ArticleLiterature Review

Autogenic training for stress and anxiety: A systematic review

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Abstract

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate all controlled trials of autogenic training (AT) as a means of reducing stress and anxiety levels in human subjects. A search for all published and unpublished controlled trials was carried out in the four major databases, specifically CISCOM, Medline, PsychLit and CINAHL. Eight such trials were located, all of which are included here. The majority of trials were methodologically flawed. A range of outcome measures were used, with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory being the most popular. Deviations from the accepted technique of AT were conspicuous and trials using the classical AT were in the minority. Seven trials reported positive effects of AT in reducing stress. One study showed no such benefit. Since one trial had used AT in combination with another technique, visual imagery, no conclusion can be drawn about the effect of AT in this case. No firm conclusions could be drawn from this systematic review. AT, properly applied, remains to be tested in controlled trials that are appropriately planned and executed.

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... 8 AT uses visual imagery and body awareness to promote a state of deep relaxation. 7 AT is being used to treat patients with various medical and psychological conditions, [9][10][11] but few formal reports document its efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether AT when used as an adjunct to PT improves motor performances in PD in comparison with a control group receiving PT alone. ...
... 3. Cardiac regulation (''My heart beat is calm and regular'') 4. Centering on breathing (''I am listening to my breathing'') 5. Warmth in the upper abdomen (''My abdomen is warm'') 6. Coolness in the forehead (''My forehead is cool and clear'') 7. Cancelation with ''My abdomen is warm'' and finally on coolness in the cranial region with ''forehead is cool and clear'' 10,16 Patients were allowed to watch a 15 min video demonstration of the AT application for three times before starting of the first session followed by 3 trials of AT. Patients were positioned in full supported half lying in a silent room. ...
Article
Background Relaxation training can be an important adjunct in reducing symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Autogenic Training (AT) is a simple, easily administered and inexpensive technique for retraining the mind and the body to be able to relax. AT uses visual imagery and body awareness to promote a state of deep relaxation. Objective To investigate whether AT when used as an adjunct to Physiotherapy (PT) improves motor performances in PD in comparison with a control group receiving PT alone. Design Randomized, controlled, single blinded trial. Setting Movement Disorder Clinic and Department of Physiotherapy, Sree Chithira Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology in Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Participants: Patients with PD of grade 2 or 3 of Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale (N = 66). Interventions: AT group or control group. The techniques were administered by Physiotherapists trained in AT and consisted of 40 sessions per patient over 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: Motor score subscale of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used to measure the motor performances. The primary outcome measure was the difference in Motor score subscale of UPDRS scores between week 1 (pretest score), week 8 (posttest score), and follow-up at week 12 after randomization. Results The simple main effects analysis showed that the AT group performed better than the control group in weeks 8 and 12 (P<.005). Patients in the AT and control groups reported a 51.78% and 35.24% improvement, respectively, in their motor performances in week 8 compared with that in week 1, which persisted, in the follow-up (week 12) as 30.82% in the AT group and 21.42% in the control group. Conclusions This study provides evidence that AT when used as an adjunct to PT is more effective than PT alone in improving motor performances in PD patients.
... Previous research shows that AMT is a well-established training technique for regulating stress and anxiety (Ernst & Kanji, 2000;Holland et al., 2017;Lim & Kim, 2014;Stetter & Kupper, 2002). However, there is little evidence supporting AMT as an effective method for improving attention, and emotion and behavior regulations in children. ...
... The second objective was to examine whether AMT could regulate both state and trait anxiety. The STAIC scores supported this hypothesis: only the AMT group significantly reduced state anxiety, with large effect size, which is consistent with previous studies that found a reduced anxiety state after training (Ernst & Kanji, 2000;Holland et al., 2017;Lim & Kim, 2014;Stetter & Kupper, 2002). We highlight this reduced state-anxiety convergence by conceptualizing AMT as attention state training that regulates optimal flow, e.g., activation-level attention performance (Posner et al., 2015;Tang & Posner, 2009. ...
Article
This study examined the meditative approach of autogenic training in the context of attention state training. The evidence suggests that attention can be improved through attention state training, which includes meditation as a technique to focus and maintain attention. Some studies also indicate that attention state training promotes emotional and behavioral regulation. However, this issue needs further scientific evidence. This study aimed to test the efficacy of autogenic meditation training as a strategy to enhance attention, reduce anxiety, and promote a better mental health profile in children. Seventy Spanish students (M age = 9.77 years; SD age = 1.08 years) were randomly assigned to three conditions: autogenic meditation training, natural reading training (active control), and waiting list (passive control) conducted over a twelve-week period. Pre-post measures were collected for selective and sustained attention employing the d2 test; state and trait anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children; and a mental health screening compose of emotional symptoms, behavioral problems, hyperactivity-inattention, peer relationship problems, total difficulties index, and pro-social behavior with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results showed that children randomly assigned to autogenic meditation training experienced improved selective and sustained attention, reduced state and trait anxiety, and better general mental health than children randomized to natural reading training or a waitlist. Findings suggest that autogenic meditation training provides an acceptable approach to improving attention, reducing anxiety, and promoting a better mental health profile in children.
... Investigaciones previas muestran que el EMA es una técnica de entrenamiento bien establecida para regular el estrés y la ansiedad (Ernst y Kanji, 2000;Holland et al., 2017;Lim y Kim, 2014;Stetter y Kupper, 2002). Goldbeck y Schmid (2003) y Klott (2013) concluyen que el entrenamiento en meditación autógena contribuye a la autorregulación de la sintomatología internalizante y externalizante en niños con trastornos emocionales y conductuales. ...
... El segundo objetivo es examinar si el EMA puede regular tanto el estado como el rasgo de ansiedad. Los resultados del STAIC apoyan esta hipótesis: sólo el grupo del EMA reduce significativamente el estado de ansiedad, con un gran tamaño del efecto, lo que es consistente con estudios previos que han encontrado una reducción del estado de ansiedad después del entrenamiento (Ernst y Kanji, 2000;Holland et al., 2017;Lim y Kim, 2014;Stetter y Kupper, 2002). Es destacable que esta reducción del estado de ansiedad converge Figura 4. Ganancias estandarizadas en el cuestionario de fortalezas y dificultades (SDQ) para el grupo de Control Pasivo de Tiempo (CPT), el grupo de Entrenamiento en Lectura Natural (ELN) y el grupo de Entrenamiento en Meditación Autógena (EMA). ...
Article
Resumen Este estudio examina el entrenamiento autógeno meditativo en el contexto del entrenamiento en estado de atención. La evidencia sugiere que la atención puede mejorarse a través del entrenamiento en estado de atención, que incluye la meditación como técnica para enfocar y mantener la atención. Algunos estudios indican también que el entrenamiento en estado de atención promueve la regulación emocional y conductual. Sin embargo, esta cuestión necesita mayor evidencia científica. El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar la eficacia del entrenamiento en meditación autógena como estrategia para mejorar la atención, reducir la ansiedad y promover un mejor perfil de salud mental en los niños. Los participantes de este estudio son setenta estudiantes españoles (M = 9.77, DT = 1.08) asignados aleatoriamente a tres condiciones: entrenamiento en meditación autógena, entrenamiento en lectura natural y lista de espera durante doce semanas. Para evaluar el efecto de entrenamiento se obtienen mediciones previas y posteriores en atención selectiva y sostenida; ansiedad estado y rasgo; y un cribado de salud mental compuesto de síntomas emocionales, problemas de comportamiento, hiperactividad-intención, problemas de relación entre iguales, índice total de dificultades y comportamiento pro-social. Los resultados muestran que los niños asignados al entrenamiento de meditación autógena experimentan una mejora de la atención selectiva y sostenida, una reducción de la ansiedad de estado y de rasgo, y una mejor salud mental general que los niños asignados al entrenamiento de lectura natural o al grupo de control pasivo. Los hallazgos sugieren que el entrenamiento en meditación autógena proporciona un enfoque aceptable para mejorar la atención, reducir la ansiedad y promover un mejor perfil de salud mental en los niños.
