Szayna, M. et al. Exendin-4 decelerates food intake, weight gain, and fat deposition in Zucker rats. Endocrinology 141, 1936-1941

NMR Unit, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.5). 07/2000; 141(6):1936-41. DOI: 10.1210/en.141.6.1936
Source: PubMed


Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid peptide produced in the salivary gland of the Gila monster lizard. It has a 53% amino acid homology to the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Exendin-4 induces insulin release through activation of the GLP- 1 receptor but is a much more potent insulinotropic agent than GLP-1. Of critical importance for its potential use as a treatment for diabetes is its much longer biological effect in vivo. Previous studies involving once daily administration of exendin-4 over 13 weeks to db/db mice demonstrated that it lowers hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a marker of mean blood glucose levels. Food consumption in the treated animals dropped over the first 4 days and then increased to a level comparable with that of the untreated animals. In this study, we initially examined the effect of once daily injections (over 14 days) on the food consumption of Zucker fatty rats. We observed an immediate reduction in food intake which then leveled off(after 5 days) to match that of the untreated animals. Subsequently we injected the same animals twice daily (treatment period of 56 days in total) and observed a sustained reduction in food intake and weight-gain. This was matched by a reduction in the critical parameters of HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin. MRI imaging of the abdominal regions of the animals showed that initially only the amount of fat deposited in the sc region was reduced after 4 weeks exendin-4 treatment. At the 8-week time point there was a corresponding decrease in the amount of visceral fat deposition. The combination of appetite reduction, decreased fat deposition and an improvement in the parameters associated with glucose intolerance makes a case for the use of exendin-4 as a treatment for diabetes.

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    • "Exenatide, a synthetic form of exendin-4, is much more effective than GLP-1 in regulating the serum glucose level (Eng et al., 1992; Young et al., 1999). Exenatide and exendine-4 can increase the insulin secretion dependent on glucose and suppress glucagon secretion, regulate appetite, increase of insulin sensitivity (Szayna et al. 2000; Parkes et al., 2001). In addition to its metabolic effects, GLP-1 readily enters the brain through blood–brain barrier (BBB) and binds its receptors extensively expressed in the brain, including hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum (Hamilton and Hölscher, 2009; Hamilton et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest a possible link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’ s disease (AD). Glucogan-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) facilitates insulin release from pancreas under hyperglycemic conditions. In addition to its metabolic effects, GLP-1 and its long-lasting analogs, including exenatide can stimulate neurogenesis and improve cognition in rodent AD model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exenatide on hippocampal cellularity, cognitive performance and inflammation response in a rat model of AD. Fourteen rats were used to create AD model using intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) infusion while 7 rats were administered 0.9% NaCl only (sham-operated group). Following stereotaxic surgery, STZ received rats were randomly distributed into two groups, and treated with either saline or exenatide 20 µgr/kg/day through intraperitoneally for two weeks. Then, cognitive performance (passive avoidance learning), brain tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and hippocampal neuronal count were determined. While the brain TNF-α levels were significantly high in the saline-treated STZ group, exenatide treatment suppressed the increase in TNF-α levels. Saline-treated STZ group showed reduced ChAT activity compared to sham group. However, exenatide significantly preserved brain ChAT activity. The cognitive performance was also impaired in saline group while exenatide improved memory in rats. Moreover, exenatide treatment significantly prevented the decrease in hippocampal neurons. Overall, the results of the present study clearly indicated exenatide might have beneficial effects on impaired cognitive performance and hippocampal neuronal viability in AD by suppressing the inflammation response and increasing cholinergic activity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · European Journal of Pharmacology
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    • "GLP-1 and its analogs have been demonstrated to reduce food intake and decrease the body weight in diabetic animal models and clinical studies37,38,39. Inhibition of DPP-4 activity prevented degradation and enhanced the biological activity of active GLP-115. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl deptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute and chronic effects of SHR117887, a novel DPP-4 inhibitor, on metabolic control and pancreatic β-cell function in normal or diabetic rodent models. In the acute experiments, ICR mice, diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and ob/ob mice were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) following a single oral administration of SHR117887 (0.1, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, DPP-4 activity and active GLP-1 level. In the chronic experiments, ob/ob mice was administered SHR117887 (3, 10 or 30 mg/kg) twice daily for 33 d to assess the effects on metabolic control and pancreatic β-cell function. Vildagliptin (LAF237) was used as a positive control in all the experiments. Acute oral administration of SHR117887 dose-dependently decreased the serum DPP-4 activity and improved glucose tolerance in ICR mice, DIO rats and ob/ob mice. This was accompanied by significant increases in the serum active GLP-1 and insulin levels. Chronic administration of SHR117887 significantly decreased fasting blood glucose level and improved the lipid profiles in ob/ob mice by reducing the serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, and its efficacy was comparable with that of vildagliptin at the same molarity. Moreover, chronic administration of SHR117887 increased the insulin staining of islet cells, which is suggestive of improved β-cell function. SHR117887 is a potent DPP-4 inhibitor that improves metabolic control and β-cell function in diabetic rodent models, suggesting that it could be a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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    • "GLP-1 augments insulin release in a glucagondependent manner, and drug targeting the GLP-1 pathway, such as DPP-IV inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists, are used to treat type 2 diabetes [18] [19] [20]. GLP-1 itself reduces feeding when administered either centrally or peripherally [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]. Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived circulating hormone, also plays a key role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis by conveying anorectic information to the brain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and leptin are anorectic hormones produced in the small intestine and white adipose tissue, respectively. Investigating how these hormones act together as an integrated anorectic signal is important to elucidate a mechanism to maintain energy balance. In the present study, coadministration of subthreshold GLP-1 and leptin dramatically reduced feeding in rats. Although coadministration of GLP-1 with leptin did not enhance leptin signal transduction in the hypothalamus, it significantly decreased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In addition, coadministration of GLP-1 with leptin significantly increased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels. Considering that α-melanocortin stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is derived from POMC and functions through the melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4-R) as a key molecule involved in feeding reduction, the interaction of GLP-1 and leptin on feeding reduction may be mediated through the α-MSH/MC4-R system. As expected, the interaction of GLP-1 and leptin was abolished by intracerebroventricular preadministration of the MC4-R antagonists agouti-related peptide and SHU9119. Taken together, GLP-1 and leptin cooperatively reduce feeding at least in part via inhibition of AMPK following binding of α-MSH to MC4-R.
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