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Beneficial Effects of High Dietary Fiber Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors:

Abstract

The effect of increasing the intake of dietary fiber on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. In a randomized, crossover study, we assigned 13 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to follow two diets, each for six weeks: a diet containing moderate amounts of fiber (total, 24 g; 8 g of soluble fiber and 16 g of insoluble fiber), as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and a high-fiber diet (total, 50 g; 25 g of soluble fiber and 25 g of insoluble fiber), containing foods not fortified with fiber (unfortified foods). Both diets, prepared in a research kitchen, had the same macronutrient and energy content. We compared the effects of the two diets on glycemic control and plasma lipid concentrations. Compliance with the diets was excellent. During the sixth week, the high-fiber diet, as compared with the the sixth week of the ADA diet, mean daily preprandial plasma glucose concentrations were 13 mg per deciliter [0.7 mmol per liter] lower (95 percent confidence interval, 1 to 24 mg per deciliter [0.1 to 1.3 mmol per liter]; P=0.04) and mean median difference, daily urinary glucose excretion 1.3 g (0.23; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.83 g; P= 0.008). The high-fiber diet also lowered the area under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, which were measured every two hours, by 10 percent (P=0.02) and 12 percent (P=0.05), respectively. The high-fiber diet reduced plasma total cholesterol concentrations by 6.7 percent (P=0.02), triglyceride concentrations by 10.2 percent (P=0.02), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 12.5 percent (P=0.01). A high intake of dietary fiber, particularly of the soluble type, above the level recommended by the ADA, improves glycemic control, decreases hyperinsulinemia, and lowers plasma lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
1392
·
May 11, 2000
The New England Journal of Medicine
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FIBER INTAKE IN PATIENTS
WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
M
ANISHA
C
HANDALIA
, M.D., A
BHIMANYU
G
ARG
, M.D., D
IETER
L
UTJOHANN
, P
H
.D., K
LAUS
VON
B
ERGMANN
, M.D.,
S
COTT
M. G
RUNDY
, M.D., P
H
.D.,
AND
L
INDA
J. B
RINKLEY
, R.D.
A
BSTRACT
Background
The effect of increasing the intake of
dietary fiber on glycemic control in patients with type
2 diabetes mellitus is controversial.
Methods
In a randomized, crossover study, we as-
signed 13 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to
follow two diets, each for six weeks: a diet containing
moderate amounts of fiber (total, 24 g; 8 g of soluble
fiber and 16 g of insoluble fiber), as recommended by
the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and a high-
fiber diet (total, 50 g; 25 g of soluble fiber and 25 g
of insoluble fiber) containing foods not fortified with
fiber (unfortified foods). Both diets, prepared in a re-
search kitchen, had the same macronutrient and en-
ergy content. We compared the effects of the two diets
on glycemic control and plasma lipid concentrations.
Results
Compliance with the diets was excellent.
During the sixth week of the high-fiber diet, as com-
pared with the sixth week of the ADA diet, mean dai-
ly preprandial plasma glucose concentrations were 13
mg per deciliter (0.7 mmol per liter) lower (95 per-
cent confidence interval, 1 to 24 mg per deciliter [0.1
to 1.3 mmol per liter]; P=0.04) and mean daily uri-
nary glucose excretion was 1.3 g lower (median dif-
ference, 0.23 g; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.03
to 1.83; P=0.008). The high-fiber diet also lowered the
area under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and
insulin concentrations, which were measured every
two hours, by 10 percent (P=0.02) and 12 percent
(P=0.05), respectively. The high-fiber diet reduced
plasma total cholesterol concentrations by 6.7 per-
cent (P=0.02), triglyceride concentrations by 10.2
percent (P=0.02), and very-low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol concentrations by 12.5 percent (P=0.01).
Conclusions
A high intake of dietary fiber, partic-
ularly of the soluble type, above the level recommend-
ed by the ADA, improves glycemic control, decreases
hyperinsulinemia, and lowers plasma lipid concen-
trations in patients with type 2 diabetes. (N Engl J
Med 2000;342:1392-8.)
©2000, Massachusetts Medical Society.
From the Department of Internal Medicine (M.C., A.G., S.M.G., L.J.B.)
and the Center for Human Nutrition (A.G., S.M.G.), University of Texas
Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas; the Department of Veterans Affairs
Medical Center, Dallas (M.C., A.G., S.M.G.); and the Department of Clin-
ical Pharmacology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, Ger-
many (D.L., K.B.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Garg at the Center for
Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323
Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390.
IETARY guidelines for patients with dia-
betes mellitus were revised by the Amer-
ican Diabetes Association (ADA) earlier
this year.
1
The ADA recommends that the
composition of the diet be individualized on the basis
of a nutritional assessment and the outcomes desired.
Consistent with the previous recommendations of
the ADA,
2
the new guidelines advise replacing satu-
D
rated fat with carbohydrates. However, on the basis of
previous studies,
3-10
an alternative approach of replac-
ing saturated fat with cis monounsaturated fat was
also included in the recommendations.
1
This new ap-
proach is further supported by epidemiologic studies
that have shown the healthful effects of diets rich in cis
monounsaturated fat in Mediterranean countries.
11,12
Another, less strongly emphasized aspect of Med-
iterranean diets is the high intake of fruits, vegetables,
and grains that are rich sources of dietary fiber.