... 12,13 Both progressive relaxation and autogenic training seem to be effective in reducing stress and pain. [14][15][16] In 2007, 12.7% of American adults used deep breathing exercises, and 9.4% used meditation. 17 The use of breathing exercises and meditation increased between 2002 and 2007, reflecting an increased popularity of relaxation techniques. ...
Article
To assess sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of patients with internal diseases who use relaxation techniques as a coping strategy. Cross-sectional analysis among patients with internal diseases. Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine at an academic teaching hospital in Germany. Main outcome measures: Prior use of relaxation techniques (e.g. meditation, autogenic training), perceived benefit, and perceived harm. Potential predictors of relaxation techniques use (sociodemographic characteristics, health behavior, internal medicine diagnosis, general health status, mental health, satisfaction, and health locus of control) were tested using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 2486 participants, 1075 (43.2%) reported to have used relaxation techniques, 648 (60.3%) reported benefits, and 11 (1.0%) reported harms. Use of relaxation techniques was independently associated with female gender (Odds ratio [OR]=1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.08-1.89), higher education (OR=1.32; 95%CI=1.03-1.71), fibromyalgia (OR=1.78; 95%CI=1.22-2.61), and internal health locus of control (OR=1.27; 95%CI=1.01-1.60). Use of relaxation techniques was negatively associated with age below 30 (OR=0.32; 95%CI=0.20-0.52) or above 64 (OR=0.65; 95%CI=0.49-0.88), full-time employment (OR=0.75; 95%CI=0.57-0.98), current smoking (OR=0.72; 95%CI=0.54-0.95), osteoarthritis (OR=0.51; 95%CI=0.34-0.77), rheumatic arthritis (OR=0.59; 95%CI=0.37-0.93), good to excellent health status (OR=0.70; 95%CI=0.52-0.96), and high life satisfaction (OR=0.78; 95%CI=0.62-0.98). In a German sample of patients with internal diseases, relaxation techniques were used as a coping strategy by about 43%. Users were more likely to be middle-aged, female, well-educated, diagnosed with fibromyalgia, not smoking, not full-time employed, and not to have a good health status or high life satisfaction. A high internal health locus of control predicted relaxation techniques use. Considering health locus of control might improve adherence to relaxation techniques in internal medicine patients.
... Dolayısıyla vücudun rahat ve dinlenmiş olması hastalıklarla daha rahat ve güçlü mücadele edebileceği esasına dayandırılmaktadır. [20][21][22] Uzak doğu öğretilerinden birçok bileşen barındıran AT yönteminin temelde immun sistemi güçlendirdiği belirtilmektedir. ...
... Auch wirkt sich regelmäßiges Achtsamkeitstraining günstig auf kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen und Bluthochdruck aus ( Walton et al. 2002, Rainforth et al. 2007) und ist darüber hinaus wirksam gegen Ängste und Depression (Ospina MB, Bond TK, Karkhaneh M, Tjosvold L, Vandermeer B, Liang Y, Bialy L, Hooton N 2007, Butler et al. 2008, Chiesa & Serretti 2009. AT beeinflusst ebenfalls das Stresserleben positiv und wirkt sowohl angst-, als auch stressreduzierend (Ernst & Kanji 2000, Grawe et al. 2001). Ähnliche positive Effekte zeigen sich bezüglich der PME, die Ängste und psychischen Stress reduziert und auch zu einer Verbesserung von chronischen Kopfschmerzen und Migräne führt ( Eppley et al. 1989, Damen et al. 2006, Trautmann et al. 2006, Manzoni et al. 2008). ...
Chapter
Psychische und stressbedingte Erkrankungen zählen mit zu den Hauptverursachern von Arbeitsunfähigkeitstagen und den daraus resultierenden hohen Kosten für Unternehmen in Deutschland. Darüber hinaus entstehen Unternehmen zusätzliche wirtschaftliche Nachteile und Einbußen durch eine stressbedingt reduzierte Leistungsbereitschaft und Leistungsfähigkeit ihrer Mitarbeiter. Den Auswirkungen von psychischem Stress entgegenzuwirken ist somit eine der zentralen Aufgaben des Betrieblichen Gesundheitsmanagements (BGM). Ein innovativer und niedrigschwelliger Ansatz sind hierzu Entspannungs‐Apps. Diese können sowohl als solitäre BGM‐Maßnahme angeboten werden als auch ergänzend und begleitend zu Entspannungs‐ oder Stressbewältigungskursen. Aufgrund ihrer niedrigen Kosten und des geringen Aufwands sind Entspannungs‐Apps für Unternehmen jeder Größe einsetzbar. Ihre örtliche Ungebundenheit ermöglicht Mitarbeitern eine flexible Verwendung im beruflichen und privaten Alltag. Bei der Auswahl der passenden Entspannungs‐App ist im Sinne der Nachhaltigkeit und Effektivität die Evidenzbasierung der Inhalte und Übungen eine Grundvoraussetzung. Um die Akzeptanz der Maßnahme und die Teilnahmebereitschaft der Mitarbeiter zu erhöhen, sollte bei der Implementierung der Entspannungs‐App idealerweise prozesshaft und partizipativ vorgegangen werden.
... Behavioral and mental disengagement (Carver et al., 1989) or self-harm (e.g., Chapman et al., 2006;Kleindienst et al., 2008) and related drug abuse (e.g., Brady and Sonne, 1999;Sinha, 2001) as well as unhealthy eating behavior (e.g., Greeno and Wing, 1994;Torres and Nowson, 2007) are examples of dysfunctional coping. Functional coping includes, for example, exercising mindfulness (e.g., Chiesa and Serretti, 2009;Khoury et al., 2015), practicing relaxation techniques (e.g., Carlson and Hoyle, 1993;Ernst and Kanji, 2000;Chiesa and Serretti, 2009), taking part in psychoeducation (PE) (e.g., Donker et al., 2009;Van Daele et al., 2012), or being physically active (e.g., Penedo and Dahn, 2005;Warburton et al., 2006). ...
Article
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This randomized controlled trial investigated whether adding the psychodynamically based body-oriented psychotherapy “Functional Relaxation” (FR) to psychoeducation (PE) is more effective than PE alone to reduce stress and stress-associated complaints. Eighty-one participants with elevated stress-levels, ≥ 50 points on the global scale of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), received either 10 sessions of manualized FR+PE (n = 42) or two sessions of manualized PE alone (n = 39) in a group setting. Six FR trainers took part in this study. Stress-level (PSQ) was the primary outcome and secondary outcomes were depression (PHQ-9) and somatization (PHQ-15). Multilevel models for discontinuous change revealed that FR+PE was more helpful to reduce stress-levels than PE from pre-treatment to post-treatment (t0-->t1) as well as from pre-treatment to 6-month follow-up (t0-->t2) (both p < 0.05) with effect sizes (d) being medium for PE (dt0-->t1 = 0.57; dt0-->t2 = 0.67) and large for FR+PE (dt0-->t1 = 1.57; dt0-->t2 = 1.39). Moreover, FR+PE affected depression and somatization more positively than did PE from t0 to t1 as well as from t0 to t2 (all p < 0.05). Effect sizes for depression were small to medium for PE (dt0-->t1 = 0.52; dt0-->t2 = 0.37) and large for FR+PE (dt0-->t1 = 1.04; dt0-->t2 = 0.95). Effect sizes for somatization were small for PE (dt0-->t1 = 0.18; dt0-->t2 = 0.19) and medium to large for FR+PE (dt0-->t1 = 0.73; dt0-->t2 = 0.93). In summary, the combination of FR and PE was more effective than PE alone. The results of the present trial provide first evidence of FR as a potent component of stress interventions. Adding FR to such interventions might better help prevent clinically relevant disorders such as depression or somatization.
