Selective attention to emotional stimuli in a verbal go/no-go task: An fMRI

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.52). 07/2000; 11(8):1739-44. DOI: 10.1097/00001756-200006050-00028
Source: PubMed


Tasks requiring subjects to attend emotional attributes of words have been used to study mood-congruent information processing biases in anxiety and affective disorders. In this study we adapted an emotional go/no-go task, for use with fMRI to assess the neural substrates of focusing on emotional attributes of words in normal subjects. The key findings were that responding to targets defined on the basis of meaning of words compared to targets defined on the basis of perceptual features was associated with response in inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate. Further, selecting emotional targets, whether happy or sad, was associated with enhanced response in the subgenual cingulate, while happy targets elicited enhanced neural response in ventral anterior cingulate. These findings reaffirm the importance of medial prefrontal regions in normal emotional processing.

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    • "The functions of the ACC range from very basic (homeostatic ) to more complex social-cognitive functions. In general, one can assume that the core function of the ACC is to establish the mobilization required to cope with cognitive and, as recently described, emotional and social demands (Mayberg et al., 1999; Elliott et al., 2000; Paus, 2001; Phillips et al., 2003) to achieve cognitive control (Koban and Pourtois, 2014). Thus, the ACC plays a role in the processing of tasks that require increasing cognitive effort and control and the management of responses when faced with conflicting demands (Luu et al., 2003; Fan et al., 2008). "
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    • "Furthermore, the GNG task has been conducted under different experimental manipulations in order to characterize the cognitive processes underlying response inhibition [7]. These studies have focused mainly on the effects of cueing [8]–[10], trial sequence effect and expectation [11], [12], Go/Nogo trial probabilities [13]–[15], salience of stimuli [16], [17], perceptual similarity of stimuli [18]–[20], and stimulus and response modalities [19]–[24]. However, despite the amount of evidence generated, debate is still open about the automatic or controlled nature of response inhibition [4] and about the contribution of motor and attentional systems to RI [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The capacity to inhibit prepotent and automatic responses is crucial for proper cognitive and social development, and inhibitory impairments have been considered to be key for some neuropsychiatric conditions. One of the most used paradigms to analyze inhibitory processes is the Go-Nogo task (GNG). This task has been widely used in psychophysical and cognitive EEG studies, and more recently in paradigms using fMRI. However, a technical limitation is that the time resolution of fMRI is poorer than that of the EEG technique. In order to compensate for these temporal constraints, it has become common practice in the fMRI field to use longer inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) than those used in EEG protocols. Despite the noticeable temporal differences between these two techniques, it is currently assumed that both approaches assess similar inhibitory processes. We performed an EEG study using a GNG task with both short ISI (fast-condition, FC, as in EEG protocols) and long ISI (slow-condition, SC, as in fMRI protocols). We found that in the FC there was a stronger Nogo-N2 effect than in the SC. Moreover, in the FC, but not in the SC, the number of preceding Go trials correlated positively with the Nogo-P3 amplitude and with the Go trial reaction time; and negatively with commission errors. In addition, we found significant topographical differences for the Go-P3 elicited in FC and SC, which is interpreted in terms of different neurotransmitter dynamics. Taken together, our results provide evidence that frequency of stimulus presentation in the GNG task strongly modulates the behavioral response and the evoked EEG activity. Therefore, it is likely that short-ISI EEG protocols and long-ISI fMRI protocols do not assess equivalent inhibitory processes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The aim of the current study was to test whether circulating testosterone levels were correlated with brain activation during cognitive-emotional processing in men with schizophrenia. We used an emotional go/no-go paradigm, which activates dorsal prefrontal executive control brain regions in addition to insular and limbic cortex associated with emotion regulation [25], [26]. Brain activation during this task was previously shown to be sensitive to sex steroid modulation of prefrontal and cingulate activity in healthy adults [27]. "
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