ArticleLiterature Review

The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for the measurement of the protein value in human nutrition. The method is based on comparison of the concentration of the first limiting essential amino acid in the test protein with the concentration of that amino acid in a reference (scoring) pattern. This scoring pattern is derived from the essential amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child. The chemical score obtained in this way is corrected for true fecal digestibility of the test protein. PDCAAS values higher than 100% are not accepted as such but are truncated to 100%. Although the principle of the PDCAAS method has been widely accepted, critical questions have been raised in the scientific community about a number of issues. These questions relate to 1) the validity of the preschool-age child amino acid requirement values, 2) the validity of correction for fecal instead of ileal digestibility and 3) the truncation of PDCAAS values to 100%. At the time of the adoption of the PDCAAS method, only a few studies had been performed on the amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child, and there is still a need for validation of the scoring pattern. Also, the scoring pattern does not include conditionally indispensable amino acids. These amino acids also contribute to the nutrition value of a protein. There is strong evidence that ileal, and not fecal, digestibility is the right parameter for correction of the amino acid score. The use of fecal digestibility overestimates the nutritional value of a protein, because amino acid nitrogen entering the colon is lost for protein synthesis in the body and is, at least in part, excreted in urine as ammonia. The truncation of PDCAAS values to 100% can be defended only for the limited number of situations in which the protein is to be used as the sole source of protein in the diet. For evaluation of the nutritional significance of proteins as part of mixed diets, the truncated value should not be used. In those cases, a more detailed evaluation of the contribution of the protein to the amino acid composition of the mixed diet is required. From such an evaluation, it appears that milk proteins are superior to plant proteins in cereal-based diets.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The sensory quality traits vary greatly from one muscle to another, with the result that the way in which they are used varies (meat for grilling, roasting, braising, boiling) and influences their commercial value. Since 2000, in application of the European Regulations No. 1760/2000and No. 1825/2000, the origin of beef must be communicated to the consumer, except when it is incorporated into a processed product. This requirement Table 1 Main bovine carcass grading systems used around the world (adapted from Polkinghorne and Thompson, 2010 relates to birth, fattening, slaughter and cutting. ...
... The sensory quality traits vary greatly from one muscle to another, with the result that the way in which they are used varies (meat for grilling, roasting, braising, boiling) and influences their commercial value. Since 2000, in application of the European Regulations No. 1760/2000and No. 1825/2000, the origin of beef must be communicated to the consumer, except when it is incorporated into a processed product. This requirement Table 1 Main bovine carcass grading systems used around the world (adapted from Polkinghorne and Thompson, 2010 relates to birth, fattening, slaughter and cutting. ...
... A 'digestible indispensable amino acid score' of between 80 and 99% depending on the cooking methods confirms that beef is a source of high quality protein (Hodgkinson et al., 2018). Recently, a new score was proposed that also takes into account the essential amino acid profile: 'protein digestibility corrected amino acid score', a score adopted by the FAO to express the value of a protein in food (Huang et al., 2018;Schaafsma, 2000). The score for beef is 92, higher than soy and wheat (91 and 42, respectively) but lower than egg and cow's milk (118 and 121, respectively) (Schaafsma, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on beef carcass and meat quality, with particular emphasis on on-farm and processing factors associated with its high and inconsistent variability. The diversity of livestock systems comes from the diversity of breeds (dairy or beef), ages and gender (bulls, steers, heifers, cull cows) used to produce either mainly beef or beef and milk. In addition, there are factors linked to farming practices (including diet, especially grazing) which significantly influence the sensory, nutritional, technological and extrinsic (such as image) quality attributes of meat. These can become factors of positive differentiation when controlled by the application and certification of technical specifications. Finally, preslaughter (such as stress), slaughter (such as the chilling and hanging method of carcasses) and postslaughter (such as ageing, packaging and cooking) conditions have a strong influence on the microbiological, sensory, technological and image quality attributes of beef. In this review, potential synergisms or antagonisms between the different quality attributes are highlighted. For example, finishing cattle on grass, compared to indoor fattening on a high concentrate diet, has the advantage of producing leaner meat with a higher proportion of omega-3 fatty acids while exhibiting superior oxidative stability, but with the consequence of a darker meat colour and lower productivity, as well as higher seasonality and land surface requirements. Moreover, the control of on-farm factors is often guided by productivity (growth rate, feed conversion ratio) and carcass quality attributes (weight, conformation and fatness). Genetic selection has often been oriented in this direction, without taking other quality attributes into account. Finally, the interactions between all these factors (and especially between on-farm and slaughter or processing factors) are not considered in the quality grading schemes in European countries. This means that positive efforts at farm level may be mitigated or even eliminated by poor slaughtering or processing conditions. All these considerations explain why between-animal variability in quality can be high, even when animals come from the same farming system. The ability to predict the sensory and nutritional properties of meat according to production factors has become a major objective of the supply chain.