... En la ansiedad, todas las revisiones sistemáticas consultadas sobre el efecto del AT al respecto (Ernst y Kanji, 2000;Manzoni, Pagnini, Castelnuovo y Molinari, 2008;Stetter y Kupper, 2002), señalan una mejoría significativa, disminuyendo los síntomas, aunque algunos estudios no están perfectamente diseñados metodológicamente. Todos los resultados son congruentes con los más recientes estudios controlados aleatorizados sobre los efectos del AT autoaplicado mediante un CD a pacientes (n = 21) con ansiedad y supervivientes ante un derrame cerebral (Golding, Kneebone y Fife-Schaw, 2016), a la ansiedad con una muestra inicial de 93 estudiantes de enfermería (Kanji, White y Ernst, 2006b) o la ansiedad tras angioplastia (Kanji, White y Ernst, 2004) con una muestra inicial de 59 pacientes. ...
Article
Full-text available
La terapia autógena se origina en el entrenamiento autógeno de Schultz y en su desarrollo incorpora diferentes métodos terapéuticos de orientación psicofisiológica creados para promover procesos cerebrales homeostáticos autorregulatorios. Los objetivos de este artículo son describir y analizar los diferentes métodos autógenos, los procesos psicofisiológicos y neurofisiológicos implicados y sus aplicaciones eficaces en la salud y la clínica. Para ello, además de revisar los primeros trabajos de Schultz y Luthe, se ha hecho una búsqueda electrónica de estudios para encontrar contribuciones relevantes sobre estos temas. Los resultados muestran un gran desarrollo de los métodos autógenos hasta los años 80, con una ingente cantidad de aplicaciones y estudios sobre los cambios psicofisiológicos y neurofisiológicos concomitantes. Sin embargo, su expansión durante los últimos 25 años ha sido mucho menor en comparación con métodos como el mindfulness o la hipnosis. Se discuten posibles causas y se plantean retos futuros para la terapia autógena.
... Many studies have been conducted that have shown a positive clinical outcome of the relaxation techniques in connection with anxiety [16,17]. A review conducted by Kanji and Ernst [18], considering 8 studies, suggests that autogenic training seems to reduce stress and anxiety, but few conclusion can be drawn from those studies. Carlson and Hoyle [19] wrote a quantitative review focused on progressive relaxation training [20], indicating a good potential of progressive relaxation in the treatment of various diseases (i.e. ...
Article
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This aim of this study was to investigate the effects of relaxation exercises with selected physical activity on girl's mental health. In this regard, 60 female students (18 to 30 years) participated in this study. They were divided into 4 similar groups. Categories include: relaxation groups (n=15), the Physical activity group (n=15), Relaxation with physical activity group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Experimental groups did exercise for 6 weeks and 2 times a week. But the control group did their routine activities. Mental health of participants before and after the exercise intervention was assessed by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The obtained data was analyzed by multivariate of variance (MANOVA) and Bonferroni test. The statistical data show that the effects of relaxation training (P<0/0001), effects of selected Physical activity (P<0/0001), effects of Combined exercises (P<0/0001). This study showed that relaxation training and selected Physical activity and combined exercises cause to be improving to general health student girls. Although not differences were observed between the three groups, but this study emphasizes the relaxation of role in general health. The employing different methods of relaxation are as an effective and practical aims. So, it is suggested that effect of other relaxation methods with physical activity and also interactivities influences of combination training types would be used.
... Tsutsumi, Kabeya, and Ogawa (2012) also reported that AT reduced trait anxiety in patients with chronic subjective dizziness. A meta-analysis of experimental studies by Ernst and Kanji (2000) showed AT had positive effects on relieving stress in seven cases out of eight. In the present study, it was found that stress response levels in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group. ...
Article
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This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
... Autogenic training (AT) is a relaxation method that was developed by the German practitioner Johannes Heinrich Schultz at the beginning of the 20 th century (47). AT is beneficial in the treatment of different somatic diseases, and is known to reduce stress and anxiety (53,54). In contrast to PMR, this exercise does not include physical movements, but rather, asks subjects to concentrate mentally on certain body perceptions (47). ...
Article
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Patients with chronic itch suffer from higher levels of depression and anxiety than their healthy counterparts. Furthermore, psychological factors, such as stress, are known to aggravate itch. The mere act of thinking about itching can induce the sensation. Interventions like habit reversal training and arousal reduction have been shown to have positive effects on itch relief. Yet, there is still limited data on the psychological management to control the itch scratch cycle and a description of methods suitable to address itch. In this review, we describe different psychological interventions shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic itch. We also provide suggestions based on our experience of suitable interventions for patients with different types of itch.
... The relaxation comprised elements of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic training (AT). Both methods are wellestablished for reducing subjective and physiological indices of stress (e.g., Shoemaker and Tasto, 1975;Kanji and Ernst, 2000;Rohrmann et al., 2001;Jones, 2002, 2005). In the meantime, the control group had to read an article on Albert Einstein and answer questions about its content. ...
Article
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To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.
... A relaxação progressiva de Jacobson (1928), que consiste no tensionar e relaxar sistemático de 16 grupos musculares, tem merecido a atenção de muitos investigadores, cujos estudos revelaram efeitos positivos deste método ao nível da diminuição do estado de ansiedade e do stress percebido (Pawlow & Jones, 2002;Rankin, Gilner, Gfeller, & Katz, 1993;Rausch, Gramling, & Auerbach, 2006), do ritmo cardíaco e do cortisol salivar (Pawlow & Jones, 2002) e de doenças relacionadas com o stress (por exemplo, cefaleia crónica e hipertensão essencial) (Carlson & Hoyle, 1993;Esch, Fricchione, & Stefano, 2003). Estas doenças parecem também beneficiar do treino autógeno de Schultz (1958), nomeadamente as cefaleias, a asma (Henry, De Rivera, Gonzalez-Martin, & Abreu, 1993) e a ansiedade (Ernst & Kanji, 2000;Kanji, White, & Ernst, 2004). Uma revisão dos estudos clínicos randomizados e controlados (RCTs) publicados entre 1997 e 2007 e que examinaram os efeitos as técnicas de relaxação (relaxação progressiva, treino autógeno, relaxação aplicada e meditação) nos problemas e perturbações da ansiedade, revelou uma eficácia consistente e significativa ao nível da diminuição da ansiedade. ...