13,14
The ADA recommended a moderate increase in the
intake of dietary fiber to 20 to 35 g per day because
of the cholesterol-lowering effects of soluble fiber.
However, the effects of dietary fiber on glycemic con-
trol were considered inconsequential.
1
Furthermore,
the expert panel of the ADA considered it difficult
to achieve a high dietary intake of soluble fiber with-
out consuming foods or supplements fortified with
fiber.
1
We therefore designed the present study to de-
termine the effects on glycemic control and plasma
lipid concentrations of increasing the intake of die-
tary fiber in patients with type 2 diabetes exclusively
through the consumption of foods not fortified with
fiber (unfortified foods) to a level beyond that rec-
ommended by the ADA. In addition, we studied the
effects of such an intervention on the intestinal ab-
sorption of cholesterol and the fecal excretion of ster-
ols in an attempt to uncover the mechanisms by which
a high-fiber diet lowers plasma cholesterol.
METHODS
Patients
We studied 12 men and 1 woman (9 non-Hispanic whites and
4 blacks) with type 2 diabetes at the general clinical research center
of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
The protocol for the study was approved by the institutional re-
view board of the medical center, and each patient gave written
informed consent. In all patients the onset of diabetes was insid-
ious; the disease developed in most of the patients after 40 years
of age. Their mean (±SD) age was 61±9 years (range, 45 to 70).
Their mean body weight was 93.5±12.7 kg, and the mean body-
mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the
height in meters) was 32.3±3.9. Three patients were treated with
diet alone, and the other 10 patients were treated with 2.5 to 20
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Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FIBER INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Volume 342 Number 19
·
1393
mg of glyburide daily in addition to diet. The dose of glyburide
was not changed during the study.
On entry into the study, the patients’ plasma cholesterol and tri-
glyceride concentrations after an overnight fast ranged from 151
to 324 mg per deciliter (3.90 to 8.38 mmol per liter) and 67 to
390 mg per deciliter (0.76 to 4.40 mmol per liter), respectively,
and their fasting plasma glucose concentrations were less than
200 mg per deciliter (11.1 mmol per liter). Their glycosylated he-
moglobin values ranged from 6.0 to 9.8 percent. Two patients
had a history of coronary heart disease, but none had recently had
a myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, or congestive
heart failure. Also, none had thyroid, renal, or hepatic disease. None
of the patients were receiving lipid-lowering therapy.
Design of the Study
All the patients were first admitted to the general clinical re-
search center for five days (the base-line period), during which a
detailed history was taken, a physical examination was performed,
and laboratory tests were performed. After the base-line period, all
the patients received both the ADA diet and the high-fiber diet,
each diet for a period of six weeks. Six patients received the high-
fiber diet first, and the other seven received the ADA diet first.
There was a median interval of seven days between the two study
periods, during which the patients were instructed to consume an
isocaloric diet. During the last week of each dietary period (days
36 to 42), the patients were hospitalized for evaluation.
On weekdays, all the patients ate at least one meal (breakfast,
lunch, or dinner) at the general clinical research center. Other meals
were supplied in packages so that they could be consumed at home.
The dietitian monitored compliance by interviewing the patients.
The patients were instructed to bring back any unconsumed food
and to maintain a constant level of physical activity throughout the
study.
Blood for lipid analyses was drawn, after an overnight fast, daily
for two days before the institution of the study diet and daily on
days 38 through 42 during both dietary periods. Plasma glucose
was measured at 7 and 11 a.m. and at 4 and 8 p.m. each day dur-
ing the base-line period and on days 38 through 42 of both die-
tary periods. Glycosylated hemoglobin was measured during the
base-line period and at the end of each dietary period. On the
last day of each dietary period, blood samples were obtained ev-
ery two hours for measurements of plasma glucose and insulin.
On days 38 through 42, patients collected 24-hour urine speci-
mens for quantitative determination of glucose.
To permit us to determine fecal sterol balance and the percentage
of cholesterol absorption, each patient took a capsule containing
30 mg of sitostanol, 3 mg of [26,26, 26,27, 27,27-
2
H
6
]-cholesterol,
and 3 mg of [5,6,22,23-
2
H
4
]-sitostanol (Medical Isotopes, Pelham,
N.H.) three times a day on days 36 through 42. Fecal samples
were collected on day 35 or 36 and on the last three days of each
dietary period. Fecal samples were frozen within 12 hours after
collection and were pooled for analysis of small aliquots.
Diets
The composition of the study diets is shown in Table 1. The
composition of the diets was calculated by means of a software
program based on the Department of Agriculture Handbook Se-
ries 8 (Nutriplanner, Practocare, San Diego, Calif.).
15
The content
of total as well as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber was estimated
according to the data provided in the
CRC Handbook of Dietary
Fiber in Human Nutrition.
16
Both diets consisted of unfortified
foods. The patients were allowed some choices of food items.
Both diets provided 15 percent of the total energy as protein, 55
percent as carbohydrate, and 30 percent as fat; saturated, cis mono-
unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats accounted for 7 percent, 17
percent, and 6 percent of the total energy, respectively.
The high-fiber diet provided 50 g of total fiber per day; soluble
and insoluble fiber content provided 25 g each. The ADA diet
contained 24 g of total fiber per day, with 8 g as soluble fiber and
16 g as insoluble fiber. Unfortified foods, particularly those rich
*ADA denotes American Diabetes Association.
T
ABLE
1.
C
OMPOSITION
OF
THE
S
TUDY
D
IETS
.
