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Abstract

Past research has shown that strong emotional or motivational states can cause normally restrained eaters to overeat. In this article it is argued that simple cognitive load can also disinhibit eating by restrained eaters. Two studies examined this disinhibition effect. In Study 1, restrained and unrestrained eaters were given the opportunity to consume high-calorie food while performing either a high cognitive-load or low cognitive-load task. Restrained eaters consumed more food when under high cognitive load than when under low cognitive load; unrestrained eaters showed the opposite pattern. Study 2 replicated the disinhibition effect and ruled out stress, diminished awareness of food consumption, and ironic rebound as probable mediators. Results suggest that cognitive load may disinhibit consumption by preventing restrained eaters from monitoring the dietary consequences of their eating behavior. Implications for theories of self-regulation are discussed.

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... Dietary restraint is a measure of chronic dieting (Bublitz et al. 2010;Haws, Davis, and Dholakia 2016;Mohr, Lichtenstein, and Janiszewski 2012;Polivy et al. 1986;Scott et al. 2008;Ward and Mann 2000). This variable has received significant attention, with a main finding being that restrained eaters are more interested in lower-calorie options than unrestrained eaters (Irmak, Vallen, and Robinson 2011;Koenigstorfer and Baumgartner 2016;Scott et al. 2008). ...
... In line with work on restrained eating (e.g., Bublitz et al. 2010;Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy 1991;Polivy et al. 1986;Ward and Mann 2000), we measured-rather than manipulating-dietary restraint. Notably, dietary restraint was distinct in predicting preferences between lower-calorie options: measures of eating self-control did not similarly predict preferences (see Study WS1 in the Web Appendix). ...
Article
The marketplace includes many attractive high-calorie indulgent food offerings. Despite their appeal, consumers may often be prompted to consider lower-calorie-package offerings instead (e.g., 100-calorie packs). The question thus arises: What predicts consumers’ preferences between different kinds of lower-calorie offerings? The authors conceptualize two different routes to lower-calorie versions of indulgent foods: a lower-caloric-density version (e.g., baked potato chips) or a smaller-portion-size version (e.g., a smaller bag of potato chips). The authors examine how such versions are differentially preferred and why, focusing on the key role of dietary restraint. The authors show that as dietary restraint increases, the preference for a lower-calorie version created via lower caloric density (vs. a smaller portion size) increases. Differential weights placed on health and fullness goals help explain differing preferences across dietary restraint (as the lower-caloric-density version is perceived as healthier and more filling, albeit less tasty, than the smaller-portion-size version). This framework offers theoretical implications for understanding two routes to cutting calories, practical implications for food marketers, and methodological implications for studying food choices.
... In favor of that assumption, several studies have observed that an additional WM load may reduce the efficiency of cognitive control processes (Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004;Schmeichel, 2007;Ward & Mann, 2000). Although these studies investigated other mechanisms than post-conflict adjustments, their findings seem relevant for post-conflict adjustments in interference tasks as well. ...
... Second, these functional considerations were supported by neuroanatomical findings suggesting that overlapping brain regions such as the DLPFC and the anterior cingulate cortex are involved both in WM processes and post-conflict adjustments. The results of the present study clearly fit with the predictions based on these functional and anatomical considerations and moreover also with the findings of previous studies which reported an impairment of other cognitive control processes by WM demands (Lavie et al., 2004;Schmeichel, 2007;Ward & Mann, 2000). ...
Article
One important task of cognitive control is to regulate behavior by resolving information processing conflicts. In the Stroop task, e.g., incongruent trials lead to conflict-related enhancements of cognitive control and to improved behavioral performance in subsequent trials. Several studies suggested that these cognitive control processes are functionally and anatomically related to working memory (WM) functions. The present study investigated this suggestion and tested whether these control processes are modulated by concurrent WM demands. For this purpose, we performed three experiments in which we combined different WM tasks with the Stroop paradigm and measured their effects on cognitive control. We found that high WM demands led to a suppression of conflict-triggered cognitive control, whereas our findings suggest that this suppression effect is rather due to WM updating than to maintenance demands. We explain our findings by assuming that WM processes interfere with conflict-triggered cognitive control, harming the efficiency of these control processes.
... Magoo effect,'' wherein the driver, albeit showing little regard for traffic regulations, continues to do so as a result of their lacking self-awareness. This explanation is even more plausible when considering that, while distracted, some of the resources that could otherwise be used for self-monitoring are now committed to the execution of other non-driving, attention demanding tasks, therefore hindering self-awareness (38). ...
... Have Drivers Engaged in More Distracted Driving? Midpoint analysis conducted on block 2 questions revealed that following March 2020 participants denied using their phone more often while driving, t(102) = 3.38, p \ 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.47, no matter if it were for work or school (Q8), t(102) = 6.59, p \ 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.92, leisure activities (Q10), t(102) = 6.69, p \ 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.93, or to engage in virtual conferencing (Q11), t(102) = 9.94, p \ 0.05, Cohen's d = 1.38. When asked about other motorists' behavior, however, participants agreed they had seen more drivers ...
Article
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COVID-19 had a disruptive effect on the global community. This study looks at the effects that the stringent lockdown measures enacted in March 2020 had on motorists’ driving patterns. In particular, given the greater portability of remote working associated with the drastic decline in personal mobility, it is hypothesized that these may have served as accelerators for distracted and aggressive driving. To answer these questions, an online survey was conducted in which 103 respondents were asked to report on their own and other drivers’ driving behavior. While respondents agreed they drove less frequently, they also indicated that they were not prone to more aggressive driving or engaging in potentially distracting activities whether for work or personal purposes. When asked to report on other motorists’ behavior, however, respondents indicated they had witnessed more aggressive and distracting drivers on the road after March 2020 relative to the time before the pandemic. These findings are reconciled with the existing literature on self-monitoring and self-enhancement bias, and the existing literature on the effect of comparable large-scale, disruptive events on traffic patterns is used to discuss the hypothesis on how driving patterns may change after the pandemic.
... But reminders of food run counter to these measures and require conscious effort to fend off. Regardless of how this effort is channeled, be it through reinforcing motivation, re-appraising the situation, overcoming anxiety and stress, or other routes (Duckworth et al., 2018;Fujita, 2011;Hall et al., 1990;Rachlin, 2009;Ward & Mann, 2000), the process is mentally taxing and may well result in impaired cognitive performance. ...
... M. Wegner, 1994). Likewise, a commitment to fast requires adoption of certain conscious strategies to avoid relapse, and cueing food can thwart these efforts and tax one's cognitive resources (Duckworth et al., 2018;Hall et al., 1990;Ward & Mann, 2000). In the two latter accounts, stress of failing to fast might exacerbate cognitive load. ...
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During Ramadan, people of Muslim faith fast by not eating or drinking between sunrise and sunset. This is likely to have physiological and psychological consequences for fasters, and societal and economic impacts on the wider population. We investigate whether, during this voluntary and temporally limited fast, reminders of food can impair the fasters’ reaction time and accuracy on a non-food-related test of cognitive control. Using a repeated measures design in a sample of Ramadan fasters ( N = 190), we find that when food is made salient, fasters are slower and less accurate during Ramadan compared with after Ramadan. Control participants perform similarly across time. Furthermore, during Ramadan performances vary by how recently people had their last meal. Potential mechanisms are suggested, grounded in research on resource scarcity, commitment, and thought suppression, as well as the psychology of rituals and self-regulation, and implications for people who fast for religious or health reasons are discussed.
... One reason for the low rate of dieting success is the persistent demand on cognitive attention and self-control required to stick to a specific behavior change goal (Ward & Mann, 2000). Trying to maintain a diet and continuously exert willpower drains a consumer's self-control and cognitive resources (Baumeister, 2002), which makes dieters more susceptible to the tempting food choices all around them. ...
... Leveraging their cognitive resources to exercise self-control may lead to mental fatigue and ultimately a dieting lapse or failure (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2010). Having fewer cognitive resources available to guide food decisions leads consumers to make less healthy food choices (Cohen, Yates, Duong, & Convit, 2011;Groppe & Elsner, 2015;Hall, 2012;Hunter, Hollands, Couturier, & Marteau, 2018;Ward & Mann, 2000). ...
Article
Objectives: Dieting is a cognitively taxing task that does not always advance well-being. A dieting lapse may result in overconsumption that undermines long-term health goals. This research explores how a process known as counterfactual thinking (CFT), reliving an event to figure out where things went wrong, may help consumers faced with a temptation to indulge. Consumers who engage in upward CFT generate an alternative set of steps or actions that could have changed the outcome in a situation. We investigate if and how CFT may be used strategically to help consumers stick to their dieting goal and advance their own well-being. Methods: A 2 (CFT vs. control) x 2 (dieter vs. non-dieter) between-subjects factorial design was used to evaluate participant interest in a digital health tracking tool after viewing an advertisement (Study 1). Study 2 was conducted as a follow-up to measure their use of the digital tracking tool, intentions to continue to use, and calories consumed (as tracked in the system) after a two-week period using the digital tracking tool advertised in Study 1. Results: We find that engaging in upward CFT increases a dieter's intentions to track their food, a practice emerging as a strategy to help maintain goal consistency. Among dieters, perceived feasibility mediated the impact of CFT on both ad evaluations (Study 1) as well as intentions to continue to use the digital health tracking tool (Study 2). In the follow-up study we also find that dieters in the CFT condition used more of the online features offered and that all consumers in the CFT condition ate marginally fewer calories across two weeks of tracking using the digital health tool. Discussion: Encouraging consumers to generate upward counterfactual thoughts in the face of a dieting lapse increases their propensity to use an online tracking tool and reduces calories consumed. In the age of digital tracking tools, personalized prompts could be set to encourage CFT to help get a consumer back on track to pursue their healthy eating goals.