Conference Paper
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Este trabalho aborda o papel das técnicas de relaxação ao nível da regulação emocional. Quer os modelos teóricos, quer os estudos empíricos sustentam o papel importante do corpo no processamento emocional, compreendido por três passos básicos: a atenção, a avaliação e a resposta. Apesar do papel motriz das emoções nos nossos comportamentos e decisões, temos a capacidade de regulação emocional, isto é, conseguimos gerir os impulsos emocionais iniciais e modificá-los para formas socialmente aceitáveis, expressando-os adequadamente. Os contributos das técnicas de relaxação no âmbito da regulação emocional centram-se em três dimensões: (1) a promoção da consciência corporal, (2) a aprendizagem da modelação da resposta emocional e (3) o treino da atenção. Ao longo do trabalho são referenciados e descritos vários estudos que têm mostrado a eficácia de programas de relaxação no âmbito das perturbações e doenças associadas à desregulação emocional.
... Relax strategies, as described in this article, are evoked during the practice of a task. The intention of the strategy is to improve immediately the performance of the specific occupation, activity, or skill; therefore, relax strategies differ from formal relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation (Hawton, Salkovskis, Kirk, & Clark, 1989) or autogenic relaxation (Ernst & Kanji, 2000). While the two entities are likely related, the clinical objectives differ. ...
Article
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Background. Some adult stroke survivors participating in Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) treatment programs self-generated relax strategies that have not been explored in previous CO-OP publications. The objective of this study was to describe the process by which adults with stroke used relax strategies and to explore the outcomes associated with their use. Methods. Secondary analysis of transcripts of intervention sessions from five participants was conducted. Results. All five participants applied relax strategies after initially observing a breakdown in performance that was attributed to increased fatigue or tension. The relax strategies used by the participants during their occupations included general relaxation, physical modifications to reduce tension, mental preparation, and pacing. The application of these strategies seemed to result in improved skill performance, reduced fatigue, and transfer to other activities. Conclusion. The relax strategy warrants further investigation as a potentially important therapeutic tool to improve occupational performance in individuals who have had a stroke.
... The SGR was based on the standard AT model not only because of the simplicity of AT, but also because of its similarities with a traditional method of relaxation in India such as yoga. Every attempt was made to conform to the principles and practice of standard form of AT such as emphasis on self-control, self-practice, passive concentration, and the use of brief repetitive verbal phrases intended to elicit specific bodily sensations and induce a sense of relaxation [16,21]. However, the standard form of AT is taught over a series of eight to ten weekly sessions [12,16]. ...
Article
Objective: A modified form of the standard autogenic relaxation exercise was developed as part of a telepsychiatry project, which aims to deliver mental healthcare to remote areas through the net, and through the agency of non-specialists. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief and simpler form of a relaxation technique, the Self-Guided Relaxation (SGR). Method: SGR is a systematic technique to focus on muscle groups and feel the heaviness and relaxation through suggestions to induce relaxation in the body. The SGR was taught to 37 patients with different psychiatric disorders over two sessions a week apart. Measures of change used were scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and a visual analog scale. Its usefulness and feasibility was examined over a follow-up period of one month. Additionally a group of non-specialists was trained in SGR supplemented by audiovisual aids and printed instructions. These therapists rated the ease in learning and administering SGR in patients. Results: There was a consistent reduction in the HAM-A scores over the follow-up period among patients. Improvements were also noted in positive experiences, adherence, depth of relaxation achieved, perceived benefit, and patient satisfaction. Majority of the patients, relatives, and therapists reported that they could administer or practice SGR after having learned the technique in a single session lasting about 30 minutes. The use of audio-video aids and manual was helpful in making the process of learning easy. Conclusions: Preliminary findings of usefulness, feasibility, and acceptance of the SGR were encouraging. These findings pave way for larger, randomized controlled study and for testing applicability of the SGR as a net-based psychological intervention.
... Although autogenic training presents no apparent risks [108], and systematic reviews have found no adverse events reported in the literature [109,110], neither of the two included studies described any adverse events, leaving the safety of autogenic training unknown. Both studies showed favorable effects of autogenic training, with one study reporting a small effect size (d = 0.45); however, both studies were poor quality, suffering from methodological flaws, low sample sizes, and complete lack of safety reporting. ...
Article
Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures which are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care complementary and integrative medicine (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's rapid evidence assessment of the literature (REAL©) methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A panel of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, 54 of which investigated mind-body therapies, as defined by the authors. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, efficacy, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement.
... This technique involves directions to control physiological responses such as breathing, blood pressure, heart beat and skin temperature (e.g. Ernst and Kanji 2000;Crowther, 1983).  Time Management: Time management training provides individuals with skills to adjust activities with respect to time. ...
... It has been reported that AT could improve psychological or mental strain among subjects with mental disorders or in high-stress situations [42]. In this study, the Confusion-Bewilderment score of POMS was improved by AT (Table 2b). ...
Article
Objective: Obesity-induced autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is related to cardiac disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of autogenic training (AT), a therapeutic relaxation technique, on cardiac ANS functions as evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) in Japanese obese/overweight subjects. Methods: Subjects were 40 obese/overweight male workers (42.7 ± 8.8 years old, BMI 28.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2). The subjects were randomly assigned to an AT intervention group and a control group. Subjects of the intervention group were required to perform the AT training procedures (first-third steps) for three months, while the control group participants were waiting. Before and after intervention, HRV was calculated using a 24 hr Holter ECG, and HRR was assessed by a treadmill test. In addition, Profile of Mood States (POMS), job stress and sleep conditions were assessed. Effects of AT intervention were statistically examined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: For the HRV, the ratio of the Low Frequency to the High Frequency (LF/HF) during sleep was significantly reduced in the AT group (-39.2% and -0.6%, respectively, p=0.009). HRR was lengthened in the AT group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively, p=0.042). In addition, the Confusion-Bewilderment score in POMS was improved in the AT group. However, mediation analysis indicated that the Confusion-Bewilderment score was not considered as a mediator between AT and ANS. Conclusions: A three month AT intervention improved cardiac ANS activities in Japanese obese/overweight men. These results suggest the beneficial effects of AT on obesity-related cardiovascular conditions.
... When the literature is examined, very few studies have been found that examine the effects of autogenic training on the physical performance of athletes 3 38 . In studies conducted on different groups; it has been reported that autogenic training reduces the level of anxiety 20,[40][41][42][43] . In the light of this information, although there is a consensus that autogenic training has positive effects on the psychological state of athletes, more studies are needed because there is not enough study on its effects on physical performance. ...
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Background: Although there is a consensus among researchers that autogenic training has positive effects on the psychological state of athletes, there have not been enough studies on its effects on physical performance yet. Therefore, the effects of autogenic training on physical performance is an important question that remains to be clarified. The fact that there is no research examining the effects of autogenic training on reaction time performance constitutes the original value of the study. Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the effects of autogenic training applied during 8 weeks on the visual and auditory reaction time performances of national badminton athletes. Methods: 15 male (experimental group=8 and control group=7) national badminton player between the ages of 18-23 residing in the province of Malatya participated in the study voluntarily. In addition to the training program, autogenic training was applied to the experimental group for 8 weeks, 3 days a week, after warming up. The control group continued their regular training. In order to determine the effects of the training, the pre-test and post-test was applied to the participants. SPSS 23 Package Program was used for the analysis of the data. The data were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test, one of the Non-Parametric tests. The significance level was taken as p<.05. Results: The mean age of the experimental group (N=8) was 19.88±1.81, the mean height was 173.75±4.10, and the mean body weight was 68.13±5.52. The mean age of the control group (N=7) was 19.72±1.80, the mean height was 175.72±7.87, and the mean body weight was 67.58±6.61.It was observed that there was no statistically significant difference between the right and left hand visual reaction times and the right and left hand auditory reaction times of the experimental and control groups (p>.05). Conclusion: As a result, autogenic training does not have a statistically significant effect on the visual and auditory reaction time of national badminton athletes. Keywords: Autogenic training, badminton, reaction time
... The current primary methods to relax include deep respiration (Ilse et al., 2014), muscular relaxation (Wesley and Douglas, 1977), music relaxation (Claas et al., 2008;Olga et al., 2011), meditation (Lazar et al., 2000;Narendra et al., 2017), and autogenic training (Ernst and Kanji, 2000). These methods were easily subject to the environment and devices. ...