... A joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements (1981) was proposed to score amino acid patterns for infants, pre-school age children and adults. For infants, it was based on human breast milk composition and for pre-school aged children and adults it was on limited research data [17][18][19][20][21][22][23] (Schaafsma, G., 2005). FAO/WHO has widely accepted PDCASS as one of the reliable protein value scoring method in human nutrition. ...
... FAO/WHO has widely accepted PDCASS as one of the reliable protein value scoring method in human nutrition. Schaafsma, 2000 [18] reviewed PDCASS extensively and concluded that the protein quality can be assessed on the basis of its first limiting amino acids as percentage of the content of the same amino acid in a reference pattern of essential amino acids. Protein value exceeding 100% were automatically truncated to 100% as it was assumed that values more than 100% does not contribute additional benefits in humans. ...
... Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid is measured in percentage as-PDCASS%= (mg of first limiting amino acid in 1 g test protein)/ (mg of the same amino acid in 1 g reference protein) * TD (%) where, TD is true digestibility of faecal protein, as measured in rat assay. Studies have shown that amino acid that move through terminal ileum maybe consumed by bacteria and does not get utilized for protein synthesis, even though they do not appear in the faeces (Schaarfsma, 2000) [18] . However, to estimate true faecal digestibility, the location of protein synthesis is important and ileal digestibility would be more accurate. ...
Article
Full-text available
Protein bioavailability is a major concern in today’s dietary palate. Food protein is mainly quantified in terms of its nitrogen content. Nitrogen can be present as pure organic and/or inorganic form. It is highly dependent on the degree and sequences of amino acids. This in turn defines protein quality, which is an important factor especially for plant eating population. The present article aims to focus upon food nitrogen and its methods, commonly practised in laboratory. Also, the methods to assess protein quality will be extensively reviewed
... The fecal true digestibility percentage of peas (P. sativum) is 97% (31). ...
... The value obtained from the calculation results is greater than 1.00; The PDCAAS of PHGPB values of more than 1.00 are classified as good and easy-to-digest amino acids (31). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Fibrosis is the major cause of chronic kidney injury and the primary etiology in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. The initial study of protein hydrolysate of green peas hydrolyzed by bromelain (PHGPB) considered it to improve kidney function parameters and showed no fibrosis in histopathology features in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity rats. In the current study, we aimed to assess the nutrition profile and potency of RGD in PHGPB as antifibrosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and methods: Green peas (Pisum sativum) were hydrolyzed by bromelain from pineapple juice to obtain PHGPB. The amino acid content of PHGPB was measured using the UPLC method, while the primary structure used LC-MS/MS. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted using the Protease Specificity Predictive Server (PROSPER). The potency of RGD in PHGPB was characterized by determining the levels of Fibronectin (FN) and TGF-β1 in mesangial SV40 MES 13 cell lines of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Results: The level of lysine was 364.85 mg/l. The LC-MS/MS data showed two proteins with 4-15 kDa molecular weight originated from convicilin (P13915 and P13919) which were predicted by PROSPER proteolytic cleavage, resulted in RGD in the LERGDT sequence peptide. PHGPB increased SV40 MES 13 mesangial cell proliferation that died from high-glucose levels (diabetic glomerulosclerosis model). PHGPB and RGD reduced the levels of FN and TGF-β1 in mesangial cell lines of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Conclusion: The nutrition profile and RGD motif in PHGPB show great potential as antifibrosis in CKD.
... Moreover, several studies determined the protein content of duckweed, but few have analysed its amino acid (AA) composition and even less have determined the effect of various growing media on this composition. Nevertheless, this parameter is essential for determining the nutritional quality of proteins for broilers, pigs, and humans (FAO et al., 2007;Mc Donald et al., 2010;Schaafsma, 2000). Especially, essential amino acids (EAA) are of interest. ...
... Moreover, several studies determined the protein content of duckweed, but few have analysed its amino acid (AA) composition and even less have determined the effect of various growing media on this composition. Nevertheless, this parameter is essential for determining the nutritional quality of proteins (FAO et al., 2007;Mc Donald et al., 2010;Schaafsma, 2000). Especially, essential amino acids (EAA) are of interest. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The aim of this thesis was to investigate if duckweed cultivation on agricultural wastewaters would be feasible under European conditions. Therefore, the productivity, feed value, feed safety, treatment capacity, and rentability of duckweed are investigated (a schematic overview is provided in Figure 1.7). Action-based research was performed in this PhD, meaning that the experiments were mostly performed outside the lab, using real-life waste streams, and in uncontrolled outside conditions. It was concluded that duckweed shows potential to be an economically feasible treatment method of biological effluent of the pig manure treatment in Europe. Furthermore, Nitrate, As, Cd, and Pb did not raise problems towards feed safety, while the amino acid composition Mn, Zn, and Fe give the plant a high feed value.