C
ONSTITUENT
ADA
D
IET
*
H
IGH
-F
IBER
D
IET
Carbohydrate (% of total energy) 55 55
Protein (% of total energy) 15 15
Fat (% of total energy)
Saturated
Cis monounsaturated
Polyunsaturated
30
7
17
6
30
7
17
6
Cholesterol (mg/day) 300 297
Fiber (g/day)
Total
Soluble
Insoluble
24
8
16
50
25
25
*Each menu provided 2308 kcal per day. ADA denotes American Dia-
betes Association.
T
ABLE
2.
S
AMPLE
M
ENUS
OF
THE
S
TUDY
D
IETS
.*
ADA D
IET
H
IGH
-F
IBER
D
IET
FOOD WEIGHT FOOD WEIGHT
grams grams
Breakfast
Orange juice 220 Orange sections 300
White grits 50 Oatmeal 50
Egg substitute 40 Scrambled egg 37
Olive oil 10 Olive oil 10
Decaffeinated coffee 2 Decaffeinated cof fee 2
Lunch
Ham (5% fat) 50 Ham (5% fat) 52
Mayonnaise 6 Mayonnaise 12
Iceberg lettuce 15 Iceberg lettuce 10
Fresh tomato 30 Fresh tomato 15
Low-sodium bread 60 Whole-wheat bread 60
Corn (canned) 140 Corn (canned) 40
Cider vinegar 5 Green peas (canned) 110
Dehydrated onion 2 Dehydrated onion 2
Olive oil 10 Olive oil 10
Fresh green pepper 10 Fresh green pepper 10
Fresh celery 15 Fresh celer y 15
Fruit cocktail (canned) 105 Fresh papaya 250
Instant tea 2 Instant tea 2
Oatmeal raisin cookie 20
Dinner
Chicken breast (skinned) 90 Chicken breast (skinned) 90
Bran flakes 10 Bran flakes 10
Low-sodium bread 20 Oat bran 5
Parmesan cheese 1 Parmesan cheese 1
Whole egg 1 Egg substitute 10
Tomato (canned) 120 Tomato (canned) 105
Low-fat cheese 11 Low-fat cheese 19
Spaghetti 45 Spaghetti 19
Green beans 75 Zucchini 195
Olive oil 17 Olive oil 19
Whole-wheat bread 21 Whole-wheat bread 30
Graham crackers 21 Fresh peaches 300
Instant tea 2 Instant tea 2
Bedtime snack
Mozzarella cheese 30 Fruit cocktail (canned) 200
Low-sodium bread 30 Cherries (canned) 100
Pineapple juice 190 Granola 15
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Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
1394
·
May 11, 2000
The New England Journal of Medicine
in soluble fiber, such as cantaloupe, grapefruit, orange, papaya, rai-
sins, lima beans, okra, sweet potato, winter squash, zucchini, gra-
nola, oat bran, and oatmeal, were used to achieve high-fiber intake.
No fiber supplements were used. Sample menus of both the study
diets are shown in Table 2. The individual foods were weighed
daily during meal preparation in the research kitchen of the gen-
eral clinical research center.
Biochemical Analyses
Fasting plasma total cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and tri-
glycerides were measured according to the procedures of the Lip-
id Research Clinics.
17
Cholesterol and triglycerides were measured
enzymatically with the use of kits (Boehringer Mannheim, Indi-
anapolis). Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (density, less
than 1.006 g per milliliter) were removed by ultracentrifugation,
and cholesterol was measured in the VLDL fraction and the in-
franatant. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was meas-
ured enzymatically after lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B
had been precipitated with heparin–manganese. Cholesterol in
the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction was estimated to be
the difference between the cholesterol content of the infranatant
and that of the HDL fraction.
Plasma and urinary glucose were measured by the glucose ox-
idase method (Beckman Glucose Analyzer, Beckman Instruments,
Fullerton, Calif.). Glycosylated hemoglobin was measured with
ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (Bio-Rad
Laboratories, Hercules, Calif.). Plasma insulin was measured by
radioimmunoassay.
18,19
Pooled fecal samples collected within the last week of each die-
tary period were prepared for analysis of neutral and acidic fecal
sterols as described previously.
20
Gas–liquid chromatography of
neutral and acidic fecal sterols was performed on a gas chromato-
graph (model HP5890, Hewlett–Packard, Palo Alto, Calif.)
equipped with an automatic sample injector. Cholesterol absorp-
tion was measured during the same period from fecal samples by
gas–liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
21
Statistical Analysis
To compare the two study periods and to assess the effect of
the sequence in which the patients received the high-fiber and
ADA diets, we used repeated-measures analysis of variance.
22
For
skewed data, we used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare
the two dietary periods.
23
RESULTS
The compliance with both the study diets was ex-
cellent, according to interviews with the patients and
estimates of the energy content of any leftover foods.
Three patients reported consuming extra food on
one day during the study, two while eating the high-
fiber diet and one the ADA diet. The patients com-
mented about the larger quantities of food in the
high-fiber diet, but they consumed all the food giv-
en to them. The results are presented irrespective of
the order of the diets, because the sequence of the
diets had no effect on the results.