Article
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Increasing social pressure enhances the psychological burden on individuals, and the severity of depression can no longer be ignored. The characteristics of high immersion and interactivity enhance virtual reality (VR) application in psychological therapy. Many studies have verified the effectiveness of VR relaxation therapy, although a few have performed a quantitative study on relaxation state (R-state). To confirm the effectiveness of VR relaxation and quantitatively assess relaxation, this study confirmed the effectiveness of the VR sightseeing relaxation scenes using subjective emotion scale and objective electroencephalogram (EEG) data from college students. Moreover, some EEG features with significant consistent differences after they watched the VR scenes were detected including the energy ratio of the alpha wave, gamma wave, and differential asymmetry. An R-state regression model was then built using the model stacking method for optimization, of which random forest regression, AdaBoost, gradient boosting (GB), and light GB were adopted as the first level, while linear regression and support vector machine were applied at the second level. The leave-one-subject-out method for cross-validation was used to evaluate the results, where the mean accuracy of the framework achieved 81.46%. The significantly changed features and the R-state model with over 80% accuracy have laid a foundation for further research on relaxation interaction systems. Moreover, the VR relaxation therapy was applied to the clinical treatment of patients with depression and achieved preliminary good results, which might provide a possible method for non-drug treatment of patients with depression.
... Research investigating the effects of RT with respect to different psychopathological conditions has been lacking. However, there is consistent evidence for the alleviating effects of progressive muscle relaxation on anxiety, stress and depression symptoms in clinical and non-clinical populations [39][40][41], and for autogenic training on stress and anxiety symptoms [42], and guided imagery on depression, anxiety and stress in psychiatric patients [43]. ...
Article
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Background: There are increasing rates of internalising difficulties, particularly anxiety and depression, being reported in children and young people in England. School-based, universal prevention programmes are thought to be one way of helping tackle such difficulties. This protocol describes a four-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, investigating the effectiveness of three different interventions when compared to usual provision, in English primary and secondary pupils. The primary outcome for Mindfulness and Relaxation interventions is a measure of internalising difficulties, while Strategies for Safety and Wellbeing will be examined in relation to intended help-seeking. In addition to the effectiveness analysis, a process and implementation evaluation and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be undertaken. Methods and analysis: Overall, 160 primary schools and 64 secondary schools will be recruited across England. This corresponds to 17,600 participants. Measures will be collected online at baseline, 3-6 months later, and 9-12 months after the commencement of the intervention. An economic evaluation will assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Moreover, a process and implementation evaluation (including a qualitative research component) will explore several aspects of implementation (fidelity, quality, dosage, reach, participant responsiveness, adaptations), social validity (acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility), and their moderating effects on the outcomes of interest, and perceived impact. Discussion: This trial aims to address important questions about whether schools' practices around the promotion of mental wellbeing and the prevention of mental health problems can: (1) be formalised into feasible and effective models of school-based support and (2) whether these practices and their effects can be sustained over time. Given the focus of these interventions on mirroring popular practice in schools and on prioritising approaches that present low-burden, high-acceptability to schools, if proved effective, and cost-effective, the findings will indicate models that are not only empirically tested but also offer high potential for widespread use and, therefore, potentially widespread benefits beyond the life of the trial. Trial registration: ISRCTN16386254. Registered on 30 August 2018.
... Similarly, the methods and techniques employed for stress management in each study differs significantly. These methods may be based on individual, binary or group conferences 26 and include a variety of techniques namely diaphragmatic respiration, 28,29 progressive muscular relaxation, 30 guided visualization, 31,32 biofeedback, 33,34 emotional release technique, 35 autogenic education, 36 transcendental meditation, 37 consciousness techniques, 38 body-mind interaction, 39,40 and yoga. 41 Heterogeneity has been similarly reported regarding protocols of assisted reproduction, referring to homologous or heterologous genetic material, surrogate motherhood, different number of embryos transferred, as well as the statistical data evaluation methods 42 Therefore, it may be of interest to investigate the impact of stress management on the efficacy of the infertility treatments, while taking in consideration the infertility etiologies, the psychosocial support techniques, the treatment protocols and the statistical evaluation methods. ...
Article
This systematic review aimed to investigate the inconsistency of research data concerning the contribution of systematic psychosocial interventions to infertility treatments. More specifically, the objective of this review was to investigate the cause of the contradictions in the results of contemporary research with respect to the role of systematic psychosocial interventions in the success of fertility treatments. The suspected cause of these contradictions is the heterogeneity of the relevant clinical studies with respect to their methodology. Thus, the specific aim of the current review was to evaluate the degree of heterogeneity of certain parameters in the design of the relevant clinical studies during the last decade, including sample heterogeneity, assisted reproductive technology methods, types of psychosocial interventions and methods of recording and analyzing psychometric data. This investigation may be considered imperative considering that despite the great number of relevant clinical studies and their meta-analyses, there are still no conclusive results concerning the potential of improving fertility through psychosocial support. Search for relevant studies was performed employing the PubMed and Google Scholar databases based on specific criteria. According to these criteria the selected publications have been meta-analyses of clinical studies on humans, evaluating the effect of psychosocial interventions on the success of assisted reproductive treatments during the last decade. The studies may have included all the different infertility etiologies, as well as all types of assisted reproductive treatments. The extensive search based on the specific inclusion/exclusion criteria resulted in reporting results from 6 studies in total. The clinical studies included have reported on various types of interventions for psychosocial support such as individual, couples' or group therapies performed either in facilities offering mental health services or in the form of home-based self-treatment. Moreover, these studies investigated various techniques of stress management ranging from counseling to specialized methods such as biofeedback and diaphragmatic breathing or alternative techniques such as yoga and meditation. Our results suggest that clinical studies designed specifically to evaluate the effect of systematic interventions on the efficacy of fertility treatments are limited. Moreover, their degree of heterogeneity is highly significant with respect to included participants, treatment protocols, psychosocial support techniques as well as methods for the documentation and statistical analysis of psychometric data. Consequently, the conduction of well-design clinical studies based on strict criteria aiming to investigate specific infertility causes, similar fertility treatment protocols or particular types of psychosocial interventions is necessary in order to reach definitive conclusions.
... [15,16] Powerful mental tools like meditation and autogenic training are useful for stress and anxiety management. [17] It has been found that the use of mental and motor imagery is useful in preventing detraining effects as well as in rehabilitation by activating certain brain areas associated with actual training, even in the absence of the physical stimulus. [18] Group therapy and family therapy may be useful based on the presentation of psychosocial symptoms. ...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a negative impact globally, affecting various domains of life, including the fields of outdoor sports and athletic activities. The postponement or cancellation of outdoor sports and athletic activities has resulted in detraining effects in sportspersons. These detraining effects may result in a myriad of effects on physical health, mental health, and also, cause loss of opportunities, financial concerns, and disruption in non-sporting activities. This review article highlights the possible detraining effects, psychological consequences on sportspersons, and certain interventions which may help in mitigation of these effects during the pandemic and in its aftermath.