... A potentially greater concern when comparing protein sources is the quality of the proteins being compared. Protein quality is associated with digestibility of proteins and their amino acid balance with respect to human daily amino acid requirements (FAO, 2011;Schaafsma, 2000). The digestibility of major proteins are: terrestrial meats, 80.1 to 97.0 (Faber et al., 2010;Mendes et al., 2016); eggs, 90.9% (Evenepoel et al., 1998); milk, 95.0% (Dupont & Tome, 2014); fish, 95.1% (Deng et al., 2016); shrimp, 93.7% (Dayal et al., 2013); molluscs, 79.2% (Wang et al., 2019). ...
... Other than for molluscs, aquatic animal proteins are similar to terrestrial meat, eggs, and milk in digestibility. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PACAAS) is widely used for assessing protein quality (Schaafsma, 2000). Animal-source proteins typically have higher PACAAS scores than do plant proteins (Berrazaga et al., 2019;Herreman et al., 2020;van Vliet et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of aquatic animal protein to the global, animal-source protein supply and the relative importance of aquaculture to capture fisheries in supplying this protein is relevant in assessments and decisions related to the future of aquatic food production and its security. Meat of terrestrial animals, milk, and eggs resulted in 76,966 Kt crude protein compared with 13,950 Kt or 15.3% from aquatic animals in 2018.While aquaculture produced a greater tonnage of aquatic animals, capture fisheries resulted in 7,135 Kt crude protein while aquaculture yielded 6,815 Kt. Capture fisheries production has not increased in the past two decades, and aquaculture production must increase to assure the growing demand for fisheries products by a larger and more affluent population. We estimated based on status quo consumption, that aquaculture production would need to increase from 82,087 Kt in 2018 to 129,000 Kt by 2050 to meet the demand of the greater population. About two-thirds of finfish and crustacean production by aquaculture is feed-based, and feeds for these species include fishmeal and fish oil as ingredients. Aquaculture feeds require a major portion of the global supply of fishmeal and fish oil. An estimated 71.0% of fishmeal and 73.9% of fish oil are made from the catch with the rest coming from aquatic animal processing waste. The catch of small, pelagic fish from the ocean is not predicted to increase in the future. Aquaculture should reduce its fishmeal and oil use to lessen its dependency on small wild fish important to the integrity of marine food webs and food security for the poor in many coastal areas. Fishmeal and fish oil shortages for use in aquaculture feed will result in a limit on production in the future if goals to lessen their use in feeds are not met.
... Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) allows for better comparison between studies and is the preferred method for protein digestibility measurement (Schaafsma 2000). The PDCAAS was 0.51 for whole hemp seed, 0.61 for dehulled hemp seed, and 0.48 for hemp seed cake , much lower than 0.91 reported for soybean (Schaafsma 2000). ...
... Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) allows for better comparison between studies and is the preferred method for protein digestibility measurement (Schaafsma 2000). The PDCAAS was 0.51 for whole hemp seed, 0.61 for dehulled hemp seed, and 0.48 for hemp seed cake , much lower than 0.91 reported for soybean (Schaafsma 2000). The limitation of hemp protein is its lysine concentration. ...
... Yet, in modern times the term "quality" lacks resolution, which can lead to misleading interpretations [48]. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) was adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) and is the preferred method for determining protein quality from foods [49]. The PDCAAS is a method of evaluating protein quality, typically expressed as a percentage (mg of limiting amino acid in 1 g of test protein/mg of same amino acid in 1 g of reference protein) × faecal true digestibility percentage) [49]. ...
... The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) was adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) and is the preferred method for determining protein quality from foods [49]. The PDCAAS is a method of evaluating protein quality, typically expressed as a percentage (mg of limiting amino acid in 1 g of test protein/mg of same amino acid in 1 g of reference protein) × faecal true digestibility percentage) [49]. Yet, when adopting such methods, animal proteins (>95% digestibility) tend to come out more favourably than certain plant proteins (50-80% digestibility) due to higher digestibility and a distribution of the nine essential amino acids regarded as being better aligned with human requirements [45,50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) lack uniformity globally, with the integration of protein food sources being highly variable. Protein guidance tends to be dichotomous, e.g., animal versus plant with other categories such as fungal proteins being overlooked. In 2019 the EAT Lancet Food in the Anthropocene report was a chief driver questioning the need to supply healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Some countries are developing FBDG that integrate these aspects, but these are quite often protracted, too subtle or misaligned with other countries, diluting the effects of meaningful global change. Protein quality metrics also underpin the dissemination of dietary guidance. However, for protein, these remain based on a food’s essential amino acid profile and digestibility scores, thus are nutritionally and physiologically centric. It has been proposed that this definition is becoming increasingly myopic from a wider societal perspective. Updated indices should include contemporary issues such as protein diversity and environmental outcomes. Taken together, there is opportunity for renewed thinking about both FBDG and protein quality definitions, with scope to include both health and environmental outcomes and need to move towards the concept of protein diversification.