During the last week of each study period, the pa-
tients in both groups had similar daily energy intakes
and body weights and received a similar dose of gly-
buride (Table 3). The mean plasma glucose concen-
tration was lower (by 13 mg per deciliter [0.7 mmol
per liter], or 8.9 percent) when patients completed
the high-fiber diet than when they completed the
ADA diet (P=0.04), and mean daily urinary glucose
excretion was 1.3 g lower (P=0.008). Daily plasma
glucose concentrations were 10 percent lower with
the high-fiber diet than with the ADA diet (values
for the area under the curve, 3743±944 vs. 3365±
1003 mg·hour per deciliter [207.8±52.4 vs. 186.8±
55.7 mmol·hour per liter]; P=0.02), and plasma in-
sulin concentrations were 12 percent lower (values
for the area under the curve, 1107±650 vs. 971±
491 µ hour per milliliter [6642±3900 vs. 5826±
2946 pmol·hour per liter]; P=0.05) (Fig. 1). Gly-
*Plus–minus values are means ±SD. ADA denotes American Diabetes Association, and CI confi-
dence interval.
†An analysis of variance was used to compare the two diets, except for urinary glucose, for which
the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used.
‡The values are averages of plasma glucose concentrations measured at 7 and 11 a.m. and at 4 and
8 p.m. each day for five days during hospitalization. To convert values for plasma glucose to milli-
moles per liter, multiply by 0.056.
§The values are averages of five daily urine collections during hospitalization.
T
ABLE
3.
M
ETABOLIC
V
ARIABLES
DURING
THE
L
AST
W
EEK
OF
THE
S
TUDY
P
ERIODS
(D
AYS
38
THROUGH
42).*
V
ARIABLE
ADA D
IET
H
IGH
-F
IBER
D
IET
D
IFFERENCE
BETWEEN
D
IETS
(95% CI) P V
ALUE
Energy intake (kcal/day) 2308±236 2308±236 1.00
Weight (kg) 90.7±13.3 90.5±12.7 ¡0.2 (¡1.1 to 0.6) 0.60
Dose of glyburide (mg/day) 10.0±8.7 10.0±8.7 1.00
Plasma glucose (mg/deciliter)‡ 142±36 130±38 ¡13 (¡24 to ¡1) 0.04
Urinary glucose (g/day)
Mean
Median§
2.3±4.3
0.76
1.0±1.9
0.0
¡0.23 (¡1.83 to ¡0.03)
0.008
Glycosylated hemoglobin (%) 7.2±1.3 6.9±1.2 ¡0.3 (¡0.6 to 0.1) 0.09
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Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FIBER INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Volume 342 Number 19
·
1395
cosylated hemoglobin values were slightly lower af-
ter the high-fiber diet (P=0.09).
As compared with the ADA diet, the high-fiber
diet resulted in a lower fasting plasma total cholester-
ol concentration (by 6.7 percent, P=0.02), a lower
plasma triglyceride concentration (by 10.2 percent,
P=0.02), and a lower plasma VLDL cholesterol con-
centration (by 12.5 percent, P=0.01) (Table 4). The
fasting plasma LDL cholesterol concentration was
6.3 percent lower with the high-fiber diet (P=0.11).
There were no significant differences between the
two diets in terms of the fasting plasma HDL cho-
lesterol concentration.
As compared with the ADA diet, the high-fiber
diet decreased gastrointestinal absorption of choles-
terol by 10 percent (48.5±9.6 vs. 43.7±7.4 percent;
95 percent confidence interval for the decrease, 0.6
to 9.0 percent; P=0.03) and increased fecal acidic
sterol excretion by 41 percent (895±301 vs. 1258±
458 mg per day; 95 percent confidence interval for
the increase, 137 to 589 mg per day; P=0.005), but
did not significantly affect the excretion of neutral
Figure 1.
Mean (±SE) 24-Hour Profile of Plasma Glucose Concentrations (Panel A) and Insulin Concen-
trations (Panel B) during the Last Day of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Diet and the Last
Day of the High-Fiber Diet in 13 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
The arrows indicate the times at which the main meals and a snack were consumed during the day.
To convert values for glucose to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.056. To convert values for insulin to
picomoles per liter, multiply by 6.
0
100
7 a.m.
7 a.m.
20
40
60
80
9 a.m.
11 a.m.
1 p.m.
3 p.m.
5 p.m.
7 p.m.
9 p.m.
11 p.m.
1 a.m.
3 a.m.
5 a.m.
Time
B
High-fiber diet
ADA diet
Plasma Insulin (mU/ml)
100
240
7 a.m.
7 a.m.
120
140
160
180
200
220
9 a.m.
11 a.m.
1 p.m.
3 p.m.
5 p.m.
7 p.m.
9 p.m.
11 p.m.
1 a.m.
3 a.m.
5 a.m.
A
High-fiber diet
P<0.05 P<0.05
P<0.05
ADA diet
Plasma Glucose (mg/dl)
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Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
1396
·
May 11, 2000
The New England Journal of Medicine
sterols (1052±375 vs. 1122±565 mg per day; 95
percent confidence interval for the difference, ¡194
to 334 mg per day; P=0.60).
DISCUSSION
The intake of dietary fiber among people living in
Western countries remains low, and according to the
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey (NHANES), it averages 17 g per day in the
United States.
24
Although patients with diabetes are
advised to increase their intake of dietary fiber, in
the NHANES study, their average daily intake was
found to be only 16 g.
