The effectiveness of the Minnesota Model for treating adolescent drug abusers

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 05/2000; 95(4):601-12. DOI: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.95460111.x
Source: PubMed


The treatment outcome of drug-abusing adolescents treated with a 12-Step approach.
The study compares drug use outcome data at 6 and 12 months post-treatment among three groups of adolescents: those who completed treatment, those who did not and those on a waiting list. Also, among treatment completers, residential and outpatient samples were compared on outcome.
The treatment site is located in the Minneapolis/St Paul area of Minnesota.
Two hundred and forty-five drug clinic-referred adolescents (12-18 years old), all of whom met at least one DSM-III-R substance dependence disorder. One hundred and seventy-nine subjects received either complete or incomplete 12-Step, Minnesota Model treatment and 66 were waiting list subjects.
In addition to demographics and clinical background variables, measures included treatment involvement, treatment setting and drug use frequency at intake and follow-up.
Absolute and relative outcome analyses indicated that completing treatment was associated with far superior outcome compared to those who did not complete treatment or receive any at all. The percentage of treatment completers who reported either abstinence or a minor lapse for the 12 months following treatment was 53%, compared to 15 and 28% for the incompleter and waiting list groups, respectively.
Favorable treatment outcome for drug abuse was about two to three times more likely if treatment was completed. Also, there were no outcome differences between residential and outpatient groups. Alcohol was the most common drug used during the follow-up period, despite cannabis being the preferred drug at intake.

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    • "However, the motivation to change theory poses a problem for WT programs that treat often involuntary clients (Becker 2010). Assessing motivation to change was based on studies that suggest that most adolescents who enter treatment are unmotivated and are in treatment due to coercion by parents or other authorities (Winters et al. 2000). Several studies suggest that coercion into treatment is a significant barrier to change (De Leon et al. 1994, 1997; Melnick et al. 1997). "
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    • "Another study by Winters et al46 investigated the treatment outcomes for drug-abusing adolescents who were attending 12-step facilitation. In this sample of 245 adolescents with at least one current dependence disorder on a psychoactive substance, the majority of participants were white (85%) and male (56%), with 28% having previously received substance abuse treatment, 52% being currently involved in the legal/juvenile justice system, 82% having a comorbid psychiatric disorder (eg, AD/HD, ODD/CD, and major depressive disorder were the most prevalent), and 66% having at least one parent with a history of substance use. "
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    • "These results tie the scale to the social support literature and thus to social learning theory. From that theoretical perspective, the three peer focused factors: positive versus negative social behavior, drug use and post treatment peer association are consistent with Mason’s [19] discussion of the five network characteristics that are associated with adolescent substance use or non-use. This analysis expands Mason’s work in that it behaviorally defines those network characteristics and further demonstrates those behaviors association with adolescent substance use or non-use. "
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