... Physiologically speaking, the generated warmth and muscular relaxation can be associated with a decrease of psychological arousal and an advanced blood flow leading to a better oxygen supply (Payne, 2005). Collectively, these processes have been scientifically proven to promote better healing, while assuaging fears and worries (Kanji & Ernst, 2000;Stetter & Kupper, 2002). Interestingly, in a study about anxiety patients, AT was found to be even more effective to relax than PR (Takaishi, 2000). ...
Thesis
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Throughout the last decades, research has increasingly acknowledged the psychological aspects entailed in sports injury occurrence and rehabilitation processes. More current studies have also focussed on the impact of psychological issues of the return to sport. Collectively, the existing body of research highlights that physical readiness alone is an incomplete rehabilitation outcome and an insufficient indication of a successful return to sport. The binarity of physiological and psychological outcomes and their intertwined relationship to one another is a paramount feature of existing conceptual models concerned with the topic of the rehabilitation process following serious sports injuries. This examination aims at giving an overview of the multitude of psychological responses to athletic injuries.
Chapter
(related modalities: hypnotherapy, meditation, mind-body therapies, mindfulness, progressive muscle relaxation, transcendental meditation).
Article
Background: Antenatal psychological distress is a pivotal issue critically associated with postpartum health disorders in mothers and the progeny, of which pluses Cesarean section-induced anxiolytic and stressful responses may produce potential remarkable sequelae to maternal and infant wellbeings. Preoperative psychological preparation is preferably suggested for alleviating psychological troubles to premedications, while its accurate effect in this context is not well defined. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preoperative psychological visiting by trained expert theater nurses using specially designed psycho-leaflets could reduce prior Cesarean stress and anxiolytic levels, and improve maternal and infant outcomes. Methods: After approval by the institutional review board and patient's consent, 146 parturients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class I or II were randomly allocated to a "psychological visiting" or "non-psychological visiting" group. The interventional information given by trained expert theater nurses mainly focused on dealing with the complications, inadequate anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, post-surgical rehabilitation, breathing and relaxation training, mental control, and postpartum care. The endpoints of the study included the scorings rated using patient self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and depression scale (SDS), salivary cortisol, and maternal and infant outcomes. The association between maternal demographic variables and anxiety levels was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. Results: The median visiting time of the psychological group was 53 min, but 21 min in the non-psychological group (p = 0.008), while preoperative psychoprophylactic visiting produced considerable effect on anxiolytic level alleviation and cortisol reduction, but not depressive level, in women undergoing Cesarean section than those without psychological intervention. Women received psychological intervention had an earlier onset of lactation, superior postoperative analgesia, less adverse events and shorter urinary indwelling catheterization than those of the comparison. No significant difference was observed in infant outcomes between both the groups. Maternal demographic data were strongly associated with the anxiolytic level. Conclusions: These results indicate preoperative psychoprophylactic preparation for Cesarean patients alleviates maternal anxiolytic and stressful levels, improves maternal outcomes, and increases overall satisfaction with Cesarean experience.
Article
Psychological stress among breast cancer patients can inhibit immune function and contribute to disease progression. We investigated the effects of autogenic training (AT), a relaxation method for reducing stress, on salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in breast cancer surgery patients. Thirty patients scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery were randomly assigned to an AT or control group (usual care). Patients in the AT group underwent training for 7 days after surgery. Salivary IgA and heart rate variability were assessed on the day before surgery, and on the third and seventh postoperative days. Levels of sIgA were significantly higher on the seventh postoperative day in the AT group (n = 7) compared to the control group (n = 7) (p = 0.049). These finding suggest that AT may improve immune function in breast surgery patients.
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Background: Evaluating child growth is, in practice, performed by measuring the development of a child’s weight, height, and body composition in comparison to averages observed among a reference population. Objective: To describe the nutritional status of children of low income families who live in urban region in northeastern Brazil. Methods: This study is a population case series with a transversal and observational design. The study population consisted of 257 children, aged 5 to10 years, who were enrolled in a public school to children of low income families. We used the cutoff point for short stature of -2 Z scores for age, and underweight, overweight, and obese were classified as the 5th, 85th, and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the body mass index (BMI) for age, with both classifications in accordance with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2000). Comparisons by gender were performed for the measures of the central tendency and the frequency of diagnoses, in addition to the tendency of the evolution of BMI by age. Results: The prevalence of short stature was 3.5% (95% CI: 1.9 – 6.5). In the evaluation of BMI for age, the prevalences found for underweight, overweight, and obese were 5.8% (95% CI: 3.6 –9.4), 4.7% (95% CI: 2.7 – 8.0), and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.1 – 5.0), respectively. We found a significant trend in the reduction of BMI with the increase in age. Conclusions: According to CDC references, the prevalences of underweight and short stature were higher than expected and for the overweight and obesity were lower than expected, indicating that the nutritional transition had still not reached, as commonly is described, these low income children from the urban outskirts of the Northeast region. Key words: Nutrition assessment, anthropometry, nutritional transition, school health.
Article
Background & Aims: Immediately after undergoing breast cancer surgery, patients may usually have some psychological and physiological distress. Autogenic training (AT) is a complementary medicine and self-relaxation technique to relieve anxiety in patients. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of AT on perioperative anxiety and pain in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Between July 2010 and March 2012, 60 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer and scheduled for surgery were randomly assigned to the AT group or the control group. In the AT group, patients underwent 20 min of AT, three times a day within 3 days after surgery, and the control group received the usual care. The assessment was done based on the State Anxiety Inventory, Visual Analogue Pain Scale, heart rate variability, and analgesic requirement. Results: The AT group had a significantly decreased anxiety score during postoperative three days. Postoperative pain score was also significantly decreased, despite the fact that the two groups had received an equivalent amount of analgesics. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in their analgesic requirement. Conclusion: AT may be a useful non-pharmacological approach for relieving anxiety and pain immediately after breast cancer surgery.
Chapter
Autogenes Training wurde in den 1920er-Jahren von dem deutschen Psychiater Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884–1970) entwickelt. Es handelt sich um eine auto-hypnotische Entspannungstechnik, die in Deutschland, aber weniger in anderen Ländern, sehr beliebt ist.
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Background: There is growing evidence that better coping with job-related anxiety among healthcare workers is important because may affect their ability to practice effectively and may put patients at risk. Objective: to investigate the effects of autogenic training (AT) to reduce state anxiety in community pharmacists. Materials and Methods: Fulltime employed community pharmacists with state anxiety assigned to experimental group practiced the AT daily at home for 8 weeks, with one group session each week. State Anxiety was self-assessed in both group by the Burns Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Results: Altogether, 40 pharmacists were self assessed by BAI and experimental group showed decrease of state anxiety degree after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of AT intervention. The level of state anxiety was lower in the experimental group after 8 weeks of AT intervention (99% significance level; mean of experimental group of 2.3000 and 3.7500 for the control group). Conclusions: AT is associated with significant reduction in state anxiety in pharmacists and can be used as an easily applied technique for reducing state anxiety in community healthcare professions settings.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Autogenic training and Progressive muscle relaxation technique on the mental skills of female subjects. We recruited 60 female subjects and assigned them into three groups i.e. AT group, PMR group and control group. The first and second groups were provided with 8-week Autogenic training and PMR interventions respectively, whereas the control group continued their general routine. All three groups were tested pre and post interventions for their mental skills by using Hardy and Nelson mental skills questionnaire. Hypotheses were tested by applying ANCOVA to the collected data at 0.05 significance level. Results revealed that only concentration ability was significantly improved with Autogenic training and PMR, whereas no significant differences were observed for other variables.