... Thus, any restriction of one's cognitive resources may impair one's ability to inhibit undesired mental content. Indeed, situational and individual differences that diminish one's ability to counter cravings evoked by food cues-such as contextual cognitive load (e.g., Ward & Mann, 2000) and limited working memory capacity (e.g., Hofmann et al., 2008)-demonstrably predict over-eating. More broadly, factors that disrupt or limit one's ability to engage in effortful inhibition-including time pressure, distraction, intoxication, stress, and fatigue-are associated with poor self-control (Baumeister & Heatherton, 1996;Heatherton & Wagner, 2011;Hofmann et al., 2009). ...
Article
According to common sense, successful self-control requires “willpower.” Psychology often models willpower as the effortful inhibition of temptation impulses—a process theorized to require sufficient motivation and resources. This article challenges the centrality of willpower in self-control. Instead, successful self-control relies on a variety of strategies beyond effortful inhibition: diminishing the influence of immediately available rewards and bolstering motivation toward more abstract, distant rewards. Furthermore, self-control is better conceived as a “toolbox” of strategies; success entails finding the tools that work best for a given individual at a given time. In other words, improving self-control is not about becoming stronger, but rather about becoming smarter. This approach has policy implications and suggests priorities for research.
... There is considerable evidence that thought control activities such as stopping unwanted thoughts relies on inhibition (Conway et al., 2000;Mecklinger et al., 2009;Román et al., 2009;Anderson and Huddleston, 2012;Benoit et al., 2015), an essential process of executive control (see also Miyake et al., 2000;von Hippel and Gonsalkorale, 2005;Schmeichel, 2007;Miyake and Friedman, 2012). As the capacity of executive control is limited (Schmeichel, 2007;Levy and Anderson, 2008), competing tasks that require effort and attention (Ward and Mann, 2000;Lavie et al., 2004) or a previous task that require control capacity (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000;Schmeichel, 2007) can temporarily impair executive control with negative consequences for the suppression of unwanted thoughts (e.g., Schmeichel, 2007;Román et al., 2009;Ortega et al., 2012;Noreen and de Fockert, 2017). For example, Noreen and de Fockert (2017) have found that suppression of memories, assessed with the think/no-think task (Anderson and Green, 2001), suffered when participants simultaneously performed a high working memory load task. ...
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In modern work environments, it can be difficult for workers to avoid becoming distracted from their current task. This study investigates person–situation interactions to predict thought control activities (kind of self-control), which aim to stop distracting thoughts that enter the mind. Specifically, it was examined (1) how challenging work demands (time pressure, task complexity) activate workers’ thought control to stop distractive thoughts (nlevel2 = 143) and relate to the effort to do so (nlevel2 = 91) in daily working life and (2) how these relationships differ according workers’ general cognitive ability to suppress unwanted thoughts. To understand these person–situation interactions, an experience sampling study was combined with a laboratory task assessing the ability to suppress unwanted thoughts (think/no-think task). Multilevel modeling revealed that workers’ engage more often and more intensively in thought control activities at a moderate level of time pressure but only when they had a higher general ability to suppress unwanted thoughts. For workers with a lower ability to suppress unwanted thoughts, increasing time pressure was negatively related to thought control activities, even at very low levels of time pressure. Thus, whether time pressure activates or hinders thought control depends on individuals’ ability to suppress distractive thoughts.
... Indeed, they sometimes increase their intake of "forbidden" foods, dampening their regulatory interests. Such instances arise when they lack sufficient cognitive resources to follow the rules (Ward and Mann, 2000) or have already violated their restraint goals (Polivy and Herman, 1999;Polivy et al., 1988). Also, restrained eaters give in to temptation when indulgent food is presented in small sizes and packages (Scott et al., 2008). ...
Article
When dining in restaurants, diners often anticipate indulgent consumption, such as enjoying a dessert. This study examined the effects of anticipating such indulgence on preferences for healthy food among restrained and unrestrained eaters. Two experiments revealed that anticipating indulgent consumption reduced restrained eaters’ preference for the immediate consumption of healthy food. Conversely, unrestrained eaters’ expectation of indulgent consumption increased or did not change their preference for a healthy option. The interactive effect of indulgence anticipation and dietary restraint on healthy food preference held regardless of availability of nutrition information. The findings suggest that, despite increasing concern for healthy eating, restrained consumers ironically show a preference for unhealthy food options when anticipating a dessert consumption opportunity. The present study provides theoretical implications for consumption anticipation, sequential consumption, and dietary restraint, and practical implications for restaurateurs as well as for consumers, health professionals, and policymakers regarding healthy eating.
... Basic biological and physiological needs fuel food intake through provision of calories and nutrients needed to function and to balance hunger and satiety signals, yet a range of factors are implicated in food choice. Studies have examined the link between food choice and complex neurocircuitry, implicating hormonal mechanisms, chronic stress, cognitive load, and hedonic sensory processes (Schellekens et al., 2012;Klatzkin et al., 2018;Shiv and Fedorikhin, 1999;Ward & Mann, 2000;Moore and Bovell, 2008). Dietary choice may be influenced by positive or negative mood states, including complex internal individual cues which may signify associations of reward and deprivation (Gardner et al., 2014;Singh, 2014). ...
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between food and mood against the backdrop of increased mental health and nutrition cognizance within public health and scientific discourses. Mood was defined as encompassing positive or negative affect. Methodology: A constructionist qualitative approach underpinned this study. Convenience sampling in two faith-based settings was utilised for recruiting participants, who were aged 19-80 (median,48) years. In total 22 Christian women were included in the research, eighteen were in focus groups and four were in individual semi structured interviews. All were church-attending women in inner London. A thematic analysis was carried out, resulting in four central themes relating to food choice and food-induced mood states. Findings: Women identified a number of internal and external factors as influencing their food choices and the effect of food intake on their moods. Food choice was influenced by mood; mood was influenced by food choice. Low mood was associated with unhealthy food consumption, apparent addiction to certain foods and overeating. Improved mood was associated with more healthy eating and eating in social and familial settings. Discussion: Findings indicate food and mood are interconnected through a complex web of factors, as women respond to individual, environmental, cultural and social cues. Targeting socio-cultural and environmental influences and developing supportive public health services, via faith-based or community-based institutions could help to support more women in their struggle to manage the food and mood continuum. Successful implementation of health policies that recognise the psychological and social determinants of food choice and the effect of food consumption on mood, is essential, as is as more research into life-cycle causal factors linking food choice to mood.
... People with high dieting tendencies are preoccupied with their persistent thoughts regarding eating and body shape (Green et al., 2003) and strive to behave consistently with their self-regulatory goals of weight control in terms of food intake and energy expenditure (Koenigstorfer and Baumgartner, 2016). In contrast, people who tend to not diet lack any constraint and are free from the distraction caused by the goal of weight control (Martz et al., 1996;Ward and Mann, 2000;Irmak et al., 2011). In general, dieters are highly susceptible to the influence of weight control-related cues, but not the non-dieters (Carels et al., 2007). ...
Article
Effective body weight management requires dieters to engage in healthy eating and physical activity. This research explores the influences of physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labeling on dieters’ food consumption and post‐consumption physical activity. PACE indicates the amount of physical activity required to burn off food energy intake. This labeling aims to raise awareness on energy balance by highlighting an immediate link between food intake and exercise. This research shows that when exposed to PACE labeling, dieters (but not non‐dieters) reduce their food consumption, increase their post‐consumption physical activity, and are considerably motivated to achieve energy balance. This occurs because PACE labeling active energy balance‐goal for dieters and influences their food consumption and subsequent physical activity. Implications for consumer well‐being and policymakers are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... 42 Research has shown that loneliness (personality characteristic) is one of leading causes of boredom. 17 Furthermore, some researchers posit that boredom results from a lack of engaging activity (social interaction 43 ). Lonely individuals are characterized by a lack of social networks, including a lack of social relations, both in terms of quantity and quality. ...
Article
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Introduction: Mobile phones bring convenience to people's lives, but also affect their physical and mental health (especially in college students). Previous studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction is positively related to loneliness. This study further explored the mediating effects of boredom proneness and self-control on the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. Methods: A cross-sectional design was conducted in the present study. The investigation employed the Chinese version of the UCLA Loneliness Self-report Scale, Boredom Proneness Scale-Short Form, the Chinese version of the Self-control scale, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. Out of 1122 college students, 1078 completed the questionnaire survey and became our final subjects. PROCESS macro of SPSS 21 was used to conduct explore the mediating roles of boredom proneness and self-control in the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. Results: Loneliness, boredom proneness, and mobile phone addiction were significantly and positively correlated with each other, as well as significantly negatively correlated with self-control. Boredom proneness and self-control, when operating in parallel, partially mediated the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. By contrast, when occurring sequentially, they fully mediated the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. Conclusion: Mobile phone addiction among lonely college students can be eliminated by exercising self-control and alleviating boredom proneness.
... For instance, one's ability to exert self-control may vary due to situational factors, such as negative emotionality (Baumeister & Tierney, 2012). A loss of self-control may be more likely when one places a predominant focus on their negative emotions (Ward & Mann, 2000). Research has shown that individuals who report being stressed prefer immediate rewards more than individuals who are not stressed (Adam & Epel, 2007;Maier et al., 2015;Pruessner et al., 2004;Sinha, 2009). ...