24
Why the intake of dietary
fiber in patients with diabetes remains low — despite
its well-documented effect of lowering plasma cho-
lesterol concentrations — remains unexplained. It is
possible that the controversy about whether there
are beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glycemic con-
trol reduces the enthusiasm of physicians and dieti-
tians for recommending high-fiber diets. The main
purpose of our study was to investigate the effects
on glycemic control of increasing the intake of die-
tary fiber. To avoid the confounding effects of con-
comitant changes in energy and macronutrients, the
two study diets were isocaloric and the macronutri-
ent composition of the diets was identical. Further-
more, unfortified foods were used as the source of
dietary fiber.
Most important, we found that the high-fiber diet
improved glycemic control, as evidenced by decreases
in the mean daily preprandial and 24-hour plasma
glucose concentrations. Urinary glucose excretion
was also lowered by the high-fiber diet. The high-
fiber diet lowered glycosylated hemoglobin values
slightly but not significantly. The high-fiber diet also
lowered 24-hour plasma insulin concentrations.
The results of previous studies that evaluated the
role of dietary fiber on glycemic control in patients
with type 2 diabetes were inconsistent. In some of the
studies, the lack of control for concomitant changes
in the intake of macronutrients makes the data diffi-
cult to interpret. For example, in the study by Kiehm
et al.
25
and in that by Simpson et al.,
26
the high-fiber
diet had a lower fat and higher carbohydrate content
than the low-fiber diet. In other studies, the inter-
pretation of the results was confounded by the short
duration of the dietary intervention,
27-29
the lack of
random assignment of the sequence of the high-fiber
and low-fiber diets,
27,29
and unexplained weight loss
during the high-fiber diet.
29
Only a few well-controlled studies have evaluated
the glycemic effects of increasing the intake of die-
tary fiber with the use of either preparations of re-
fined concentrated fiber or unfortified food, and the
results have been inconsistent.
1,30
For example, diets
that included 15 to 21 g of guar-gum fiber or oat-bran
concentrate per day had no effect on glycemic con-
trol
31,32
or resulted in only a slight improvement.
33,34
In randomized, crossover trials of six weeks’ duration
in which the intake of dietary fiber was increased by
16 g per 1000 kcal through the consumption of
foods prepared in a research kitchen or by 14 g per
day through dietary instruction, there was no im-
provement in glycemic control.
35,36
In contrast, in-
creasing dietary fiber by 23 g for three weeks and by
30 g for six weeks resulted in decreased fasting and
postprandial plasma glucose concentrations.
37,38
We
found that an increase in the intake of total dietary
fiber, which consisted predominantly of soluble fi-
ber, significantly improved glycemic control and de-
creased the degree of hyperinsulinemia in patients
with type 2 diabetes.
Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of
achieving a high intake of dietary soluble fiber by con-
suming unfortified foods. Our patients accepted the
high-fiber diet well and had few side effects; there-
fore, we recommend that patients with diabetes be
encouraged to use unfortified foods instead of less
palatable purified-fiber preparations and supplements
to increase their intake of dietary fiber.
The mechanisms of the improved glycemic con-
trol associated with high fiber intake remain unde-
fined. Whether this effect is due to an increase in
soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, or both is unclear. Be-
sides causing increased fecal excretion of bile acids,
dietary fiber may cause malabsorption of fat.
39
How-
ever, in our study, the patients’ weight did not change
with the high-fiber diet, which suggests that the de-
gree of reduction in the absorption of fat was insig-
nificant. Another possibility is that dietary fiber im-
proves glycemic control by reducing or delaying the
absorption of carbohydrates.
As expected, the high-fiber diet reduced plasma
total cholesterol concentrations by 6.7 percent, a
*Plus–minus values are means ±SD. To convert values for cholesterol
and triglycerides to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.026 and 0.011, re-
spectively. ADA denotes American Diabetes Association, CI confidence in-
terval, VLDL very-low-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein,
and HDL high-density lipoprotein.
†An analysis of variance was used to compare the two diets.
T
ABLE
4.
F
ASTING
P
LASMA
L
IPID AND LIPOPROTEIN
CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE LAST WEEK
OF THE STUDY PERIODS (DAYS 38 THROUGH 42).*
VARIABLE
ADA
DIET
HIGH-
FIBER DIET
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
DIETS (95% CI)
P
VALUE
mg/dl
Plasma total cholesterol 210±33 196±31 ¡14 (¡27 to ¡2) 0.02
Plasma triglycerides 205±95 184±76 ¡21 (¡37 to ¡4) 0.02
Plasma VLDL cholesterol 40±19 35±16 ¡5 (¡9 to ¡1) 0.01
Plasma LDL cholesterol 142±29 133±29 ¡9 (¡22 to 3) 0.11
Plasma HDL cholesterol 29±7 28±4 ¡1 (¡4 to 3) 0.80
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Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FIBER INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Volume 342 Number 19 ·1397
finding consistent with the results of previous reports
of the cholesterol-reducing effects of soluble but not
insoluble fiber.40,41 Therefore, the lowering of cho-
lesterol can be attributed primarily to an average in-
crease of 17 g in the intake of soluble fiber. Previous
studies in normal subjects have reported no effects
of the amount of dietary fiber on plasma triglyceride
concentrations.42 In our study, the decrease in plas-
ma triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol concentrations
during the high-fiber diet could have been due to
the improvement in glycemic control.
The mechanisms of the reduction in plasma cho-
lesterol concentrations induced by the increased di-
etary fiber intake are controversial, however. The in-
crease in bile-acid excretion probably explains most of
the reduction, and the reduction in cholesterol ab-
sorption may also have contributed to this finding.
