We investigated the presence of osteocyte apoptosis in the necrotic trabeculae of the femoral head of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) using the in situ nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and transmission electron microscopy. The occurrence of osteonecrosis and ossification disturbance was significantly higher in SHR compared with Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and Wistar (WT) rats used as control animals (P < 0.01). A high population of TUNEL positive osteocytes was detected mainly in 10- and 15-week-old SHRs. Sectioned examination of the femoral head of SHRs and WKY rats by electron microscopy revealed apoptotic cell appearances such as aggregation of chromatin particles and lipid formation. In contrast, a positive reaction was significantly lower in osteocytes in the femoral heads of WT rats (P < 0.01). Our results indicate that apoptosis forms an important component of the global pathologic process affecting the femoral head of SHR, which leads to osteonecrosis in this region.
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"Kabata and his colleagues demonstrated extensive osteocyte apoptosis in a rabbit model of GC-induced ON . Shibahara et al. also reported the presence of a large number of apoptotic osteocytes around necrotic areas . In the present study, we observed that apoptosis occurred at the level of osteocytes, osteoblasts, and bone marrow cells in the early stages of GC-induced ON lesions in three strains of inbred rats: Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth and Spontaneous Hypertensive. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteonecrosis (ON) is an important complication of medical therapy. The exact pathomechanisms of ON has not been clearly elucidated. There is a need for a reproducible animal model that better approximates the clinical scenario.
To determine the genetic susceptibility of rats to develop GC-induced femoral head ON, we evaluated 5 different inbred strains of rats (Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth, SASCO Fisher and Lewis). Prednisone pellets (dosage of 1.82-2.56 mg/kg/day) were implanted subcutaneously for 90. After 90 days, the femurs were resected and examined histologically and radiographically. Pathological and histological examination was performed. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining was used to delineate the femoral head osteonecrosis lesions as well as abnormalities of articular cartilage and growth plate.
The greatest differences in H & E staining were seen in the Wistar Kyoto and Wistar Furth groups. In these groups 4 out of 5 and 3 out of 5, respectively, steroid-induced rats revealed growth plate disruption with acellular areas. The TUNEL apoptosis staining assay for apoptosis revealed that 4 out of 5 of Wistar Kyoto rats, 5 out of 5 of Wistar Furth, 2 out of 4 of surviving Lewis and 2 out of 2 of the surviving spontaneous hypertensive rats had apoptotic osteocytes in trabeculae, whereas none of the Fisher rats showed apoptotic osteocytes.
We postulate that Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth and spontaneous hypertensive rats may be strains of rats more susceptible to develop ON of the femoral head while Fisher rats were the most resistant.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
"Weinstein et al. reported that the number of apoptotic bone cells increased significantly in mice after steroid administration . Recent studies have shown apoptotic cells in clinical and animal models of GC-induced ANFH [26,29,30]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) occurs variably after exposure to corticosteroids. Microvascular thrombosis is a common pathological finding. Since systemic thrombophilia is only weakly linked with ANFH, we propose that microvascular vessel pathology may be more related to local endothelial dysfunction and femoral head apoptosis. Corticosteroid effects on the endothelium and resultant apoptosis have been reported. We hypothesize that corticosteroids contribute to a differential gene expression in the femoral head in rats with early ANFH.
Besides bone marrow necrosis, which is a common sign in ANFH and reported in the early stages, we include the presence of apoptosis in this study as a criterion for diagnosing early disease. Forty Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomized to either a corticosteroid-treated group or an age-matched control group for six months. After sacrifice, the femoral heads were examined for ANFH. Total mRNA was extracted from femoral heads. Affymetrix exon array (Santa Clara, CA, USA) was performed on 15 selected RNA samples. Validation methods included RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Although rat exon array demonstrated a significant upregulation of 51 genes (corticosteroid(+)/ANFH(+) VS control), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene was particularly over-expressed. Results were validated by RT-PCR and IHC. Importantly, A2M is known to share vascular, osteogenic and cartilage functions relevant for ANFH.
The findings suggest that corticosteroid-induced ANFH in rats might be mediated by A2M. Investigation of A2M as a potential marker, and a treatment target, for early ANFH should be carried out.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Arthritis research & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonhuman animal research is advantageous only if the ethical dilemma surrounding the use of live animals for this purpose is resolved in one's laboratory and institution. Investigators have struggled in creating an animal model of the disease that realistically mimics the natural course of the disease in humans. It has been exceptionally difficult to develop a model that proves capable of progressing to the end-stage condition of frank mechanical collapse that occurs in humans. This paper attempts to describe the significant findings of various animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and their key methodologies that could assist in the development of that elusive ideal model.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Techniques in Orthopaedics