Article
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Plagiarism is a problematic issue in universities across the globe (Curtis & Vardanega, 2016). This study explored the relationship between negative emotionality and positive attitudes toward plagiarism through the mediation of academic self-efficacy and self-control. Negative emotionality was examined as three components: stress, anxiety, and depression. Self-report surveys were completed by 454 university students to investigate the relationship between negative emotionality and positive attitudes toward plagiarism, as well as the mediating role of academic self-efficacy and self-control in this relationship. The hierarchical multiple regression found that negative emotionality significantly predicted positive attitudes toward plagiarism over and above age and gender (i.e., where male students and younger students were more likely to plagiarise). Furthermore, three mediation analyses showed that academic self-efficacy and self-control mediate the relationship between positive attitudes toward plagiarism and each component of negative emotionality. Considering these results, subsequent research should investigate whether implementing strategies that alleviate stress, anxiety, and depression could increase academic self-efficacy and self-control, which in turn, could then reduce positive attitudes toward plagiarism.
... Individuals with better WM were shown to achieve higher correspondence between goal standards and goaldirected behaviour, while poorer WM corresponded with behaviours counteracting goal striving Hofmann et al., 2007;Hofmann, Gschwendner, Friese, et al., 2008;Thush et al., 2008). Temporary reductions in WM, such as through stress or concurrent task load (Lavie et al., 2004;Rydell et al., 2009;Schmader & Johns, 2003;Schoofs et al., 2008) were additionally shown to be associated with reduced self-regulation (Finkel et al., 2006;Hofmann, Gschwendner, Castelli, et al., 2008;Inzlicht et al., 2006;Richeson & Shelton, 2003;Ward & Mann, 2000). These results parallel those of studies relating students' WM functioning to academic outcomes. ...
Preprint
Self-regulation was found to be positively associated with school performance. Interrelations between self-regulation, working memory (WM), and achievement goals, in particular mastery goals, have been established, as well as associations with academic outcomes. It stands to reason that self-regulation, WM, achievement goals and academic success are related on a daily level. However, previous research rarely considered this level of analysis. Here, we therefore addressed the relations of daily self-regulation, WM, and achievement goals, and their relevance for daily and general academic success. Data were obtained through ambulatory assessments in 90 students before (Study 1; Mage=9.83, SDage=0.50) and 108 students after their transition to secondary school (Study 2; Mage=10.12, SDage=0.45) across 20 school days. Students reported about daily achievement goals prior to school, self-regulation at school, and perceived academic success after school, as well as report card grades. Daily WM was assessed at school. Study 1 showed positive associations between daily mastery goals and self-regulation, but not with WM. Together, daily performance-approach goals and self-regulation, but not other goals or WM uniquely contributed to daily perceived academic success. Study 2 showed positive associations between daily mastery goals and self-regulation, but not with WM. Average daily mastery goals predicted daily WM. Together, daily mastery goals and self-regulation, but not WM, uniquely contributed to daily perceived academic success. In both studies, average levels of WM, but not achievement goals or self-regulation predicted report card grades. Results thus corroborate theoretical considerations on the importance of distinguishing self-regulation processes at between- and within-person levels.
... However, the reviewed literature did not take into account the effect of measures such as self-regulation on emotion-cognitive control interaction in psychosis ( Table 2). As self-regulation is negatively affected by an increase in cognitive load, threat and reduced motivation (Hofmann et al., 2012;Li et al., 2018;Ward and Mann, 2000) and as psychosis is associated with amotivation and increased sensitivity towards negative emotional stimuli, we would expect self-regulatory abilities to influence the impact of emotion on cognitive control in psychosis. These studies indicate that personality traits such as hyperarousal (see Table 1) and diminished self-regulation may specifically affect the interaction of emotion perception and attention and suggest that these factors may represent an index of psychosis vulnerability. ...
... Second, distractions also lead to greater consumption, whether they be caused by loud music (Garlin and Owen 2006;Woods et al. 2011), watching TV (Bellisle et al. 2004;Hetherington et al. 2006), playing games (Brunstrom and Mitchell 2006), or additional cognitive demands (Ward and Mann 2000). Some even attribute the finding that being with other people enhances consumption to distraction (Hetherington et al. 2006), even though social facilitation effects may evolve mainly by setting social norms around consumption. ...
Thesis
The consequences of unhealthy eating are one of today’s most important societal issues. Accordingly, a growing area of research has started to examine how marketer-controlled variables impact food consumption. In this dissertation, I first highlight how food consumption research may benefit from more targeted research from a theoretical lens of motivated reasoning. Then, I empirically examine how two specific marketing actions—serving food to consumers versus letting them serve themselves, and serving portions that lead to larger versus smaller amounts of food leftovers—influence the extent to which consumers can downplay unhealthy eating, which in turn encourages unhealthier choices and behaviors. Focusing on processes that take place when consumers obtain their food, I find that whether oneself (versus a server) serves the food determines the opportunity for self-serving attribution of responsibility for one’s eating, such that being served enables, but serving oneself disables, rejection of responsibility. Through rejecting responsibility, and consequently feeling better about oneself, being served food encourages consumers to choose unhealthy options as well as larger portions. Examining the period after consumers have completed their meal, I find that larger (versus smaller) amounts of food leftovers reduce perceived consumption, which improves consumers’ self-evaluative feelings and dampens their motivation to compensate for their food consumption, as manifested in greater consumption and lesser exercise effort subsequently. Theoretical contributions and managerial and policy implications are discussed.
... Research has shown that cognitive load affects many areas of decision-making. For example, people burdened with heavy cognitive loads are more impulsive (Hinson, Jameson, & Whitney, 2003), more risk averse (Benjamin, Brown, & Shapiro, 2013;Deck & Jahedi, 2015;Gerhardt, 2013;Gerhardt, Biele, Heekeren, & Uhlig, 2016;Whitney, Rinehart, & Hinson, 2008), more impatient (Deck & Jahedi, 2015;Hinson et al., 2003), act more randomly (Franco-Watkins, Pashler, & Rickard, 2006;Franco-Watkins, Rickard, & Pashler, 2010), make more errors in prediction tasks (Rydval, 2012), fail to process available information (Gilbert, Pelham, & Krull, 1988;Swann, Hixon, Stein-Seroussi, & Gilbert, 1990), demonstrate less self-control (Mann & Ward, 2007;Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999;Ward & Mann, 2000), are susceptible to anchoring effects (Deck & Jahedi, 2015;Epley & Gilovich, 2006), and perform less well on gambling tasks (Hinson, Jameson, & Whitney, 2002), visual judgment tasks (Allen, Baddeley, & Hitch, 2006;Allred, Crawford, Duffy, & Smith, 2016;Morey & Bieler, 2013;Morey & Cowan, 2004;Zokaei, Heider, & Husain, 2014), and arithmetic tasks (Deck & Jahedi, 2015). They also make different choices in allocation decisions (Van den Bos, Peters, Bobocel, & Ybema, 2006) and judge the fairness of outcomes differently (van't Veer, Stel, & van Beest, 2014) than those who have a smaller cognitive load. ...
... Thus, Airmap outperforms Kit-build when new knowledge is of concern since users can make maps using less effort without decreasing immediate and delayed understanding of new knowledge. The reduction in effort, believed to also cause a reduction in cognitive load, is desirable because it has been associated with various benefits, such as reduced stress and higher satisfaction (Zhang et al. 2015;Ward and Mann 2000). Results are in line with past research that stated the positioning task does not affect immediate learning gains (Furtado et al. 2018), but it goes further to also state that it does not affect the retention of new information. ...
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Abstract The advancement of technology has made it possible for automated feedback to be added to learning activities such as the construction of concept maps. The addition of feedback allows learners to acquire new knowledge instead of only focusing on reviewed knowledge. The cognitive processes for acquiring new knowledge and reviewing knowledge are different, so the benefits of concept maps in past research may not apply to the acquisition of new knowledge. However, how concept map construction varies across these two aspects has not been investigated. This research starts this investigation by researching how the positioning task affects new knowledge and reviewed knowledge. The position task is the act of deciding and managing the position of the elements of the concept map. In this paper, we study the differences in new knowledge and reviewed knowledge across two closed concept map interfaces by comparing test answers. One interface, Kit-build, includes the positioning task. The other interface, Airmap, does not include it. Results suggest that the interfaces only differ in retained reviewed knowledge, having similar performance in immediate new knowledge, immediate reviewed knowledge, and retained new knowledge. Results have potential implications for the general presence of the positioning task in learning interfaces.
... These results indicated that individuals with a lower WM capacity show strong correlations between implicit alcohol associations and the use of alcohol (14,27,64). Although traditional models of impulse control have emphasized the adverse effect of increasing cognitive load on self-regulation, emotion-related studies have supported the idea that increased cognitive load can inhibit feelings of temptation (68)(69)(70)(71). Regarding this issue, attention toward an emotional target is automatic (i.e., fast and involuntary), but it is also resource-dependent (71)(72)(73). ...