... Plus, cereal bran, traditionally as unavoidable production of by-products in cereal industrial, is now getting more attention in food waste recovery including areas like animal feeds, new food development and research in functional ingredients. The protein digestibility of oat protein, wheat protein and barley protein were determined to be 90% (Welch, 2011), 91% (Schaafsma, 2000) and 87% (Nitrayová, Brestenský, & Patráš, 2018), respectively, indicating that these proteins are good nutrient sources for providing a high proportion of absorbed peptides and amino acids. However, the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of oat, wheat and barley protein was about 0.47 (Pedo, Sgarbieri, & Gutkoski, 1999), 0.42 (Joye, 2019) and 0.61 (Nitrayová et al., 2018) lower than egg (1.18), beef (0.92) and milk (1.21) (Schaafsma, 2000), limited by lysine and other limiting amino acids. ...
... The protein digestibility of oat protein, wheat protein and barley protein were determined to be 90% (Welch, 2011), 91% (Schaafsma, 2000) and 87% (Nitrayová, Brestenský, & Patráš, 2018), respectively, indicating that these proteins are good nutrient sources for providing a high proportion of absorbed peptides and amino acids. However, the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of oat, wheat and barley protein was about 0.47 (Pedo, Sgarbieri, & Gutkoski, 1999), 0.42 (Joye, 2019) and 0.61 (Nitrayová et al., 2018) lower than egg (1.18), beef (0.92) and milk (1.21) (Schaafsma, 2000), limited by lysine and other limiting amino acids. Protein concentrate has much higher protein content comparing to the original cereal and theoretically can increase the content of the limiting amino acids increasing the nutritional values. ...
Article
An alkaline extraction method has been used in many studies to extract total protein from cereal samples. Wheat bran protein concentrate (WBPC), oat bran protein concentrate (OBPC), and barley protein concentrate (BPC) were prepared by alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation to study their functional and nutritional properties. The three protein concentrates were hydrolysed by an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion model. Their digestibility (%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH%) were evaluated, and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to illustrate the protein and peptides patterns. The change of the particle sizes and the release of the essential amino acids was followed during the digestion process. The in vitro digestibility of WBPC, OBPC and BPC was 87.4%, 96.1% and 76.9%, respectively. The DH% of protein concentrates were between 50 and 60%. The change of the particle size distribution values Dv(50) was assumed to be related to protein aggregations during the digestion. The protein fractions were identified and the degradation during the digestion and were analysed by SDS-PAGE; the gels of WBPC and OBPC digestion showed virtually complete degradation whereas the intensive bands of undigested protein were presented for BPC. The generation of the free amino acids and short chain peptides were significantly higher at the end of the intestinal digestion compared to the stages of before and after gastric digestion. Higher content of the deficient amino acids such as lysine and threonine were found comparing to the level of deficient amino acids in cereal grains but does not meet the daily recommended intake.
... Les végétariens qui s'autorisent les oeufs et certains produits laitiers sont plus certains d'atteindre les apports minimums requis en acides aminés essentiels. Un autre chercheur a calculé que pour compléter 1 g de protéine de blé (soit 10 g de pain français), il fallait 6,2 g de protéine de soja (soit 60 g environ de tofu) mais seulement 2,6 g de protéines d'oeuf (soit 20,6 g d'oeuf, c'est à dire 1/3 d'oeuf) et 1,6 g de protéines de lait (soit à peine 7 g d'une tranche de comté, soit environ 1/6 ème d'une portion normale de fromage à un repas) (Schaafsma 2000) : l'avantage nutritionnel concernant l'apport protéique est sans conteste en faveur des produits animaux comparés aux analogues de viandes. ...
... En simplifiant, plus le PDCAAS et le DIAAS sont élevés, plus la valeur nutritionnelle est forte. En considérant la valeur nutritionnelle des protéines de seitan et celle de l'oeuf, il est évident que le seitan offre un apport très insatisfaisant en acides aminés essentiels quand on le compare à l'oeuf : le PDCAAS du seitan n'est que de 0,22 (Anwar et El-Chaghaby, 2019), celui du gluten de la farine de blé de 0,5 (Mathai et al., 2017) contre 1,18 pour l'oeuf (Schaafsma, 2000) ; le DIAAS du gluten est de 0,36 dans des pâtes de semoule de blé (Desai et al., 2018) et de 0,45 dans la farine de blé (Mathai et al., 2017), tandis que le DIAAS de l'oeuf (oeuf dur) est de 1,13 (Phillips, 2017). Il s'agit donc de ne surtout pas considérer le seul apport protéique mais de ne pas l'oublier non plus. ...