Chapter
A number of forms of complementary or alternative medicine currently practised have their origins in the western intellectual tradition: Western Europe and North America. This chapter aims to outline some of the more common forms of CAM of western origin, particularly those supported by evidence of clinical effectiveness.
Article
The purpose of study was to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of the autogenous training (AT) and to search the evaluation criteria of successfulness of AT mastering. It was carried out a comparative analysis of dynamics of changes of the galvanic skin response (GSR), ECG and infrared irradiation of hands, as during the session, as well as at the initial and final stage of the AT course. 10 patients have been studied: 5 women and 5 men aged 19-21 years. AT training was implemented basing on the classic Schulz method for 20 sessions. On the basis of the dynamics of physiological characteristics it was established that the GSR reduction is the most representative indicator of the short-term adaptation to AT. The ability to voluntarily prolong the R-R interval was determined as a criterion of successfulness of mastering of AT. The ability to voluntarily increase temperature of the hands during the AT session was determined as the most significant parameter of the long-term adaptation to AT. The revealed physiological criteria of dynamics of acquisition of AT can be used in practice; availability of instrumental diagnostics means, including the portable infrared thermometer CEM TermoDiagnostics and the automatic tonometer, can contribute to a more widespread application of AT tech-niques.
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Il presente volume rappresenta una tappa fondamentale nella ricerca della terapia del dolore e della sofferenza in campo fisico, mentale e spirituale. Abbraccia infatti a 360 gradi il fenomeno dolore e sofferenza in tutte le loro possibilità di estrinsecazione, divenendo così uno studio raffinato, anche se mai definitivo, nel trattamento non solo del dolore fisico, ma ancor più del dolore ad alti livelli, quando cioè è presente anche sofferenza morale e spirituale. Questo volume, che tratta in dettaglio tecniche di rilassamento e di ipnosi clinica nell'adulto e nel bambino, di conseguenza è veramente importante per il malato in terapia del dolore o terminale, ma è anche altrettanto importante per chi se ne prende cura e per chi intende compiere con l’occasione un percorso evolutivo nel rapporto palliativista.
Article
Chronischer psychosozialer und traumatischer Stress sind zentrale Risikofaktoren für die Entwicklung psychosomatischer Erkrankungen. Eine Schlüsselrolle in der gemeinsamen Ätiologie psychischer und komorbide-auftretender körperlicher Erkrankungen wird dabei Veränderungen in der Regulation der neuroendokrinen Stressantwort, erhöhten Entzündungsprozessen und oxidativem Stress, dem schädlichen Überschuss an freien Sauerstoffradikalen, zugeschrieben. Angesichts der hohen Prävalenz von psychosozialem und traumatischem Stress über alle Gesellschaftsschichten hinweg ist es für die psychotherapeutische Praxis von großer Bedeutung, auch dessen molekulartoxische Folgen besser zu verstehen und in moderne Behandlungskonzepte zu integrieren. Es gilt, Interventionsmöglichkeiten auf psychobiologischer Ebene zu identifizieren, die stressassoziierte ­biomolekulare Veränderung im Körper rückgängig machen können. In diesem Beitrag soll deshalb insbesondere die Rolle von entspannungs- und achtsamkeitsbasierter Verfahren wie Entspannungstechniken, z.B. Hypnose, Mediation oder Yoga, betrachtet werden, die neben der Symptomreduktion auf klinischer Ebene auch die biomolekularen Veränderungen nach psychosozialem und traumatischem Stress reduzieren und so der gesundheitlichen Belastung entgegenwirken können. Obwohl entspannungs- und achtsamkeitsbasierte Verfahren im psychotherapeutischen Setting schon seit langem in unterschiedlichem Umfang eingesetzt werden, zeigt die aktuelle Studienlage, dass regelmäßig praktizierte entspannungs- und achtsamkeitsbasierte Verfahren eine bislang unterschätzte Interventionsmöglichkeit in der Psychotherapie sein könnten, die es zukünftig häufiger und gezielter in die gesamtkörperliche Behandlung stress- und traumaassoziierter Erkrankungen zu integrieren gilt.
Chapter
This practically-oriented chapter shows the most important characteristics of a forest for Shinrin-Yoku and deals with the development of cure and healing forests as well as with the special professional qualification courses to become a forest health trainer and forest therapist. Health promotion and prevention as important modules are defined and examples of implementation in the forest are presented. Mindfulness, body-mind procedures and other techniques that can be applied in the forest either as a focus or as an accompanying intervention, are explained from a scientific point of view. Finally, it is shown that forests cannot simply be used commercially, but that certain guidelines must be observed.
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İÇİNDEKİLER Bölüm 1: Beden Eğitiminde İşbirliğine Dayalı Öğrenme Modelinin İncelenmesi Doç. Dr. Mehmet KUMARTAŞLI Bölüm 2: Okul Öncesi Dönemi Çocuklarda Eğitsel Oyunların Önemi ve Kazanımları Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Serhat ÖZDENK Bölüm 3: Antrenman Planlaması Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Dede BAŞTÜRK Bölüm 4: Renklerin Sporda Kullanımları Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Mehmet İMAMOĞLU Bölüm 5: Zihinsel Antrenman Uygulaması: Otojenik Antrenman Uzm. Ozan YILMAZ Bölüm 6: Dîvânu Lugâti't-Türk'te Yer Alan Spor ve Rekreatif Faaliyet Terimleri Arş. Gör. Sümeyra ALAN Bölüm 7: Direnç Antrenmanına Yönelik Farklı Yaklaşımların Araştırılması Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Dede BAŞTÜRK Bölüm 8: Çocuklarda Kuvvet Antrenmanı Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Serhat ÖZDENK Bölüm 9: Spor Kulüpleri Kanunu Çalışmasına Yönelik Görüşler Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Mehmet İMAMOĞLU
Article
Background German students are a vulnerable group that is particularly burdened by psychological strains. Therefore, interventions to reduce psychological strains—especially innovative approaches—are becoming increasingly important. Objectives This partially randomized study with three intervention groups and one control group investigated if the mobile app “AOK Relax”, a mindfulness-based stress management course or a combination of both is capable to reduce psychological strains and to strengthen mindfulness and well-being in students of Coburg University. Methods At the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of the intervention period (winter semester 2016/17) participants’ mindfulness (Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, FMI‑13), well-being (Well-being-index, WHO-D5) and psychological distress (Perceived Stress Questionnaire, PSQ) were measured. Wilcoxon test and Cohens d were calculated to analyze changes during the study period. Results Students solely using the app (n = 17) showed an increase in mindfulness (p = not significant [n. s.], d = 0.43). Students participating in the course (n = 12) also showed increased mindfulness (p < 0.01, d = 1.10), well-being (p < 0.05, d = 0.79) and a decrease in psychological distress (p < 0.05, d = 0.54). The combination of the course and the app (n = 8) results in an increase of mindfulness (p = n. s., d = 0.55) and well-being (p = n. s., d = 0.46) plus a decrease in psychological distress (p = n. s., d = 0.31). In contrast, increased distress (p < 0.05, d = 0.19) was determined in the control group (n = 57). Conclusion Apps that are easy to implement and use may have the potential to prevent increase in student distress over the course of the semester. However, the mindfulness-based stress management course and particularly the combination of both seem to be a promising and feasible intervention to not only reduce distress but actually improve mental health-related parameters such as mindfulness.
