Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation reduces excess mortality in type 1 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

Departments of Medicine and Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53792, USA.
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 8.56). 05/2000; 57(5):2129-35. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00064.x
Source: PubMed


Diabetic renal disease continues to be the most significant cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. Renal transplantation improves diabetic ESRD patient survival; however, the diabetic state remains associated with poor patient survival. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation can restore normoglycemia and thus may improve outcomes.
We assessed the impact of SPK on age-range-matched type 1 diabetic patients who underwent renal transplantation at a single center. The observed/expected life span and annual mortality rates (AMRs) were used as measures of survival. A Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to analyze the impact of potential variables on mortality in SPK recipients.
SPK transplantation (N = 335) increased the observed/expected life span compared with diabetic cadaveric (DM-Cad, N = 147) and live-donor (DM-Live, N = 160) transplant recipients (P = 0.004) and significantly reduced the AMRs (SPK, 1. 5%; DM-Cad, 6.27%; DM-Live, 3.65%, P = 0.008, SPK vs. other DM). Moreover, the SPK observed/expected life span and AMR were not significantly different from that of age-range-matched nondiabetic transplant recipients (N = 492). The only variable that was significantly associated with patient survival was discharge serum creatinine (relative risk 1.16, P < or = 0.0154).
These data demonstrate that SPK improves the ability for type 1 diabetic patients to live more of their expected life span. This suggests that glycemic control, even as a late intervention in a diabetic patient's lifetime, may beneficially affect survival.

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Available from: Jon Odorico, Oct 17, 2015
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    • "IMULTANEOUS PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANS- PLANTATION (SPKT) is the gold standard treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure secondary to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [1]. SPKT compared with cadaveric kidney transplantation alone is associated with better long-term patient survival rates [2]; however, SPKT is a complex operation associated with a high incidence of surgical complications and mortality risk [3]. A number of risk factors have been described for patient and graft survival associated with donor, recipient, immunologic , immunosuppressant therapy, and surgical outcome [3e5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure secondary to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This kind of transplantation is a complex operation associated with a high incidence of surgical complications and mortality risk which could influence graft survival. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of different grades of postoperative complications, classified according to Clavien-Dindo, on the rate of kidney graft loss. Methods We performed an observational retrospective review of all simultaneous transplantations performed between February 1989 and May 2012. Factors examined were related to recipient and donor characteristics, surgical procedures, and postoperative outcomes. For this purpose, Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox-Regression tests are used. Results One hundred thirty-nine transplantations were performed. Complications grades I, II, and IIIa were experienced in 81 (58.3%) patients, and grades IIIb and IVa-b in 55 (39.6%). Multivariate analysis showed an influence of panel reactive antibody (hazard ratio [HR]: 10.79; P = .003), incidence of acute rejection (HR: 2.55; P = .03), and complications grouped into grades IIIb and IVa-b (HR: 3.63; P = .02). Kaplan Meier analysis showed worse kidney graft survival rate in groups grades IIIb and IVa-b compared to grades I, II, and IIIa (86.6% vs 98.7% at 1 year and 81.8% vs 97.3% at 5 years; P = .001). Conclusions Despite being the gold standard treatment for these patients, pancreas and kidney transplantations have numerous complications which could influence the prognosis of graft kidney survival.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    • "For Germany, the existing allocation system has led to long ischemic times due to transportation issues; this fact is reflected in poorer outcomes in Germany [34,35] compared to high volume centers in the UK [24], USA [1,3,36] and Italy [15,32]. To address this problem, with the EXPAND study we are aiming to obtain prospective high-level evidence for changing our allocation system to regional-based allocation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK), pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or pancreas transplantation after kidney (PAK) are the only curative treatment options for patients with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus with or without impaired renal function. Unfortunately, transplant waiting lists for this indication are increasing because the current organ acceptability criteria are restrictive; morbidity and mortality significantly increase with time on the waitlist. Currently, only pancreas organs from donors younger than 50 years of age and with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 are allocated for transplantation in the Eurotransplant (ET) area. To address this issue we designed a study to increase the available donor pool for these patients. This study is a prospective, multicenter (20 German centers), single blinded, non-randomized, two armed trial comparing outcome after SPK, PTA or PAK between organs with the currently allowed donor criteria versus selected organs from donors with extended criteria. Extended donor criteria are defined as organs procured from donors with a BMI of 30 to 34 or a donor age between 50 and 60 years. Immunosuppression is generally standardized using induction therapy with Myfortic, tacrolimus and low dose steroids. In principle, all patients on the waitlist for primary SPK, PTA or PAK are eligible for the clinical trial when they consent to possibly receiving an extended donor criteria organ. Patients receiving an organ meeting the current standard criteria for pancreas allocation (control arm) are compared to those receiving extended criteria organ (study arm); patients are blinded for a follow-up period of one year. The combined primary endpoint is survival of the pancreas allograft and pancreas allograft function after three months, as an early relevant outcome parameter for pancreas transplantation. The EXPAND Study has been initiated to investigate the hypothesis that locally allocated extended criteria organs can be transplanted with similar results compared to the currently allowed standard ET organ allocation. If our study shows a favorable comparison to standard organ allocation criteria, the morbidity and mortality for patients waiting for transplantation could be reduced in the future.Trial registration: Trial registered at: NCT01384006.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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