Article
Les substituts végétaux à la viande : éléments de formulation et analyse comparée desservices rendus avec les produits animaux. 1ère partie : les apports protéiquesLa qualité nutritionnelle des produits animaux est souvent négligée dans nos imaginaires de consommateurs. Le caractère durablepar ex. doit tenir compte de la soutenabilité pour l’homme, à commencer par la satisfaction de ses besoins nutritionnels le plus naturellementpossible. Pour commencer, les apports en protéine, en quantité par 100 g d’aliment comestible (cuit généralement), dépasse largement ceuxdes équivalents végétaliens, qu’il s’agisse d’analogues de viande à base de protéines végétales ou plats végétariens réputés sources de protéine(pois chiche, houmous, lentilles, tofu etc.). En outre, force est de constater que les produits animaux sont des sources protéiques de grandequalité nutritionnelle (DIAAS  80) contrairement aux équivalents végétariens (DIAAS  80). Les protéines animales sont plus facilementdigestibles avant l’arrivée du bol alimentaire dans le gros intestin - colon (Le DIAAS - Digestible Ileon Amino Acid Score - est désormais leseul critère de qualité protéique reconnu par la FAO et l’OMS) et les apports en acides aminés essentiels sont plus importants. La combinaisonde protéines de légumineuses et de céréales, complémentaires en théorie dans leurs apports en acides aminés essentiels n’est pas satisfaisantecependant pour un apport de qualité pour l’homme (DIAAS <100 très généralement).
... Since soy plants only produce one yield in their lifetime, their cultivation requires more land to meet demand. In 2017, 123.6 million hectares of land were used to grow 352.6 million tonnes of soybeans [20]. In the tropical countries where soy is largely produced, demand for soybean has resulted in vast areas of virgin land being cleared to grow this crop. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Perennial rye grass is a widely used forage species in Ireland, on which the ruminant sector of agriculture is heavily dependent. While this species of grass is the primary source of fodder for cows, it is also abundant in plant protein, which could form a potential alternative ingredient in monogastric animal feed using a green biorefinery approach. In this study, perennial rye grass was processed using a novel biorefining process to extract value added products including protein as a potential replacement for soybean meal in monogastric feeds. Feed trials were conducted on a commercial farm with 55 weaner pigs for 31 days until slaughter. The diets comprised a control and a trial diet which integrated the green biorefinery protein concentrate. The effects of the new diet were determined by measuring the daily feed intake (DFI), average weight gain (AWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Amino acid profiles of grass protein concentrate and soybean meal were comparable, with the latter having a slightly higher amount of total protein content, lysine and cysteine. The DFI and ADW indicated that the treatment diet was superior to the control. DFI for the treatment diet (1.512 kg/d) was 8% higher than the control diet (1.400 kg/d) by the end of the trial. Additionally, the ADW for the treatment diet was 6.44% higher than that achieved in the control sample. Meanwhile, FCR calculations indicated that the treatment diet is just as efficient as the conventional diet. Overall, the results of the study indicate positive potential for perennial ryegrass-derived green biorefinery protein concentrate as an alternative protein source for pig feed formulations in Ireland.
... Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid-Scoring (PDCAAS) was used as an index to evaluate the quality of protein of the tested breads. This parameter is calculated by the content of the first limiting amino acid of the protein of the tested food product as a percentage of the content of the same amino acid in a reference pattern of essential amino acids based on preschool-age child requirements (chemical score) multiplied by true fecal digestibility of the tested protein (Schaafsma, 2000); this approach has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for evaluation of the protein value in human nutrition. PDCAAS of breads fortified with chickpea flours and the control sample was calculated by multiplying the average protein fecal digestibility by the chemical score of the limiting amino acid (lysine for all breads), according to FAO (1991), based on the formulation and proximate composition data of the tested breads, as well as on literature data (Nosworthy et al., 2017) for amino acid analysis of chickpeas. ...
Article
Wheat flour was substituted by flour from roasted chickpeas at 10–20% (flour basis) and a multi-instrumental analytical approach was employed to explore the dough rheological behavior of the composite starch-proteins hydrated networks, the quality attributes of the resultant breads, as well as the staling process. Fortifications with roasted chickpea flour at 15 and 20% level significantly increased dough viscosity and elasticity as showed by oscillatory and creep-recovery rheological tests, implying higher dough resistance to flow and deformation that resulted in breads with significantly lower specific volumes and harder crumb than the control (bread without chickpea flour). Moreover, at 20% substitution level, staling kinetics of composite breads, as monitored by texture profile analysis, indicated a greater extent of crumb hardening at the end of storage, whereas the level of retrograded amylopectin in the crumb as assessed by calorimetry (DSC) did not differ among samples. Nevertheless, for bread with 20% chickpea flour, FTIR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in protein β-sheets and a further increment of such conformational change in the stored crumb, suggesting dehydration of gluten and its involvement in the staling process. Instead, formulations with 10% roasted chickpea flour did not exhibit any major influence on dough rheological behavior, as well as on textural attributes and bread staling. Furthermore, at 10% substitution of wheat flour by roasted chickpea flour, there was complete masking of the “grass-like” and reduced “beany and earthy” off-flavor notes in breads, as assessed by a trained panel, pointing to a product with higher overall acceptability.