Previous studies have also reported a variable increase
in bile-acid excretion resulting from the consump-
tion of pectin,39,43 oat bran,4 4,45 bagasse,46 and diets
with a mixture of soluble fiber and insoluble fiber,47
but not psyllium.48 In contrast, Kesaniemi et al.47 re-
ported that a high-fiber diet did not change choles-
terol absorption in normal subjects. However, the
high-fiber diet they used included 26 g of fiber, and
it did not lower plasma cholesterol concentrations.47
In conclusion, an increase in the intake of dietary
fiber, predominantly of the soluble type, by patients
with type 2 diabetes mellitus improved glycemic con-
trol and decreased hyperinsulinemia in addition to
the expected lowering of plasma lipid concentrations.
Therefore, dietary guidelines for patients with diabe-
tes should emphasize an overall increase in dietary fi-
ber through the consumption of unfortified foods,
rather than the use of fiber supplements.
Supported in part by grants (M01-RR00633 and HL-29252) from the
National Institutes of Health and by research grants from the Bundesmin-
isterium für Bildung, Forschung, Wissenschaft und Technologie (01EC9402)
and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (BE 1673/1-1).
We are indebted to Angela Osborn, Travis Petricek, and the nurs-
ing and dietetic ser vice of the General Clinical Research Center of
the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, for
their excellent technical support and to Beverley Adams-Huet, M.S.,
for statistical analysis.
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... Dentre os nutrientes que contribuem para o controle glicêmico destacam-se as fibras alimentares, principalmente as do tipo solúvel, pois contribuem para o retardo e redução da absorção intestinal de carboidratos devido à sua capacidade de absorver água e formar gel (CHANDALIA et al., 2000). O gerenciamento e triagem inicial das publicações foram feitos pela exportação do resultado das buscas para a plataforma Rayyan (OUZZANI et al., 2016). ...
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INTRODUÇÃO: O diabetes mellitus é um dos maiores problemas de saúde da atualidade e a quarta maior causa de morte no Brasil, ao considerar tanto o número de pessoas afetadas, incapacitadas ou óbitos, quanto o alto investimento do sistema de saúde na gestão e tratamento de suas complicações. Dentre os nutrientes que contribuem para o controle glicêmico na prevenção e no tratamento da doença, destacam-se as fibras alimentares que retardam e reduzem a absorção intestinal de carboidratos. OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou investigar a eficácia da fibra dietética no controle glicêmico por meio dos seguintes parâmetros: glicemia, hemoglobina glicada, insulinemia e HOMA-IR em diferentes tipos de diabetes mellitus ou em situações de risco para o desenvolvimento da doença. MÉTODOS: Tratou-se de revisão de literatura integrativa com publicações indexadas nas base de dados SciELO, CAPES Periódicos, PubMed e LILACS em português e inglês, considerando a estratégia PICOT. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Dos nove estudos selecionados, sete compreenderam sujeitos com diagnóstico de diabetes tipo 2, um delescom portadoras diabetes gestacional e um único delineado considerando sujeitos com risco, mas ainda sem diagnóstico. Apenas um deles não demonstrou resultado positivo no controle dos parâmetros ao restringir frutas em diabéticos tipo 2. A oferta de fibras via alimentar ou suplementar demonstrou redução nos desfechos analisados, quando comparados ao baseline e/ou grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A ingestão de fibras totais e principalmente as do tipo solúvel apresentaram eficácia no controle glicêmico nos marcadores analisados, seja na oferta de alimentos com alto teor de fibras, seja por meio de suplementação, com alteração nos biomarcadores do perfil glicêmico analisados. Dentre as fibras que apresentaram efeito positivo estão o psyllium, goma guarparcialmente hidrolisada, inulina e dextrina resistente. Por outro lado, a restrição de frutas para pacientes diabéticos demonstrou não ser eficaz na redução dos níveis de hemoglobina glicada.
... Dietary fibers (DFs) have received increasing attention due to their potential health benefits, and are frequently added to dietary supplements. DFs reduce the risk of health problems such as obesity, 3) hypertension, 4) constipation, 5) type 2 diabetes, 5,6) and hyperlipidemia. 5,7) Some DFs are used as food ingredients to achieve certain health benefits. ...
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We studied the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on the levels of free hypoglycemic agents in vitro, i.e., glimepiride and the biguanides buformin and metformin. The levels of free buformin and free metformin were not affected by mixtures of DFs, i.e., cellulose, chitosan, pectin (PE), and glucomannan (GM), in fluids of pH 1.2 and 6.8 (similar to the pH of the stomach and intestines, respectively). However, the free biguanide level was significantly reduced by mixing with PE or sodium alginate (AL), in water. The free glimepiride level was reduced in the mixture of AL, PE, and GM (in a solution with a pH of 6.8). The changes in aqueous AL solution pH seemed to reflect the free metformin levels. Therefore, the effects of DFs on free drug levels were dependent on drug type, hypoglycemic agent, and mixing solution. In this study, the oral regimen concentrations of the drug and DFs were used. Based on these results, it is important to consider the interactions between hypoglycemic agents and DFs. Fullsize Image
... Second, short-chain fatty acids generated by dietary fiber fermentation are thought to modulate the inflammatory response (Maslowski et al., 2009), which is an important mediator in depression (Berk et al., 2013). Third, postprandial hyperglycemia may cause an increase in oxidative stress, whereas dietary fiber reduces postprandial plasma glucose, which might help to decrease inflammation (Chandalia et al., 2000;Qi and Hu, 2007). By controlling intestinal flora, dietary fiber has been shown to improve unpleasant feelings (Koh et al., 2016), consequently improving the intestinal-brain axis in depressed patients. ...
