Enhanced Genome Annotation Using Structural Profiles in the Program 3D-PSSM
Biomolecular Modelling Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PX, England.Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.33). 07/2000; 299(2):499-520. DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.2000.3741
A method (three-dimensional position-specific scoring matrix, 3D-PSSM) to recognise remote protein sequence homologues is described. The method combines the power of multiple sequence profiles with knowledge of protein structure to provide enhanced recognition and thus functional assignment of newly sequenced genomes. The method uses structural alignments of homologous proteins of similar three-dimensional structure in the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) database to obtain a structural equivalence of residues. These equivalences are used to extend multiply aligned sequences obtained by standard sequence searches. The resulting large superfamily-based multiple alignment is converted into a PSSM. Combined with secondary structure matching and solvation potentials, 3D-PSSM can recognise structural and functional relationships beyond state-of-the-art sequence methods. In a cross-validated benchmark on 136 homologous relationships unambiguously undetectable by position-specific iterated basic local alignment search tool (PSI-Blast), 3D-PSSM can confidently assign 18 %. The method was applied to the remaining unassigned regions of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome and an additional 13 regions were assigned with 95 % confidence. 3D-PSSM is available to the community as a web server: http://www.bmm.icnet.uk/servers/3dpssm
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- "3D models of the Arabidopsis HES proteins were constructed by comparative (homology) modelling that was based on special restraints of a suitable structural template (Sali and Blundell, 1993). The structural template for HES proteins was identified via 3D-PSSM (Kelley et al., 2000), LOMETS (Wu and Zhang, 2007), MUSTER (Wu and Zhang, 2008), and the Structure Prediction Meta Server (Ginalski et al., 2003). The most suitable template for modelling was found to be the L18 ribosomal protein from Thermus thermophilus (Woestenenk et al., 2002) (PDB 1ILY:A). "
ABSTRACT: Evidence is presented for the role of a mitochondrial ribosomal (mitoribosomal) L18 protein in cell division, differentiation, and seed development after the characterization of a recessive mutant, heart stopper (hes). The hes mutant produced uncellularized endosperm and embryos arrested at the late globular stage. The mutant embryos differentiated partially on rescue medium with some forming callus. HES (At1g08845) encodes a mitochondrially targeted member of a highly diverged L18 ribosomal protein family. The substitution of a conserved amino residue in the hes mutant potentially perturbs mitoribosomal function via altered binding of 5S rRNA and/or influences the stability of the 50S ribosomal subunit, affecting mRNA binding and translation. Consistent with this, marker genes for mitochondrial dysfunction were up-regulated in the mutant. The slow growth of the endosperm and embryo indicates a defect in cell cycle progression, which is evidenced by the down-regulation of cell cycle genes. The down-regulation of other genes such as EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes links the mitochondria to the regulation of many aspects of seed development. HES expression is developmentally regulated, being preferentially expressed in tissues with active cell division and differentiation, including developing embryos and the root tips. The divergence of the L18 family, the tissue type restricted expression of HES, and the failure of other L18 members to complement the hes phenotype suggest that the L18 proteins are involved in modulating development. This is likely via heterogeneous mitoribosomes containing different L18 members, which may result in differential mitochondrial functions in response to different physiological situations during development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
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- "Three-dimensional models were constructed for the putative Tudor domain containing protein, PfSMN. Molecular modelling for P. falciparum Tudor domain was performed using 3D-PSSM software  based on the sequence and NMR structure of the human SMN Tudor domain . The results obtained by the server were further analysed using the program UCSF Chimera package version 1 . "
ABSTRACT: Splicing and alternate splicing are the two key biological processes that result in the generation of diverse transcript and protein isoforms in Plasmodium falciparum as well as in other eukaryotic organisms. Not much is known about the organization of splicing machinery and mechanisms in human malaria parasite. Present study reports the organization and assembly of Plasmodium spliceosome Sm core complex. Presence of all the seven Plasmodium Sm-like proteins in the intra-erythrocytic stages was assessed based on the protein(s) expression analysis using immuno-localization and western blotting. Localization/co-localization studies were performed by immunofluorescence analysis on thin parasite smear using laser scanning confocal microscope. Interaction studies were carried out using yeast two-hybrid analysis and validated by in vitro pull-down assays. PfPRMT5 (arginine methyl transferase) and PfSmD1 interaction analysis was performed by pull-down assays and the interacting proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. PfSm proteins are expressed at asexual blood stages of the parasite and show nucleo-cytoplasmic localization. Protein-protein interaction studies showed that PfSm proteins form a heptameric complex, typical of spliceosome core complex as shown in humans. Interaction of PfSMN (survival of motor neuron, tudor domain containing protein) or PfTu-TSN (Tudor domain of Tudor Staphylococcal nuclease) with PfSmD1 proteins was found to be methylation dependent. Co-localization by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation studies suggested an association between PfPRMT5 and PfSmD1, indicating the role of arginine methylation in assembly of Plasmodium spliceosome complex. Plasmodium Sm-like proteins form a heptameric ring-like structure, although the arrangement of PfSm proteins slightly differs from human splicing machinery. The data shows the interaction of PfSMN with PfSmD1 and this interaction is found to be methylation dependent. PfPRMT5 probably exists as a part of methylosome complex that may function in the cytoplasmic assembly of Sm proteins at asexual blood stages of P. falciparum.
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- "The Dengue RdRp sequence was included to the above alignment guided by threading results through the program PHYRE  and the eight motifs, I to VIII, known to be conserved in all RdR polymerases . As deduced by the sequence alignment (Figure 1(b)), the Dengue RdRp shared a relatively low overall sequence similarity with the two known RdRps: 34% sequence similarity (18% identity) with the HCV and a 31% sequence similarity (18% identity) with the BVDV RdRp, respectively. "
ABSTRACT: Protein structure is more conserved than sequence in nature. In this direction we developed a novel methodology that significantly improves conventional homology modelling when sequence identity is low, by taking into consideration 3D structural features of the template, such as size and shape. Herein, our new homology modelling approach was applied to the homology modelling of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of dengue (type II) virus. The RdRp of dengue was chosen due to the low sequence similarity shared between the dengue virus polymerase and the available templates, while purposely avoiding to use the actual X-ray structure that is available for the dengue RdRp. The novel approach takes advantage of 3D space corresponding to protein shape and size by creating a 3D scaffold of the template structure. The dengue polymerase model built by the novel approach exhibited all features of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and was almost identical to the X-ray structure of the dengue RdRp, as opposed to the model built by conventional homology modelling. Therefore, we propose that the space-aided homology modelling approach can be of a more general use to homology modelling of enzymes sharing low sequence similarity with the template structures.
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