... Therefore, when evaluating BV, its true digestibility is taken into account. The parameter "The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (or PDCAAS for short) [9], which is equal to the amino acid rate multiplied by true digestibility index, has been introduced. Its highest reference value is 1.0. ...
Article
The overview presents the literature data and the results of our own research on prospects of using the chicken eggs as the basis of functional foods. The composition of chicken eggs and their components, characteristics of egg white proteins properties are presented thereto. The biologically active compounds included into egg composition are analyzed. The data on the biological value of egg white are given. The characteristic of egg white foaming ability is presented. It has been shown that the ability of proteins to form stable intermolecular structures, especially with partially denaturated proteins, allows them forming viscoelastic superficial films that ensure foam stability. The high foaming ability of chicken egg protein macromolecules is directly related to their interphase properties, i. e. the ability to form interphase layers at the “liquid — gas” interface. The foaming properties of the various egg proteins are not equal, and therefore they contribute to foaming properties at various extents. The model of egg white proteins gelation is considered and the factors influencing the gelation process are described. It has been shown that very important changes in proteins properties are caused by denaturation. The proteins lose their ability to hydrate; the protective aqueous shell around the globules disappears, the proteins stick together, grow larger and lose solubility. This process is called coagulation. The influence of denaturation and aggregation on variations of protein properties is described below. Data on protein fortification with functional ingredients (calcium, iodine, plant polyphenols) and creation of functional egg and meat foods are presented here.
... The PDCAAS has been criticized for the fact that values higher than 100% are not accepted and thus are truncated to 100% (Rutherfurd et al., 2015). This method does not consider additional nutritional benefit given by high quality proteins (PDCAAS values >100%), which can balance the amino acid composition of lower proteins (PDCAAS values <100%; Schaafsma, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fermentation of a probiotic beverage enriched with pea and rice proteins (PRF) on its protein quality. The protein quality was determined as the protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), and the apparent (AD) and the true digestibility (TD) evaluated in vivo. The probiotic beverage was incorporated to a rat diet at a final concentration of 10% protein, for the evaluation of the PER, the NPR, the AD, and the TD. The protein digestibility amino acid score was also calculated. Results showed that the fermentation of beverage enriched with PRF had no effect on the TD but significantly increased the PER and the NPR (P ≤ 0.05) from 1.88 to 2.32 and from 1.66 to 2.30, respectively. Thus, the fermentation increased the protein quality of the PRF probiotic beverage. In addition, to determine if the beverage constitute in a good carrier matrix for the probiotics, the level of alive probiotics in the feces was evaluated and showed a concentration of 7.4 log CFU/g. Practical Application Plant proteins are often of lower quality compared to animal proteins. Lactic acid fermentation of pea and rice protein has allowed to reach the same protein quality as casein. A plant-based fermented beverage with high protein quality and enriched with probiotics was developed.
... For the assessment of the nutritional value of food the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) can be used [40]. This score has been used to measure the quality of proteins from aliments or groups of aliments with standard amino acid profiles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent data reiterate low-protein diets (LPDs) as cornerstones in the conservative management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The reduction in proteinuria, better blood pressure control and the reduction in the rate of decline in kidney function with LPDs were reported, both in non-diabetics and diabetics patients. Supplemented, vegetarian, very-low-protein diets (sVLPD, 0.3 g/kg-day) could postpone kidney replacement therapy (KRT) initiation, mainly through the better control of metabolic disorders of advanced CKD in non-diabetic patients. Plant-based diets could ameliorate gut microbiota and appear to be superior to mixed hypoproteic diets in treating advanced CKD: better control of nitrogen balance, acid-base metabolism and bone mineral disorders. Vegetarian diets generate fewer uremic toxins and reduce salt intake and acid overload. At the same time, they can improve lipid metabolism, providing a high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, as well as insulin resistance.
... Le PDCAAS a été créé pour la mesure de protéines simples ou complexes, c'est-à-dire contenant une seule protéine ou plusieurs (110 En résumé, les méthodes in vitro permettent d'obtenir de bonnes informations sur les processus de digestion des protéines et sur leur transformation en peptides et acides aminés (122). Mais elles ne permettent pas de retranscrire toute la complexité des processus de la digestion in vivo (123). ...