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Background: There is a trade-off between drug-related impulsive process and cognitive reflective process among ex-drug abusers. The present study aimed to investigate the impulsive effects of methamphetamine-related stimuli on working memory (WM) performance by manipulating WM load in abstinent ex-methamphetamine users. Methods: Thirty abstinent ex-methamphetamine users and 30 nonaddict matched control participants were recruited in this study. We used a modified Sternberg task in which participants were instructed to memorize three different sets of methamphetamine-related and non–drug-related words (three, five, or seven words) while performing a secondary attention-demanding task as an interference. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that reaction times of abstinent ex-methamphetamine users increased during low WM load (three words) compared to the control group (p = 0.01). No significant differences were observed during high WM loads (five or seven words) (both p’s > 0.1). Besides, reaction times of the experimental group during trials with high interference (three, five, or seven words) were not significantly different compared to the control group (p > 0.2). Conclusion: These findings imply that increasing WM load may provide an efficient buffer against attentional capture by salient stimuli (i.e., methamphetamine-related words). This buffer might modify the effect of interference bias. Besides, presenting methamphetamine-related stimuli might facilitate the encoding phase due to bias toward task-relevant stimuli. This finding has an important implication, suggesting that performing concurrent demanding tasks may reduce the power of salient stimuli and thus improve the efficiency of emotional regulation strategies.
... Two opposite tendencies of envy (proximity and avoidance) push people into polarized interpersonal relationships. When college students are in a negative mood for a long time, not only do they crave social support in the virtual world (Robinson et al., 2019), but they have lower self-control (Curci et al., 2013;Ward & Mann, 2000). This indicates that loneliness, as a negative emotion (Zhang et al., 2020), may have an impact on self-control. ...
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It has become a significant issue that an increasing number of adolescents are addicted to mobile phones. From the perspective of social comparison theory, this study aims to explore the relationship between benign envy/malicious envy and mobile phone addiction, as well as the role of loneliness and self-control in it. A total of 1951 valid samples were collected from primary and middle schools in China. The research showed that benign envy (malicious envy) could negatively (positively) predict mobile phone addiction. Meanwhile, self-control played as a mediator between benign envy/malicious envy and mobile phone addiction, while loneliness had no significant mediating effect. In addition, benign envy/malicious envy influenced mobile phone addiction by the chain mediation of “loneliness → self-control.” For the first time, this study reveals the effects of benign envy and malicious envy on mobile phone addiction and the internal mechanisms from the perspective of social comparison theory, offering illuminations for the prevention of mobile phone addiction.
... In contrast, consumers that are subject to a low cognitive load are more likely to engage in objective and systematic information processing that will draw their attention to the details of a message, minimising the impact of heuristics (Maheswaran and Chen, 2006). In a study focusing on consumers' eating behaviours, Ward and Mann (2000) showed that cognitive load disinhibited restrained dieters who ate significantly more while performing a high cognitive load task versus a low cognitive load task. This is because cognitive load suppressed dieters eating goals, resulting in overconsumption during the task. ...
Thesis
This thesis explores the use and effects of maximisers when included within Health and Nutrition (H&N) claims on food product packaging, with direct relevance for industry practice. Four separate studies were carried out in support of this thesis, one field study and three online experimental studies. The effects of the maximiser language device were investigated through an online field experiment, conducted through the Facebook Ads Manager platform, with the results demonstrating that the use of maximisers has a positive effect on product likeability among Facebook users. The first online experimental study then demonstrated the informality features of maximisers, and highlighted the importance of consumer perceived congruence bet ween the language used in advertising a product and the retail environment in which the product is encountered. Results from this study showed that the used of maximisers in H&N claims has a positive direct effect on product likeability. The second online experimental study extended on the concept of perceived congruence from the first online study, investigating the congruence between the use of language and customer comments and reviews, and its effect on perceptions of and purchase intentions towards a product. The study demonstrated the sincerity and affirmation features of maximisers, and showed the interaction of these features with online reviews, with the presence of maximisers having a moderating influence of product perceptions when bad reviews are present. The third and final online experimental study tested the effect of maximisers in a realistic setting, investigating the effects of cognitive load on evaluations of and purchase intentions towards a product. The findings showed maximisers work effectively when consumers are cognitively available, with a reversed effect apparent when consumers are subjected to a high cognitive load. The findings from the experimental studies have potential for impact in industry practice in the marketing and advertising of food products, and for the design of food packaging, as well as for policy-makers aiming to protect consumers and consumer interests related to food advertising.
... In particular, this app-based JITAI, which is called OnTrack (OT), facilitates adherence to a dietary prescription by using a machine learning algorithm capable of using continuously gathered data to build increasingly accurate models of adherence versus lapse behavior, predict lapses before they occur, and deliver microinterventions when calculated lapse risk is elevated. This system was premised on the idea that lapses are generally more likely during specific environmental and internal contexts (e.g., when watching television, in the presence of food cues in the environment, and experiencing negative or positive mood, boredom, or sleep deprivation) [15][16][17][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] but that the strength of these predictors differ by individual. To develop the machine learning model for OT, an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study collected predictor data six times per day for 6 weeks among 12 individuals with overweight/obesity who were assigned the WW (formerly known as Weight Watchers) "Beyond the Scale" (BTS) digital weight management program. ...
Article
Individual instances of nonadherence to reduced calorie dietary prescriptions, that is, dietary lapses, represent a key challenge for weight management. Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs), which collect and analyze data in real time to deliver tailored interventions during moments of need, may be well suited to promote weight loss by preventing dietary lapses. We developed OnTrack (OT), a smartphone application (app) that collects data on lapses and triggers of lapse, uses a continuously improving machine learning model to predict lapse risk, and delivers tailored interventions when risk is elevated. The current study evaluated the efficacy of OT against an active control in facilitating weight loss. Participants (N = 181) with overweight/obesity (MBMI = 34.32; 85.1% female; 73.5% White) were randomized to receive either the WW (formerly Weight Watchers) Beyond the Scale (BTS) digital program alone or WW plus OnTrack (WW + OT) for 10 weeks. In an unplanned, natural experiment, the WW program changed mid-way through the trial from BTS to a more flexible one, Freestyle (FS). A general linear model revealed a treatment condition × diet plan interaction (F[1, 173] = 9.68, p = .002) such that OT demonstrated greater efficacy only among those receiving BTS (weight loss MWW + OT = 4.7%, standard error [SE] = .55 versus MWW = 2.6%, SE = .80). Compared to FS, BTS WW + OT participants also reported considerably higher satisfaction with the intervention, engagement was higher, and algorithm accuracy was superior. Overall, results offer qualified support for OT and generally for machine learning-powered JITAIs that facilitate weight loss by predicting and preventing dietary lapses.
... Cognitive restraint may still be a risk factor for overeating during stress, as there is evidence that it may interact with and enhance emotional eating (Haynes, Lee, & Yeomans, 2003;Macht & Müller, 2007a;Williams et al., 2002). However, dietary restraint per se may elicit eating in response to challenging situations because of disruption to cognitive "diet monitoring," and a focus of attention on the salient food cues, with little emotional involvement (Lattimore & Caswell, 2004;Wallis & Hetherington, 2004;Ward & Mann, 2000). Moreover, Macht (2008) points out that restrained eaters can therefore be expected to show increased eating in response to both negative and positive emotions. ...
... Nonetheless, evidence based on competing sociocultural explanations suggests that girls are more likely than boys to prefer the thin attractiveness ideal during adolescence [24,25] and pursue this ideal via dieting or other forms of calorie restriction [21-23, 33, 34]. Given that it is increasingly difficult to maintain lower than average levels of calorie intake over extended periods, binge-eating episodes, overeating, and possible weight gain are common consequences of dieting to lose weight [50]. Because the sociocultural model provides a viable alternative, future studies should incorporate measures reflecting thin ideal pursuit and dieting to evaluate relative merits of life-history theory versus sociocultural explanations of overeating. ...
Article
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Although overeating increases risk for chronic illness and premature mortality, evolutionary life-history theorists posit that such behaviors arise as a potential outcome of using fast life-history strategies to function in environments that are harsh or unpredictable. To test this premise, we examined links between harsh, unpredictable living conditions (HULC), the adoption of fast life-history (LH) strategies, and overeating among early adolescents using a four-wave longitudinal design. Participants were 2547 Chinese adolescents (1202 girls, 1345 boys) who completed baseline questionnaires assessing experiences of HULC, preferences for use of fast LH strategies, and overeating. Measures were re-administered in follow-ups 7, 13, and 20 months later. Analyses indicated HULC predicted increased use of fast LH strategies within each gender. However, fast LH strategy adoption contributed to increases in overeating only among girls. Findings supported specific tenets of life-history theory and underscored gender as an important consideration in understanding links between living conditions, the adoption of fast LH strategies, and risk for overeating. Interventions focused on reducing poverty and increasing stable, nurturing family, and community environments may aid in reducing overeating and obesity for adolescents.
... Toutefois, dans le cas particulier de l'effet de la multiplication des images du produit, lorsque le packaging représente neuf images du même produit par rapport à une image du produit, le consommateur consomme plus de produit sous faible charge cognitive que sous forte charge cognitive (Madzharov & Block, 2010). Egalement, les travaux sur la consommation alimentaire ont montré que la charge cognitive détourne de l'objectif principal en amenant à un comportement plus impulsif à l'égard de produits hédoniques (Ward et Mann, 2000). En effet, les personnes dont les ressources cognitives sont mobilisées sont moins capables de les répartir ou de se concentrer sur une tâche (Malhotra, 1984) Toutes les variables expliquées dans la recherche ont été évaluées à l'aide d'échelles de mesure en 7 points : la quantité d'ingrédients aromatiques percue (Madzharov et Block, 2010), l'imagerie mentale gustative (Miller, Hadjimarcou et Miciak, 2000 ; α = 0,90) et le désir de manger le produit (Rogers et Hill, 1989). ...