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Background Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both serious public health problems, with morbidity and mortality in people increasing year by year, resulting in a heavy economic burden. A correlation between dietary fiber and both has been reported. Nevertheless, few data are available concerning dietary fiber and the risk of depression with or without T2D, which deserve further attention. Materials and Methods We assessed the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of depression with or without T2D in the 2007–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population. A 24-h dietary review was used to assess fiber intake. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression. Stability of the results was assessed using restricted cubic spline models and logistic regression, as well as sensitivity analyses. Results A total of 17,866 adults aged 20 years and older with a mean age of 49.3 ± 17.7 years were included in this study, of whom 49.5% were male. After adjusting for covariates, the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of depression appeared to differ between non-T2D group and T2D group (OR, 0.987; 95% CI, 0.979–0.995 vs. OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.988–1.017). Furthermore, when dietary fiber was converted to a categorical variable, there was evidence of interaction between T2D status and fiber intake on decreasing the prevalence of depression ( P -value for interaction = 0.015). Sensitivity analysis showed stable results. Conclusion Our findings indicated that whether a patient has T2D may affect the relationship between dietary fiber intake and the risk of depression, which still needs to be confirmed by further randomized controlled trials.
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... Studies have shown that dietary fiber promotes beneficial physiological effects such as defecation, lowered blood cholesterol and postprandial glucose regulation [22][23][24][25]. High-fiber diets not only improve diabetes control, but also reduce insulin requirements and the incidence of complications [26][27][28]. ...
As the global trend of diabetes intensifies, the burden of vision-threatening retinopathy, particularly diabetic retinopathy (DR), is increasing. There is an urgent need to seek strategies for early prevention and control of DR. This study attempted to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between dietary nutrient intake and the risk of DR to provide assistance for doctors in guiding the diet of diabetic patients. Data from eligible participants with diabetes from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003-2018 were analyzed. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between 58 dietary nutrient intakes and self-reported eye disease risk. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to further evaluate the relationship between the two groups after adjusting relevant confounding factors. A total of 4595 diabetic patients were included. People with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had lower dietary fiber, butanoic, octanoic, vitamin A, alpha-carotene, folate, magnesium, copper and caffeine intake compared to those without self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy. The pooled ORs (95% CIs) were 0.78 (0.62-0.98), 0.79 (0.63-0.99), 0.72 (0.58-0.91), 0.74 (0.59-0.93), 0.70 (0.55-0.88), 075 (0.60-0.95), 0.79 (0.64-0.99), 0.67 (0.54-0.84) and 0.80 (0.64-0.99). Dietary cholesterol and hexadecenoic intake were higher, with the pooled ORs (95% CIs) of 1.26 (1.01-1.58) and 1.27 (1.02-1.59), respectively. Our research found that among dietary nutrients, dietary fiber, butanoic, octanoic, vitamin A, alpha-carotene, folate, magnesium, copper and caffeine intake reduced the occurrence of DR. Cholesterol and hexadecenoic intake promoted the occurrence of DR. This suggests that certain dietary nutrients should be paid more attention in the prevention of DR.
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Background: Intervention and epidemiological studies have shown that nut consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, and hyperlipidemia. The aim of this review is to investigate the effects of nut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart diseases. In addition, we investigated possible mediating mechanisms through which nuts act with health protective effects, which could have a preventive effect on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery diseases.Method: We collected accredited international investigations, whether original, review, meta-analysis that published data in Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and Research Gate databases.Result:Some human studies and most animal and laboratory studies reported that favorable effects of nut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are through their nutrient profile including polyphenols, unsaturated fatty acid, vitamins, phytosterols, minerals, fibers, and protein. Nut nutrient profile could act through reduction inflammation, inhibition oxidative stress, gut microbiota modification, improvement of endothelial function, modulating gene expression, miRNA, adipokines, insulin secretion, lipid and glucose metabolism, and decreasing cholesterol absorption.Conclusion:Nuts have favorably acted on lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, vascular health, and weight control. Furthermore, human clinical trials are needed to find the exact and most effective pathways by which nuts prevent or reduce cardiovascular risk factors.Keywords: Nut Consumption, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, hyperlipidemia
Chapter
Opuntia , a genus of the Cactaceae family, has been used for centuries as a medicinal plant, with different parts of the plant, including whole fruit, pulp, flowers, seeds, peels, and cladodes. Opuntia spp., cultivated or wild, can be found in various agro‐climatic conditions, although often associated with warm climate. A dozen species are cultivated for fruit production ( O. ficus‐indica, O. amyclae, O. xoconostle, O. megacantha , and O. streptacantha ), although O. ficus‐indica is the most known, as prickly pear fruit, and is available across the five continents from early summer until late autumn. The peculiar general Opuntia anatomy and physiology, and O. ficus‐indica specifically, make it a multipurpose dryland crop destined to become more important in view of an ever increasing world population and water and land scarcity. Opuntia fruits contain polyphenols and betalains, promising protective agents against inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic‐related diseases. Cladodes are not only rich in polyphenols but also contain polysaccharides and soluble fibers that are able to counteract hyperglycemia and related physiological disorders. This chapter reports the latest finding on the health properties of fruit, cladode, flower, and seed from Opuntia plants, related to the bioactive compounds, and the mechanisms of action so far identified or hypothesized. Moreover, the potential uses of Opuntia fruit and cladode are reported, not only for health and disease but also for food applications.