Thesis
En vue de diversifier les sources de protéines végétales pour l’alimentation humaine, le tournesol est un candidat intéressant. Il n’existe pas d’études chez l’Homme sur la qualité des protéines et acides aminés d’isolat de tournesol. La mesure directe de la digestibilité des acides aminés au niveau iléal est invasive, c’est pourquoi une nouvelle méthode moins invasive, dite double traceur, a été développée. Cette méthode repose sur l’administration de la protéine d’intérêt marquée au 2H ou au 15N et d’une protéine de référence marquée au 13C. Le rapport relatif entre les deux isotopes (15N/13C ou 2H/13C) d’un même acide aminé dans le repas et le plasma reflète l’absorption relative des deux protéines. Les objectifs de cette thèse sont (1) de déterminer la qualité protéique du tournesol et (2) de mettre en place et valider la méthode double traceur, chez le rat et chez l’Homme.Les protéines de tournesol ont été marquées soit au 15N et 2H en serre, soit au 15N en plein champ, et purifiées en isolats. Les études chez le rat ont permis de caractériser la qualité de l’isolat de tournesol, d’évaluer la pertinence de l’utilisation de la spiruline 13C comme protéine de référence dans la méthode double traceur et de mettre en application cette méthode. L’étude clinique visait à déterminer la qualité protéique de l’isolat de tournesol inclus dans un biscuit et de comparer les valeurs de digestibilité iléale obtenues par la mesure directe dans l’iléon via une sonde naso-iléale à celles de la méthode double traceur.La protéine de tournesol purifiée a une digestibilité élevée (95%) chez le rat mais plus faible chez l’Homme lorsqu’elle est incorporée et cuite dans un biscuit (87%), et ce malgré une bonne utilisation postprandiale (72%). Bien que modérément limitée en lysine (DIAAS de 0,78 à 0,94 selon le facteur de conversion protéine/N), son utilisation en alimentation humaine est intéressante. La méthode double traceur s’est avérée difficilement applicable chez le rat en raison de la faible quantité de sang prélevable séquentiellement. Chez l’Homme, la comparaison entre digestibilité iléale des acides aminés et les indices d’absorption 15N/13C dans le plasma montre que la méthode double traceur donne des valeurs cohérentes physiologiquement mais environ 10% plus faibles que les valeurs de digestibilité et une forte imprécision. L’utilisation du 2H n’ayant pu être testée, elle aurait peut-être produit de meilleurs résultats.
... Protein content (%) 1 34.50 20.20 Oil content (%) 1 18.40 44.50 Oil-free protein of the meal (%) 2 Protein quality for human nutrition is most commonly measured with a Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) [85][86][87] or, more recently, with a Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [67]. The PDCAAS for a given protein is generally a ratio of its amino acid composition relative to that of a reference protein, then normalized to its digestibility; effectively, a maximum score of 1.0, indicating that one unit of the protein in question is able to supply all the essential amino acids after digestion [85,87]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in canola (Brassica napus L.) ­In response to this interest, scientists have been tasked with altering and optimizing the protein production chain to ensure canola proteins are safe for consumption and economical to produce. Specifically, the role of plant breeders in developing suitable varieties with the necessary protein profiles is crucial to this interdisciplinary endeavour. In this article, we aim to provide an overarching review of the canola protein chain from the perspective of a plant breeder, spanning from the genetic regulation of seed storage proteins in the crop to advancements of novel breeding technologies and their application in improving protein quality in canola. A review on the current uses of canola meal in animal husbandry is presented to underscore potential limitations for the consumption of canola meal in mammals. General discussions on the allergenic potential of canola proteins and the regulation of novel food products are provided to highlight some of the challenges that will be encountered on the road to commercialization and general acceptance of canola protein as a dietary protein source.
... and chickpea (PDCAAS: 0.62-0.65) proteins, demonstrating that they can be considered suitable protein sources comparable to plant proteins [31][32][33]. The k-PDAAS analysis helps us to understand that protein quality should also be accounted for in terms of food use and sustainability. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seaweed biomass is considered a valuable and potential, alternative protein source but it is currently under-exploited. Seaweed or Macroalgae do not require arable land and freshwater for their cultivation, they are fast growing and contain several health ingredients and beneficial macronutrients. In this study, we determined the in vitro k-Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (k-PDCAAS) values of six different, Irish seaweeds using the rapid k-PDCAAS method. Based on the amino acid profile and protein content of each seaweed, the in vitro protein digestibility and k-PDCAAS scores were calculated. In addition, the limiting amino acid(s) for each of the six seaweeds was/were determined. Results suggest that although the in vitro digestibility was quite similar for all analyzed seaweeds, their k-PDCAAS scores varied significantly. The red seaweed Palmaria palmata had a k-PDCAAS score of 0.69 ± 0.014, while Fucus serratus had a value of 0.63 ± 0.084 and Alaria esculenta a value of 0.59 ± 0.021. The seaweeds were found to be rich in essential amino acids and taurine. Overall, the amino acid composition of the seaweeds studied suggests that they are suitable alternative protein sources for use in human nutrition providing both essential and non-essential amino acids to the consumer.