Conference Paper
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RESUME : La perception biaisée du nombre d'images d'ingrédients aromatiques sur le packaging est étudiée. Tout d'abord, l'étude 1 (n= 183) examine l'impact de la répétition des images d'ingrédients aromatiques sur la quantité d'arôme perçue dans le produit, l'imagerie mentale gustative et le désir de manger le produit. Beaucoup d'images d'ingrédients aromatiques induisent une perception de plus de quantité d'ingrédients aromatiques, augmentent l'imagerie mentale gustative et induisent un plus grand désir de manger le produit comparativement à quelques images d'ingrédients aromatique. Deuxièmement, l'étude 2 (n=171) examine l'impact de la répétition de l'image des ingrédients aromatique sur la consommation du produit, selon la disponibilité des ressources cognitives. Lorsque les ressources cognitives sont disponibles, les consommateurs mangent moins de produits (vs. plus) lorsque le packaging représente de nombreuses (vs. peu) images d'ingrédients aromatiques. Lorsque les ressources cognitives sont mobilisées, la consommation de produits ne dépend pas du nombre d'images d'ingrédients aromatiques représentées sur le packaging. ABSTRACT: The biased perception of the number of flavor ingredient images depiction on packaging during product evaluation and consumption are investigated. First, study 1 (n=183) assessed the impact of flavor ingredient images repetition on packaging on perceived flavor quantity in the product, the mental taste imagery and the desire to eat the product. Many flavor ingredient images induce more flavor ingredient quantity, increase mental taste imagery and greater desire to eat the product compare to few flavor ingredient images. Second, study 2 (n=171) investigated the impact of flavor ingredient image repetition on packaging on product consumption depending on the availability of cognitive resources. When cognitive resources are available consumers have eaten less (vs. more) product with packaging depicting many (vs. few) flavor ingredient images. When cognitive resources are
... be more impatient) [11,12]. Restrained eaters focus more on food-related cues [13], are more impatient [14], and overeat under high cognitive load [15]. Likewise, individuals experiencing conditions of ego depletion and extreme time pressure cooperate less in social dilemma games [16], while the sleep deprived make more risky choices in gambling tasks [17][18][19][20]. ...
Article
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By randomizing the order in which participants perform a cognitive test and a food choice task in a controlled experiment, we investigate whether cognitive capacity can be enhanced by the simple act of anticipating food intake. Our findings show that overweight and obese participants exhibit an anticipatory food reward effect, which helped enhance their mental resources and improve their performance in a cognitive test. However, we find no anticipation effect among normal weight participants. Furthermore, eye tracking data reveal that food temptation, in the form of visual attention and emotional arousal is higher for overweight and obese individuals when they are cognitively impaired.
... When attempting excessive cognitive restraint to chronically manage food intake, people's attention is taxed, and they can easily lose restraint and inadvertently increase intake (12). Chronic self-monitoring of food intake is a source of cognitive load, and in some but not all studies, this leads to less self-control over eating and other impulsive behaviors (13)(14)(15). Rigid, "all-or-none" dieting, restricting certain comfort foods, puts individuals at risk of disinhibited overeating when common dietary lapses occur (16) and leaves individuals vulnerable to overeating in response to emotions or external cues (17,18), possibly because of the commonly found low prefrontal cortex/limbic balance under states of stress (19,20). ...
Article
Objective In youth, a preoccupation with weight and the desire to be thinner, or drive for thinness, might persist into adulthood and predict reward-based compulsive eating and greater weight status. Methods A total of 623 women were enrolled from a prospective cohort study starting at 10 years old and assessed up to 20 years later. Drive for thinness was measured five times during adolescence. In adulthood (mean age = 39.5), drive for thinness, reward-based eating drive, and BMI were measured. Results Structural equation modeling found cumulative adolescent drive for thinness predicted higher scores for both adult drive for thinness and reward-based eating drive. Youth drive for thinness was not directly associated with adult BMI but rather indirectly through adult drive for thinness. Reward-based eating drive was not associated with adult BMI. Conclusions Drive for thinness during the critical developmental years may exert long-term effects on adulthood eating behaviors tied to greater weight gain, potentially reflecting an important early target of intervention.
... Schaumberg et al. (2016) conceptualize dietary restraint as a self-control strategy that will fail when individuals face experiences or cues that undermine their ability to self-regulate. Supporting this theory, several lab-based studies have found that restrained eaters eat the same amount of a high calorie food as unrestrained eaters when they have full cognitive resources, but eat considerably larger amounts when their ability to self-regulate is hampered by cognitive load (Boon et al., 2000;Ward & Mann, 2000). Dietary restraint may similarly backfire when one is faced with other experiences that interrupt self-regulation, such as experiencing low selfcontrol and unhealthy food cravings. ...
Article
Dietary restraint, defined as the cognitive effort to restrict eating, can paradoxically make individuals more susceptible to unhealthy eating when their ability to self-regulate is threatened. Past experiments have found that, in situations that elicit low self-control and/or unhealthy cravings, participants with higher dietary restraint eat more than those with lower restraint. However, these relationships have never been examined in a free-living environment. The current daily diary study examined if dietary restraint would exacerbate the association between poor self-control and unhealthy cravings on overconsumption, namely, eating more than usual and binge eating. College women (N = 121, M age = 19) reported their restrained eating behavior and completed seven daily surveys. Multilevel analyses showed a significant interaction between dietary restraint and daily self-control on eating more than usual (b = −0.14, p < .001) and binge eating (b = −0.23, p < .001). Lower daily self-control was associated with eating more than usual and with more binge eating that day, but only among women with higher dietary restraint. Dietary restraint also moderated the effect of cravings on eating more than usual (b = 0.09, p = .016); this relationship was stronger for women with higher restraint. Stronger cravings were associated with more binge eating regardless of restraint. Results suggest that situations that undermine self-control are more strongly associated with overeating among those with higher dietary restraint. Findings can inform strategies to reduce overconsumption among restrained eaters.
... For example, Bearden and Etzel (1982) found differences in reference group influence between publicly and privately consumed products and between luxuries and necessities. Additionally, the motivation to eat, including stress and anxiety, has been shown to influence consumption (Faber et al., 1995;Ward & Mann, 2000). Interestingly, consumer enjoyment of wine can also be contextually based on the serving glass. ...
Article
Wine producers have built their businesses on the concept of sharing, typically explored in the context of the communal consumption of wine among consumers. In this paper, we offer an often-overlooked area of the supply chain that can play an important role in the communal consumption of wine, that of direct selling companies utilizing the party plan sales strategy. By breaking down the production-consumption network through the Systems of Provision (SoP) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this research explores the supply chain in influencing consumption. The direct selling party plan allows for active engagement in the production-consumption network and is explored in this research as a material artifact of the communal wine consumption experience. An analysis of the 10Cs categorization of the SoP is conducted within two direct selling wine companies, Traveling Vineyard and WineShop at Home. The analysis expands an often fragmented view of communal sharing (usually viewed through the lens of end users) to include more actors and how these direct selling actor’s roles can impact the future of the production-consumption social network in the wine marketplace.
Article
How and why does the association between weather and hedonic consumption differ between men and women? This article theorizes that women have a stronger affective response to weather conditions, which subsequently induces a larger increase in their hedonic consumption as compared to men. Seven studies show that the relationship between weather conditions and hedonic consumption (food and nonfood items) is differentially mediated by affect for women and men. The studies achieve triangulation by using diverse methodologies (census data, surveys, and experiments), participants (students and nonstudents), measures of independent variables (weather conditions as measured and manipulated), dependent measures (consumption preference and choice), and consumption modalities (food and nonfood).
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Self‐control is a prominent topic in consumer research, where it is often conceptualized as the abstinence from hedonic consumption. We examine whether this conceptualization accurately captures consumers’ experiences of self‐control conflicts/failures in light of seminal self‐control theories in economics and psychology. Rejecting that notion, we argue that self‐control failures are choices in violation of superordinate long‐term goals accompanied by anticipated regret, rather than choices of hedonic over utilitarian consumption. This conceptualization has important methodological, theoretical, and practical implications. Methodologically, it highlights the need for experimental paradigms with higher construct validity. Theoretically, it helps elucidate how self‐control is distinct from impatience and self‐regulation. Practically, it provides a rich set of implications for deducing interventions on the individual and public policy level to help consumers exert self‐control.
Article
The Theory of Normal Eating suggests that how much others eat sets an upper limit for how much it is appropriate to eat. This study tested the hypothesis that restrained eaters, who typically eat less than they want to, would be more responsive to a high-intake norm than would unrestrained eaters. Data were combined from 8 experimental studies (total N = 735 female participants; 305 restrained eaters, 430 unrestrained eaters). Each study: (a) included a low-intake norm, a high-intake norm, and a no-norm control condition; (b) measured participants’ food intake; and (c) included the Restraint Scale as a measure of dietary restraint. There were no differences between restrained unrestrained eaters in the no-norm control condition or in the magnitude of the inhibition effect (i.e., the difference between the low-intake norm condition and the control condition). There was, however, a restraint difference in the magnitude of the augmentation effect (i.e., the difference between the high-intake norm condition and the control condition). Restrained eaters showed a larger augmentation effect (d = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.29, 0.87) than did unrestrained eaters (d = 0.20; 95% CI = −0.05, 0.45). Social norms provide an upper limit for acceptable food intake, with high-intake norms permitting (but not requiring) individuals to indulge themselves. The fact that restrained eaters were more responsive to the high-intake norm than were unrestrained eaters suggests that the high-intake norm gives restrained eaters permission to indulge when they typically eat less than they want to.