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The effect of residual rice bran (HDRB), obtained by compression, on the onset of diabetes was evaluated in KK-Ay/Ta mice. The HDRB contained approximately 10% oil. However, the inclusion of HDRB in the diet, at a level corresponding to an ingestable amount of brown rice per day, did not increase the body weight. In mice fed an HDRB diet, the postprandial blood glucose levels reduced significantly, whereas insulin secretion decreased slightly. HDRB also contributed to a decrease in the levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which is an oxidative stress marker. Thus, the results of our short-term experiment suggest that the intake of HDRB produced by compression, at a level equivalent to the amount of brown rice consumed per day, is effective in controlling the onset of diabetes.
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This study aimed to evaluate whether dietary fiber content and density were associated with female infertility in the USA. Data on current dietary fiber and current or past female infertility were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) in 2013–2014, 2015–2016, and 2017–2018 cycles. Infertility was identified with the question “Have you ever tried a year to become pregnant: ever attempted to become pregnant over a period of at least a year without becoming pregnant?” The association between dietary fiber and female infertility was analyzed by weighted multivariate logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the body mass index (BMI) of women. False discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P values (q values) < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Totally 2370 women were eligible for analysis. Dietary fiber content was negatively associated with female infertility [odds ratio (OR) = 0.643, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.480–0.861, P = 0.004, q = 0.020]. Dietary fiber density was not associated with the odds of female infertility (OR = 0.734, 95% CI = 0.573–0.941, P = 0.016, q = 0.079). Subgroup analysis exhibited that dietary fiber content was not associated with infertility in underweight and normal-weight (OR = 0.620, 95% CI = 0.332–1.157, P = 0.130, q = 0.467) and overweight (OR = 0.764, 95% CI = 0.523–1.117, P = 0.160, q = 0.553) women; dietary fiber content was inversely associated with infertility in obese women (OR = 0.610, 95% CI = 0.443–0.841, P = 0.003, q = 0.015). There were no significant associations between dietary fiber density and female infertility in underweight and normal-weight (OR = 0.673, 95% CI = 0.393–1.153, P = 0.146, q = 0.410), overweight (OR = 0.769, 95% CI = 0.534–1.107, P = 0.153, q = 0.523), and obese (OR = 0.753, 95% CI = 0.581–0.975, P = 0.032, q = 0.160) populations. In conclusion, a negative association was found between dietary fiber content and female infertility especially among obese women. Future studies are warranted to confirm our findings and the causal relationship between dietary fiber, obesity, and female infertility.
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Keys, A. (84060 Pioppi (SA), Italy), A. Menotti, M. J. Karvonen, C. Aravanis, H. Blackburn, R. Buzina, B. S. Djordjevlc, A. S. Dontas, F. Fldanza, M. H. Keys, D. Kromhout, S. Nedeljkovic, S. Punsar, F. Seccareccia, and H. Toshima. The diet and 15-year death rate In the Seven Countries Study. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124:903–15 In 15 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, comprising 11,579 men aged 40-years and “healthy” at entry, 2,288 died In 15 years. Death rates differed among cohorts. Differences In mean age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking habits “explained” 46% of variance in death rate from all causes, 80% from coronary heart dIsease, 35% from cancer, and 45% from stroke. Death rate differences were unrelated to cohort differences in mean relative body weIght. fatness, and physical activity. The cohorts differed in average dIets. Death rates were related positively to average percentage of dIetary energy from saturated fatty acids, negatively to dietary energy percentage from monounsaturated fatty acids, and were unrelated to dietary energy percentage from polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alcohol. All death rates were negatively related to the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Inclusion of that ratio with age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smokIng habits as inde pendent variables accounted for 85% of variance In rates of deaths from all causes, 96% coronary heart dIsease, 55% cancer, and 66% stroke. Oleic acid accounted for almost all dIfferences In monounsaturates among cohorts. All- cause and coronary heart disease death rates were low In cohorts with olive oil the main fat Causal relationshIps are not claimed but consideration of characteristics of populations as well as of Individuals withIn populations is urged evaluating risks.
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1. The effect of dietary fibre digestion in the human gut on its ability to alter bowel habit and impair mineral absorption has been investigated using the technique of metabolic balance. 2. Five healthy male students were studied for 9 weeks under controlled dietary conditions and during the last 6 weeks they took 36 g pectin/d. Bowel habit, transit through the gut, faecal fibre excretion, calcium balance and faecal composition were measured. 3. During the control period only 15% of the dietary fibre ingested was excreted in the stools and when pectin was added to the diet there was no increase in fibre excretion. Stool frequency and mean transit time were unchanged by pectin but stool wet weight increased by 33% and faecal excretion increased (%) for fatty acids 80, nitrogen 47, total dry matter 28 and bile acids 35. Ca balance remained unchanged. 4. It may be concluded from these results that dietary fibre is largely metabolized in the human gut and dietary pectin completely so. This could explain its lack of effect on bowel habit and Ca balance. Other changes in the faeces may be related to an increase in bacterial mass.
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