Chapter
Dieses praktisch orientierte Kapitel zeigt die wichtigsten Merkmale eines Waldes für Shinrin-Yoku auf und befasst sich mit der Entwicklung von Kur- und Heilwäldern sowie mit den speziellen Weiterbildungen zum Wald-Gesundheitstrainer und Waldtherapeuten. Gesundheitsförderung und Prävention als wichtige Bausteine werden definiert und Beispiele für die Umsetzung im Wald dargestellt. Achtsamkeit, Body-Mind-Verfahren sowie weitere Verfahren, die schwerpunktmäßig oder flankierend im Wald angewendet werden können, werden unter wissen-schaftlichen Gesichtspunkten erklärt. Schließlich wird aufgezeigt, dass man die Wälder nicht einfach gewerblich nutzen kann, sondern dass bestimmte Vorgaben einzuhalten sind.
Article
Langsames Atmen, um die Folgen einer Covid-19-Erkrankung zu behandeln? Was sich ungewöhnlich anhört, ist eine wirksame Maßnahme, um die Herzaktivität zu verringern. Die Autoren stellen noch andere Maßnahmen vor, mit denen Sportlerinnen und Sportler in Zeiten der Coronapandemie ihre mentale und physische Gesundheit verbessern können.
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The effectiveness and mode of action of electrosleep therapy in chronic hysteria was evaluated in a double blind trial with a 1 month follow-up. Matched groups of hysterics were treated with central electrical stimulation and relaxation, peripheral electrical stimulation and relaxation, or relaxation only. Autogenic training exercises were used initially to standarize the relaxation instructions for all the patients. Central electrical stimulation has no specific benefit for hysteria. Rhythmic peripheral stimulation does increase the effect of verbal suggestions to relax initially but has no long term advantage over relaxation alone. Regular brief periods of relaxation can improve the mood and diminish the anxiety level of psychiatric outpatients with hysteria but have no persistant benefit for sleep disturbance or hypochondriasis. The best treatment of depression in chronic hysterics was found at follow-up to be relaxation without electrostimulation. Specialized somatic and psychotherapeutic methods have no advantage over treatment with low doses of anxiolytic drugs, reassurance, suggestion, and regular periods of relaxation.
Article
Assessed the effectiveness of a 10-session, 5-week, group-administered stress management program for nursing students. The stress management group included sessions on progressive relaxation, deep muscle relaxation autogenic training, visual imagery and modified systematic desensitization. Ten female nursing students participated in the stress management group. A second group of nursing students (7 female and 1 male) served as a control group. State and trait anxiety measures were taken before the group began and immediately prior to both mid-term and final examinations. The stress management group effectively reduced trait anxiety (p < 0.05), while the control group's trait anxiety levels remained relatively unchanged. The experimental group showed a reduction in state (test-taking) anxiety from mid-semester to final examinations, while the control group showed a slight increase from mid semester to final examination.
Article
The MMPI scores of a group of students who intended to attend an introductory course in one of the relaxation technique - Autogenic Training or Transcendental Meditation - were compared with a control group. The former group showed elevated scores on the Hs, D, and Hy scales. A significant remission of the scales Hs, D, Pt, Sc, and Si as compared with the pretest was found in those subjects who had practiced the technique continuously. Subjects who had discontinued the practicing showed a slight increase in these scores. For therapeutic changes in MMPI scales, the particular relaxation technique chosen as well as sex differences seem to play a minor role. No correlation was found between continued/discontinued practicing and particular MMPI scales.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic activity an an autogenic relaxation session on reducing induced state anxiety. Eighty-five university students were randomly assigned to one of three groups (a) aerobic, (b) relaxation, (c) control. Each group was tested separately. The general procedure consisted of anxiety induction, assessment, intervention, and assessment. The induced affect procedure involved having subjects visualize distressing images and generating high arousal states for ten minutes (Smith and Ascough, 1985). State anxiety was assessed by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (form Y-1). The aerobic intervention lasted 40 minutes, including warm-up and cool-down. The relaxation intervention consisted of listening and following instructions on a tape for approximately 30 minutes (Budzyski T, 1974, "Limb Heaviness-Exercise MU3-3"). The control group was excused after anxiety induction and told to report back in 30 minutes. The data was analyzed by a 3 x 2 (groups by time) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. The groups by times interaction was significant, F(2,82) = 13.07, p less than 0.01. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey with a normalized n indicated that both the aerobic and relaxation groups significantly reduce anxiety scores from pretreatment to post-treatment but were not different from each other. Both groups were significantly different from the control. The findings support the argument that an acute aerobic activity and relaxation session can reduce induced anxiety. These results have implications for motivating individuals to engage in exercise and activity to relieve anxiety generated by an acute stressor.
Article
This study compared the efficacy of five relaxation training procedures, four of which employed EMG auditory feedback: biofeedback only (BF), autogenic training phrases (ATP), music (MU), autogenic training phrases and music (ATP & MU), and a control group, in developing self-regulation of a "cultivated low arousal state" as a countermeasure to tensed muscular reaction to stressful imagery. Twenty subjects established a pre- and posttraining frontalis region EMG biofeedback baseline measurement. Sixteen subjects were assigned at random to the 25-minute taped relaxation training procedure. After eight training sessions (4 weeks), MU and ATP & MU groups achieved highly significant differences when compared with the control group. The ATP & MU group attained the lowest postbaseline arousal level measured by the EMG. EMG as a physiological measure for transfer of training functioned well in detecting the psychophysiological affect of stressful imagery.
Article
Sickness absence has been a long-standing concern of the nursing profession. In this paper, sickness is construed as illness or the form a complaint takes. Absence is formulated as a form of coping. A longitudinal study using an experimental and control group design was carried out with student nurses using autogenic regulation training (ART). Comparisons of the relationship between ART and sickness absence records were recorded for: total days off; certificated and uncertificated days off; uncertificated days off; certificated days off; total blocks and total wards; first and second ward allocations; and average time sick. It is argued that ART helped significantly to reduce overall sickness absence in the experimental group when compared with the control group subjects. Reasons for this are discussed and issues for further research are raised. It is concluded from the present study that ART has a contribution to make in preparing student nurses to cope with the demands of nursing and sickness absence.
Article
It has been suggested that the quality of clinical trials should be assessed by blinded raters to limit the risk of introducing bias into meta-analyses and systematic reviews, and into the peer-review process. There is very little evidence in the literature to substantiate this. This study describes the development of an instrument to assess the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in pain research and its use to determine the effect of rater blinding on the assessments of quality. A multidisciplinary panel of six judges produced an initial version of the instrument. Fourteen raters from three different backgrounds assessed the quality of 36 research reports in pain research, selected from three different samples. Seven were allocated randomly to perform the assessments under blind conditions. The final version of the instrument included three items. These items were scored consistently by all the raters regardless of background and could discriminate between reports from the different samples. Blind assessments produced significantly lower and more consistent scores than open assessments. The implications of this finding for systematic reviews, meta-analytic research and the peer-review process are discussed.
Versuch einer Objektiviiierung der Auswirkungen des autogenen Trainings und der Transzendentalen Meditation auf Personlichkeitsvariable anhand eines Personlichkeitsfragebogens
  • Schejbal
Training autogeno eansia pre-agonistica nel tiro con l’arco (Autogenic training and pre-competition anxiety in archery)
  • Desanti
Autogenic training and clinical hypnosis as short term treatments of patients with anxiety and panic disorders
  • Stetter