Article
This study examines the health halo and horn effects in the context of two fast food brands commonly associated with healthy and unhealthy food (i.e., Subway and McDonald's). Health halo is consumers' tendency to overestimate the healthiness of certain food categories or items based on a single claim, whereas health horn is the tendency to underestimate it. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of nutritional information disclosure and dietary restraint on consumers' behavioral intentions. Two items from the McDonald's and Subway menus each served as stimuli. They represented health halo confirmation (Roast Chicken sandwich) or disconfirmation (Italian Spicy sandwich) and health horn confirmation (Big Mac burger) or disconfirmation (McSpicy Cajun Burger). This study employed a 2 (nutritional information: present vs. absent) × 4 (menu item type: a health halo or horn associated with Subway or McDonald's menu items with favorable and unfavorable nutritional profiles) and 2 (dietary restraint: restrained eaters vs. unrestrained eaters) × 4 (menu item type: a health halo or horn associated with Subway or McDonald's menu items with favorable and unfavorable nutritional profiles) mixed factorial design. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions (nutritional information: present vs. absent) and presented with all four menu items. There was a decrease in behavioral intentions toward all menu items except the one representing health horn disconfirmation. In particular, behavioral intentions were most substantially weakened for the item that entailed a health halo disconfirmation (Italian Spicy sandwich). The findings not only delineate the different practices companies adopt but also underscore the importance of nutritional information disclosure in helping consumers make healthier food choices.
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Attention represents a key element of self-control, and multiple theoretical accounts have highlighted the role played by abundant attentional capacity in effecting successful self-regulation. What, then, are the consequences of living in today’s world, in which attention can become so easily divided by a multitude of stimuli? In this article, we consider the implications of divided attention for self-control and show that although the end result is typically disinhibited behavior, under specified conditions, attentional limitation, or what we term attentional myopia, can be associated with enhanced restraint.
Article
Past research shows that people overconsume energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods when they are not paying attention to environmental cues that encourage consumption. Very little is known about the mindless consumption of nutritious foods (herein referred to as preferred foods). Using dual-processing, limited capacity, and mood management models and theories, this study explored whether people misreport the selection of preferred and EDNP foods under differing levels of distraction created by screen media device use. Participants freely grazed on EDNP and preferred snacks while either watching TV (one screen) or multitasking with two or three screens (TV, iPod, laptop computer). Participants under-reported the number of preferred foods they selected for consumption in the three-screen multitasking conditions more than in one- and two-screen conditions. They under-reported the selection of preferred snacks more than EDNP snacks in the three-screen conditions. The under-reporting of snack selection was greater in one three-screen condition (TV+texting+online shopping) (which was evaluated as highly arousing and pleasant), than in the other three-screen condition (TV+texting+online reading) (which was rated as highly arousing but less pleasant). Compared to participants with weaker health beliefs, those with stronger beliefs about healthy lifestyle said they were more rational in selecting preferred snacks. Findings show that people sometimes eat greater amounts of preferred foods than they realize, when they are multitasking with screen devices. By surrounding oneself with snack-size fruits, vegetables, and nuts in multitasking situations, mindless eating could be a powerful nudge to facilitate greater consumption of preferred foods to combat health concerns.
Article
Meta‐analyses have established a link between screen media use and obesity for children and adults, and strongly suggested that the link is explained by caloric intake. Media use has been found to alter eating behaviors in a number of ways. These include distraction, learning and priming, disinhibition, and social comparison. Television distracts user attention from both external and internal cues that normally signal them to stop eating. Commercials for food products and media personae provide information (expository and social) about foods and eating which, once learned, influences food choices. Watching mediated others eat and seeing mediated thin‐ideal bodies both produce disinhibitory effects on eating behaviors among restrained eaters. However, exposure to mediated thin‐ideal bodies has also been shown to lead to restrained eating for some viewers.
Chapter
Social media users may regulate their behaviors to follow norms of their online communities. This regulation process, however, might be too transient to be captured using self-reports and therefore is suitable for a NeuroIS investigation. Previously, in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment designed to study this regulation process, Huang, Kuo, and Lin [1] found that this regulation process could be reflected in an ERN-like ERP, and the ERP’s magnitude is correlated with people’s internet privacy concern. In this work-in-progress we seek to use eye-tracking to replicate their findings. Here we report our current results of pupil size anslyses, which so far are consistent with the previous ERP findings.
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Objectives: Self-compassion can facilitate self-improvement motivation. We examined the effects of self-compassion in response to dietary lapses on outcomes relevant to weight-loss strivings using a longitudinal design. The indirect effects of self-compassion via guilt and shame were also explored. Design: An Ecological Momentary Assessment methodology was employed with a sample of adults who were overweight or obese attempting to lose weight via dietary restriction (N = 56; Mage = 34.88; SD = 13.93; MBMI = 32.50; SD = 6.88), and who responded to brief surveys sent to their mobile phones twice daily for two weeks. Methods: Dietary temptations and lapses were assessed at each diary entry, and self-compassion in response to dietary lapses, intention to continue dieting, weight-loss related self-efficacy, negative reactions to the lapse, and self-conscious emotions were surveyed on occasions when participants reported having experienced a dietary lapse. The participants were also weighed in a laboratory prior to the EMA phase and via self-report straight after the EMA phase. Weight was measured again in the laboratory 12-weeks post the EMA period. Results: Bayesian multilevel path analyses showed that self-compassion did not predict weight loss. However, at the within-person level, self-compassion was positively related to intentions and self-efficacy to continue dieting, and negatively related to negative affective reactions to the lapses. Guilt mediated the associations of self-compassion with intention, self-efficacy, and negative reactions. Conclusion: Self-compassion may be a powerful internal resource to cultivate when dieters experience inevitable setbacks during weight-loss strivings which could facilitate weight loss perseverance.
Article
What is the role played by attentional load in eating? Does attending to an unrelated task generally lead to overeating, perhaps by preventing individuals from focusing on a goal to limit consumption? Or does such attentional diversion typically lead to reductions in eating, perhaps by preventing people from noticing tempting features of relevant food cues? Past research has supported each of these two propositions, but comparisons between existing studies have been hampered to the extent that various experimental manipulations differ in the degree to which they occupy attention, as well as differing in the particular type of attentional resources they exploit. To resolve existing discrepancies in the literature, in a series of studies, we made use of a working memory manipulation, the n-back task (Kirchner, 1958), that can be systematically modified to induce varying levels of cognitive load, allowing for rigorous comparisons of the effects of different levels of attentional load on eating. These studies revealed a complex pattern of results. Analysis of findings from three studies employing within-subjects designs documented a linear relationship, in that participants consumed less food when completing a higher cognitive-load task than when completing a lower cognitive-load task. Three studies employing between-subjects designs highlighted a less consistent pattern of results, but when combined in a mini-meta-analysis, suggested the opposite linear relationship, with participants assigned to higher cognitive-load conditions generally consuming more food than participants assigned to lower cognitive-load conditions. We conducted two additional studies to reconcile these conflicting patterns of data. Neither finding received unequivocal support, although both studies found that participants ate less when engaged in higher cognitive-load tasks than lower cognitive-load tasks. The precise nature of the relationship between attentional load and eating remains elusive.
Article
Though human social interaction in general seems effortless at times, successful engagement in collaborative or exploitative social interaction requires the availability of cognitive resources. Research on Dual-Process suggests that two systems, the affective (non-reflective) and the cognitive (reflective), are responsible for different types of reasoning. Nevertheless, the evidence on which system leads to what type of behavioral outcome, in terms of prosociality, is at best contradicting and perplexing. In the present paper, we examined the role of the two systems, operationalized as working memory depletion, in prosocial decision-making. We hypothesize that the nature of the available cognitive resources could affect whether humans engage in collaborative or exploitative social interaction. Using Operation Span to manipulate the availability of working memory, we examined how taxing the cognitive system affects cooperation and cheating. In two experiments, we provide evidence that concurrent load, but not cumulative load is detrimental to cooperation, whereas neither concurrent nor cumulative load seems to affect cheating behavior. These findings are in contrast to several previous assumptions. We discuss limitations, possible explanations, and future directions.
Article
Consumer multitasking (i.e., working on multiple tasks simultaneously) is a widespread modern phenomenon, yet the literature lacks an understanding of when and why consumers multitask. We experimentally show that consumers engage in multitasking behavior as a way to compensate for feelings of low control. Specifically, across five main studies and seven Web Appendix studies using two different multitasking paradigms, we find that consumers feeling low (vs. high) control volitionally choose to multitask more on subsequent tasks, rather than do the tasks sequentially (i.e., one task at a time). Mediation and moderation evidence demonstrate that this effect is driven by increased motivations to use time resources efficiently for those feeling low (vs. high) control. We also find that multitasking generally results in suboptimal consumer decision making and decreased task performance. An intervention that altered consumer lay beliefs regarding multitasking and time efficiency was effective in lowering multitasking behavior for consumers experiencing low control during the COVID-19 pandemic. By investigating a cause of consumer multitasking and the underlying mechanism, our studies contribute to research on consumer multitasking, perceptions of control, and resource allocation with important implications for advertisers and marketing managers.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Revised-18, an instrument designed to measure: Uncontrolled Eating, Emotional Eating and Cognitive Restraint, in a sample of Mexican adults of different weights. 342 man and women, with age range 19-79 years old (M=40), were recruited. TFEQ was emailed to the participants who earlier had their weight and height measured. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to examine TFEQ structure. The original three factor structure was corroborated, with nine items loading high on Uncontrolled Eating factor, three on Emotional Eating and four out of the original six on Cognitive Restraint. Two items were excluded due to low item-total correlations. Higher levels of Cognitive Restraint were associated with higher BMI (r=.13, p < .05), we found no connection between Uncontrolled Eating or Emotional Eating and body weight. Our findings suggest that the abbreviated TFEQ (16 items), is a psychometrically valid measure, and can be used to evaluate the tendencies of Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating and Emotional Eating in the population of Mexican adults with different body weights.
