of the food to the minimum (Singh and Shalini, 2016). The most important hurdles in food preservation are temperature, water activity, pH, redox potential, the use of preservatives, among others (Leistner, 2000). Nowadays, the preservation of almost all foods is based on a combined application of several preservation methods in order to achieve maximum microbial effectiveness through due to synergetic effects on microbial cells (reviewed in detail by (Singh and Shalini, 2016). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresh poultry meat and poultry products are highly perishable foods and high potential sources of human infection due to the presence of several foodborne pathogens. Focusing on the microbial control of poultry products, the food industry generally implements numerous preventive measures based on the HACCP food safety management system certification together with technological steps such as refrigeration coupled to modified atmosphere packaging that are able to control identified potential microbial hazards during food processing. However, in recent years, to meet the demand of consumers for minimally processed, high-quality and additive-free foods, technologies are emerging associated with non-thermal microbial inactivation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation and natural alternatives such as biopreservation or the incorporation of natural preservatives in packaging materials. These technologies are discussed throughout this paper, emphasizing their pros and cons regarding the control of poultry microbiota and their effects on poultry sensory properties. The discussion for each of the preservation techniques mentioned will be provided with as much detail as the data and studies provided in the literature for poultry meat and products allow. These new approaches, on their own, have proved to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms in poultry meat. However, since some of these emergent technologies still do not have full consumer's acceptability and, taking into consideration the hurdle technology concept for poultry processing, it is suggested that they will be used as combined treatments or, more frequently, in combination with modified atmosphere packaging.
    Article · Jul 2016
    • "Dourou et al. (2009) investigated the behavior of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium in Teewurst (a German spreadable raw fermented sausage) stored at 1.5, 4, 10, 21 and 30 C. The authors reported that lower storage temperature has lower effect on the reduction of pathogens. Since microorganisms at temperatures close to the optimum have more metabolic activity than at lower temperatures, the bacteria become metabolically exhausted to retain their homeostasis due to hostile environment, such as low temperature and/or low pH, and die as a result (Leistner, 2000). In the present case, the storage temperature of 4 C is rather low, so it results in the growth of the pathogens, but does not show any lethal effect on suppressing the pathogens. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to traditional raw ham produced from a whole muscle or from a combination of different parts, dry-cured formed ham consists of many small meat pieces and thus has a high surface area. As a result, foodborne pathogens originating from contamination could grow if they would be transferred into the interior of the formed product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and shelf-life of dry-cured formed ham. The potential origins of pathogens could be from contaminated raw meat, added ingredients, processing equipment, and post-processing. The results of this study showed that the combination of the intrinsic (pH, water activity, and microflora) and the extrinsic properties (fermentation and drying conditions) prevented the growth and lead to reduction of the foodborne pathogens during manufacturing of dry-cured formed ham as well as during the shelf-life of 35 days at 4 °C.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
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