Article
Introduction Victimization not only causes psychological distress among adolescents but makes them become perpetrators. The mediating and moderating mechanism underlying the relations between victimization and cyberbullying remains largely unknown. Furthermore, whether the effects of online and offline victimization on cyberbullying have the same mechanisms remains uncertain. Methodology Using a sample of 607 adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years, this study investigated a moderated mediation model in which depression mediated the relation between online and offline victimization and cyberbullying. Additionally, the study examines whether self-control moderates the direct and indirect relations between victimization and cyberbullying that operates through depression. Findings Online and offline victimization positively associated with depression, which, in turn, predicted higher possibilities of cyberbullying perpetration. Self-control moderated the relations between online victimization as well as offline victimization and depression, while the relation between depression and cyberbullying was not moderated by self-control. Conclusion The moderated mediation model developed in this study functioned for both online and offline victimization. The practical implications of this study are discussed.
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Product packaging clues can lead to overconsumption and even obesity. While combined packaging represents a common packaging practice, it has not been addressed much in academia. To help clarify how marketers can optimize the relationship between the packaging’s number cues and consumption, this paper explores the effect of the quantity of inner packaging on consumption when the external packaging number is fixed. Across two experiments conducted in China, this study proposes that consumption increases with the number of the inner packages, while the total quantity of products is held constant and the Perceived Package Consumption Count acts as a partial mediator. For the restrained dieters, however, the effect of the packaging’s number cue on consumption disappears. The findings of this study have significant implications for consumers, marketers, and policymakers.
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Across two studies, this research examines the effects of positive versus negative framing of health messages on food consumption, in the relatively short and long run. Specifically, it studies the effects of multiple exposures to health messages over time (Study 1), using daily food consumption diary data. It replicates and extends those findings in a cross-sectional, single exposure setting to tease out the individual effects of positive and negative framing with consumption intentions as the dependent variable (Study 2). With this combination of an externally and internally valid setup, our research provides robust evidence of the associations of message effectiveness and behavioral outcomes. Our findings suggest that negative messages are more effective than positive messages in the short term but importantly, in the long term as well, suggesting that transforming consumption in the long term can be a viable social marketing objective with the appropriate message tactics. JEL Classification: M31, M37
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Using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined the relationship between early meaning in life and subsequent problematic smartphone use (PSU). As depression and self-control are a strong predictor of Internet-related addiction, we examined these two variables as possible mediators in this relationship based on existing literature. A total of 478 Chinese children and adolescents (243 boys and 235 girls, mean age = 11.26 years) completed questionnaires regarding meaning in life, depression, self-control and PSU. The results indicated that: (a) presence of meaning and search for meaning are positive correlation, and they are negatively associated with PSU among children and adolescents; (b) depression and self-control mediated the link between presence of meaning and children and adolescents’ subsequent PSU respectively; and (c) depression and self-control sequentially mediated the relationship between early presence of meaning and children and adolescents’ subsequent PSU; whereas not sequentially mediated the relationship between search for meaning and children and adolescents’ subsequent PSU. These results suggested that three types of interventions could be effectively used to decrease the risk of PSU among children and adolescents, namely, enhancing presence of meaning, relieving depression, and improving self-control.
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To examine the relationship between relative deprivation and social anxiety, which affects mental health, and investigate the mediating role of perceived control and the moderating role of belief in a just world (BJW) in an understudied population in Asia, we surveyed 1573 rural-to-urban migrant children (48% female; M age = 12.3, SD = 1.7) in southeast China. Relative deprivation was positively correlated with social anxiety; perceived control partially mediated this connection. Moreover, BJW moderated the indirect effect, which was stronger for male migrant children with lower levels of BJW. The limitations and practical implications of this study are discussed.
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This review questions the appropriateness of behavioral and dietary treatments of obesity in light of overwhelming evidence that they are ineffective in producing lasting weight loss. The stigmatization of obesity, the overstatement of health risks, and the pervasive influence of the lucrative diet industry have maintained public demand for dietary treatment. However, decades of research on the biology of weight regulation make clear the unlikelihood of success with dietary treatment, information which the health professions have been slow to integrate. Recommendations are made for improving lifestyle, health risk factors, body image, and the self-esteem of the obese without requiring weight loss.
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This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent ego threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters.
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The major patterns of self-regulatory failure are reviewed. Underregulation occurs because of deficient standards, inadequate monitoring, or inadequate strength. Misregulation occurs because of false assumptions or misdirected efforts, especially an unwarranted emphasis on emotion. The evidence supports a strength (limited resource) model of self-regulation and suggests that people often acquiesce in losing control. Loss of control of attention, failure of transcendence, and various lapse-activated causes all contribute to regulatory failure.
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Reports studies to examine the hypothesis that obese persons are more responsive to external cues and less to internal physiological cues associated with hunger, than nonobese persons. Various experiments were carried out in which preliminary eating, fear, circumstances of eating, and manipulating time were related to amounts eaten by normal and obese Ss under controlled conditions. In addition, other studies on effects of taste, fasting, choice of eating place, and time-zone changes on eating patterns of obese and nonobese Ss are reviewed. Results consistently support the finding that the obese are "relatively insensitive to variations in the physiological correlates of food deprivation but highly sensitive to environmental, food-related cues . . . ." These findings help to explain why many weight control programs for the obese are temporary in their effectiveness. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Restrained eaters have been found to overeat after various events or so-called disinhibitors, such as eating a preload or strong emotional states. Little research has focused on why such events lead to a break of the restrained eaters' control and to overeating. The present study examines the role of cognitive distraction as a possible mechanism underlying these effects. Two experiments were conducted, both designed to test hypotheses derived from Wegner's Ironic Process Theory and focusing on the behavioural consequences of cognitive control over eating. In both experiments subjects were tested in a 2 (restrained/unrestrained) by 2 (distraction/no distraction) design. The results do not confirm the prediction flowing from the Ironic Process Theory: cognitive distraction does not lead to overeating in restrained eaters. Implications of these findings for the Boundary Model are also discussed.
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ABSTRACT Dieting and nondieting subjects were given either failure or neutral performance feedback on a problem-solving task. Failure subjects were then assigned to one of three self-awareness conditions: One group was forced to watch a video clip of themselves failing on the problem-solving task, one group was asked to watch a distracting video clip on bighorn sheep, and the final group was asked to sit quietly for 10 minutes. Subjects were then allowed to eat as much ice cream as they wanted. Only in those conditions which allowed—or promoted—low self-awareness (the failure/distraction and simple failure condition) did dieters show disinhibited eating. In the failure/videotape condition, which enforced high levels of self-awareness, eating in dieters remained inhibited. This supports the proposal that a reduction in self-awareness is necessary for lifting of inhibitions. Eating in nondieters was reduced in the failure/videotape and simple failure conditions, possibly because of the autonomic correlates of distress.
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Prior knowledge was varied in problem solving, thinking, and reading tasks in three experiments. The hypothesis was that the prior knowledge used in a cognitive task uses capacity in the same limited capacity active processing system that is used to process the ongoing task. In a reading experiment, prior knowledge about a target page was manipulated by controlling the preceding pages. In an experiment dealing with problem solving in the context of a chess game, prior knowledge was controlled by comparing experts with novices. In a third study subjects thought about personality descriptions of persons and groups, and about women's fashions and football plays; it was assumed that persons have more prior knowledge concerning the personality of persons than the personality of groups, that women have more prior knowledge about women's fashions, and that men have more prior knowledge about football. In all experiments, use of cognitive capacity in task performance was observed with a secondary task technique. The results of all three experiments were consistent with the hypothesis that prior knowledge uses capacity in the active processing system. The prior knowledge hypothesis is consistent with some aspects of current cognitive theory but not consistent with others. The results also suggest a fundamental and unexpected limit on the cognitive processing of experts.
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Based on Zimbardo's (1970) theory of deindividuation and Duval and Wicklund's (1972) theory of “objective self-awareness” it was predicted that self-awareness would lead to a decrease in transgressive behavior. Subjects were either made self-aware (seated in front of a mirror listening to their own tape-recorded voice) or nonself-aware (seated to the side of the mirror listening to another's voice) and were given an opportunity to cheat on an anagrams test. Significantly more cheated in the nonself-aware condition (71%) than in the self-aware condition (7%). The results support the basic premise of deindividuation theory that self-awareness influences impulsive, counternormative behavior and suggest that an integration of the theories of deindividuation and objective self-awareness is possible.
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of alcohol (administered without the subjects' awareness) on the eating behavior of normally restrained and unrestrained eaters. Consumption was assessed in a taste-rating context. The results indicated that when disinhibitory cognitive or social cues are unavailable, alcohol does not release the suppressed eating of restrained eaters, but rather counteracts the disinhibitory effects of anxiety. The experimental findings were interpreted as providing indirect support for Pliner & Cappell's (1974) labelling model of alcohol intoxication.
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The concept of ‘self-control,” until recently embedded in intrapsychic personality theories and banished from strict behavioral accounts of human activity, is considered from the perspective of a closed-loop learning paradigm. In considering self-regulatory and self-control behavior, an attempt is made (1) to extricate these concepts from the realm of philosophical debate on the image of man, (2) to point to their growing relevance in the context of rapidly changing environments, (3) to provide behavioral definitions and a tentative and testable process model, and (4) to outline their clinical (therapeutic) implications. The current conceptualization emphasizes (a) the contractual elements in self-control, (b) the critical importance of insuring the link between intentions (often of a verbal variety) and behavioral execution, and (c) the interdependence of external and internal controlling variables. In a larger context, the paper seeks to show how man's “selfreflectiveness” can be incorporated within an empirically based behavior theory. Suggestions for research are presented.
Article
Assessed the effects of alcohol on the eating behavior of normally restrained and unrestrained eaters. The icecream consumption of 55 female college students was measured in a taste rating context following their consumption of alcohol or placebo, the label of which was systematically manipulated. In the absence of a disinhibitory label, alcohol served as a mood elevator (with consumption decreasing for restrained eaters and increasing for unrestrained eaters), replicating the authors' 1976 findings. Alcohol disinhibited the consumption of normally restrained eaters only when supplemented by a disinhibitory label. Results are interpreted as support for a cognitive/pharmacological interaction model of alcohol intoxication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In the present study, restrained subjects failed to regulate their ice-cream intake after a preload of milkshakes, while unrestrained subjects succeeded. Restraint was not related to irrational thinking patterns, as reflected by scores on the Rational Behavior Inventory (RBI) and the Irrational Belief Test (IBT). During the disinhibitive challenge, the self-talk of the subjects was recorded on tape. Restrained subjects in a disinhibition challenge, i.e. preload condition, were expected to report significantly more disinhibitive thoughts than restrained subjects in a no-preload condition. Unrestrained subjects were expected to report no disinhibitive self-talk at all. The authors failed to find experimental confirmation for the widely held view that dichotomous thoughts such as “I've blown my diet, I might as well continue to eat” disinhibit restrained eaters.
Article
This article critically examines two basic hypotheses concerning dietary restraint. One hypothesis focuses on "disinhibition" or loss of control among dieters and the other focuses on the relations between obesity and restraint. It is concluded that the "disinhibition hypothesis," which proposes that dieters overeat after disruptions in self-control, has been supported. Both perceptions of having overeaten and dysphoric mood precipitate high consumption among restrained eaters. Research is needed to establish the processes underlying these effects. It is also concluded that the "obesity and restraint hypothesis," which proposes that differences in level of restraint underlie differences between obese and normal weight people’s eating patterns, has not been supported. Although obese people have higher average restraint scores than normal weight people do, they do not show the disinhibited eating patterns that characterize normal weight, restrained eaters. Studies of the restraint scale have indicated that the high scores found among obese people may be due to psychometric problems in the scale. Overall, it is concluded that although the hypotheses concerning restraint, and the recent extension of them into a boundary model of food regulation, do not seem useful in understanding obesity; they appear to be relevant to understanding binge eating and related disorders, such as bulimia.
Article
In a first experiment, subjects verbalizing the stream of consciousness for a 5-min period were asked to try not to think of a white bear, but to ring a bell in case they did. As indicated both by mentions and by bell rings, they were unable to suppress the thought as instructed. On being asked after this suppression task to think about the white bear for a 5-min period, these subjects showed significantly more tokens of thought about the bear than did subjects who were asked to think about a white bear from the outset. These observations suggest that attempted thought suppression has paradoxical effects as a self-control strategy, perhaps even producing the very obsession or preoccupation that it is directed against. A second experiment replicated these findings and showed that subjects given a specific thought to use as a distracter during suppression were less likely to exhibit later preoccupation with the thought to be suppressed.
Article
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that alcohol's reduction of psychological stress depends to an important degree on whether the drinker is also engaged in distracting activity. In the first study, the factor of whether or not subjects had received alcohol (dose of 1 mg/kg) was crossed, in a 2 × 2 design, with the factor of whether they rated pleasant art slides or did nothing during a period that immediately followed their having received negative feedback on an IQ test (taken earlier). As predicted, a significant interaction effect showed that mood improvement during this recovery period was greatest in the alcohol/slides condition—the only condition in which absolute mood improvement reached significance. Study 2 replicated this effect, and it provided evidence that ruled out several alternative explanations of the alcohol-activity effect. The results are discussed in terms of their implication that alcohol's reduction of psychological stress stems largely from its impairment of cognitive processes that, in conjunction with distracting activity, blocks out stress-inducing thoughts.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of self-attention and public attention to food intake on eating by dieters and nondieters. Female dieters ate the greatest number of candies ad lib after consuming a forced two-milk shake preload; the addition of either self-attention or implied public attention, through the manipulated availability of a waste basket for the disposing of candy wrappers, inhibited eating substantially. For nondieters, the preload itself inhibited candy consumption, which declined further only under conditions of public attention to candy intake. In a second experiment, self- and public attention again inhibited the cookie consumption of preloaded dieters, but preloaded nondieters were not influenced by the attention manipulations, eating minimally in all conditions. Nondieters who were not preloaded, however, did reduce their intake in the two attention conditions. Implications for regulatory self-control were discussed.
Article
Indicates that there are striking behavioral parallels between obese individuals and hungry individuals, suggesting that many obese individuals are actually in a chronic state of energy deficit and are genuinely hungry, perhaps because they attempt to hold their weight below its biologically dictated "set point." This conclusion is consistent with the remarkable similarities between the behavior of obese human beings and the behavior of animals that become obese after lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus. Consideration of these parallels suggests a reexamination of traditional views of hunger and the ventromedial hypothalamus syndrome. (106 ref.)
Article
Examined similarities between experimental findings with obese human Ss and lesioned hyperphagic rats. In comparison to normals, obese Ss (a) eat more of a good- and less of a bad-tasting food; (b) eat fewer meals/day, eat more/meal, and eat more rapidly; (c) react more emotionally; (d) eat more when food is easy to procure and less when it is difficult; (e) do not regulate food consumption when preloaded with solids, but do when preloaded with liquids; and (f) are less active. N. Mrosovosky's theory that the ventromedial hypothalamus is functionally quiescent in obese Ss is discussed. The function of the hypothalamus is examined. It is hypothesized that obese Ss are stimulus-bound. Experiments reveal that obese Ss (a) do better on recall tests, (b) respond faster with fewer errors on complex RT tasks, (c) are more distractible, and (d) work harder for food when food cues are prominent. Reexamining the activity levels of Ss, it was found that beyond a given stimulus intensity, Ss are more reactive than normals. Difficulties with the comparison and formulation are noted. (38 ref.)
Article
120 female undergraduates who were restrained or unrestrained eaters (as determined by the Restraint Scale and the Binge Scale) consumed a milk shake preload and then taste-tested ice cream. All Ss were provided with the same amount of ice cream, but it was presented either in small or large bowls accompanied or not accompanied by accurate information about its caloric content. The double-experimental condition (small-bowl/labeled) produced regulatory eating in restrained and unrestrained Ss. Conversely, both groups counterregulated in the control condition (large-bowl/unlabeled). When only 1 of the 2 experimental procedures was operational, restrained eaters used bigger spoonfuls to consume more than unrestrained eaters; restrained eaters also disproportionately lowered their caloric estimates of their consumption only in these 2 cells. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Stress is widely thought to lead to overeating. Studies of stress-induced eating have tested two models. One has tested whether stress increases eating in all exposed organisms and has been tested primarily with animals and physical stressors. The other has tested individual differences in vulnerability to stress-induced eating and has tested only human subjects and psychological stressors. The most consistent set of findings shows that "restrained" eating predicts vulnerability among women; we conclude that for the stressors studied to date, the individual-difference model has received stronger support. Because the question motivating much of this research is whether stress-induced eating causes obesity, future research should assess the effect of stress on weight-change more directly.
Article
Seventy women students were tested on a short battery of tasks assessing cognitive performance. They also completed self-report ratings of mood, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) to which was appended several additional items concerning their recent dieting behaviour, and a 24-h dietary recall. Heart rate was measured before and after testing. Compared with nondieting subjects with low to moderate scores on the restraint factor of the DEBQ, subjects (n = 15) who reported that they were currently dieting to lose weight displayed impaired performance on a vigilance task and also tended to show poorer immediate memory and longer reaction times. Highly restrained eaters who were not dieting at the time of testing, on the whole, performed at an intermediate level on these tests. In contrast, the dieters tended to show the best performance on an undemanding finger tapping task, indicating that they were not slowed in their fine motor responses or lacking in motivation to carry out the tasks. Poorer cognitive functioning during dieting could arise as a direct consequence of the effects of food restriction on energy metabolism or other physiological mechanisms--the dietary records indicated that the current dieters were eating at about 70% of maintenance energy requirement. However, it is also possible that cognitive performance is impaired during dieting due to anxiety resulting from stressful effects of imposing and maintaining dietary restraint.
Article
Emotion reduces utilization of cues. In some tasks this can be an advantage (elimination of irrelevant cues); more often, however, such reduction inhibits performance. Attentive behavior fits into the framework of this theory. It can also be easily translated into terms of information theory allowing a qualitative evaluation of task difficulty.