... For this reasons there are many attempts to find other sources of edible proteins that can be used directly or after processing in alimentation. (Hamilton, 1991;Schaafsma, 2000) Soy is recognized as a rich source of vegetable proteins, and these proteins are widely used after extraction for producing different foods that can substitute different meat or milk products. (Erdman, 1989;Messina, 1999;Montgomery, 2003) The disadvantage of soy proteins is that these proteins can produce many allergic reactions at some peoples due to various antinutritive factors. ...
Article
Pea’s proteins represent a valuable source of edible proteins which are well tolerating by human body, and contain all essential amino acids. Mature pea’s seeds are very rich in proteins that can be extracted in order to be used to improve the nutritional value of other foods. Pea’s proteins contain several fractions of albumins and globulins. We have used electrophoresis to separate and identify these fractions, to establish the molecular weight of each fraction, and also the proportion between them. The electrophoresis was conducted following the SDS-PAGE protocol. Using pea protein isolate as sample, we have found a number of 12 protein fractions with molecular weights ranging between 12500 and 140000 Daltons. From these, six fractions are prevalent.
... PDCAAS values more than 100% are not acceptable and hence it should be truncated to 100%. During adoption of the PDCAAS method, very few research have been done on requirement of amino acid, and therefore there is a need for validating the pattern of scoring, and this patter does not contain conditionally indispensable amino acids (Schaafsma, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Oilseed cakes left after the oil extraction for different purposes are chiefly used as cattle feed, compost amendment, or plant conditioner. These oilseed cakes are rich in protein, nitrogenous compounds, and minerals. Beside its conventional usage, studies have been conducted to utilize these protein rich resources for human consumption. Considering the exponentially increasing human population and escalating food prices, these protein rich sources can be a novel food commodity and used to extract protein. The quality and functional properties of extracted oilseed cake proteins not only supplement the existing protein sources for the human consumption but also solve the problem of oilseed cakes disposal along with the additional income to the oilseed crop producers and processers. Production of proteins for human consumption from oil seed cakes may also reduce the carbon and water footprints while producing animal protein. The present review will focused on analyzing the oilseed cake as a protein source, characterization, extraction techniques, and utilization in food products.
... Due to its longer history of use, the PDCAAS method has been applied more broadly than the DIAAS method [28]. Like the DIAAS method, the PDCAAS method calculates a value for protein quality based on the first limiting amino acid in relation to a reference pattern [59]. However, there are notable differences between the DIAAS method and the PDCAAS method [72]: ...
Article
Full-text available
For design of healthy and sustainable diets and food systems, it is important to consider not only the quantity but also the quality of nutrients. This is particularly important for proteins, given the large variability in amino acid composition and digestibility between dietary proteins. This article reviews measurements and metrics in relation to protein quality, but also their application. Protein quality methods based on concentrations and digestibility of individual amino acids are preferred, because they do not only allow ranking of proteins, but also assessment of complementarity of protein sources, although this should be considered only at a meal level and not a diet level. Measurements based on ileal digestibility are preferred over those on faecal digestibility to overcome the risk of overestimation of protein quality. Integration of protein quality on a dietary level should also be done based on measurements on an individual amino acid basis. Effects of processing, which is applied to all foods, should be considered as it can also affect protein quality through effects on digestibility and amino acid modification. Overall, protein quality data are crucial for integration into healthy and sustainable diets, but care is needed in data selection, interpretation and integration.
... The nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein from non-fermented and fermented milk was assessed on the level of different parameters: in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), amino acid score (AAS), and in vitro protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) [81]. In short, IVPD, AAS, and PDCAAS were determined using the K-PDCAAS kit (Megazyme International, Bray, Co. Wicklow, Ireland), following the instructions of the manufacturer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) display an attractive source for the rapidly increasing market of plant-based human nutrition. Of particular interest are press cakes of the seeds, cheap residuals from sunflower oil manufacturing that offer attractive sustainability and economic benefits. Admittedly, sunflower seed milk, derived therefrom, suffers from limited nutritional value, undesired flavor, and the presence of indigestible sugars. Of specific relevance is the absence of vitamin B12. This vitamin is required for development and function of the central nervous system, healthy red blood cell formation, and DNA synthesis, and displays the most important micronutrient for vegans to be aware of. Here we evaluated the power of microbes to enrich sunflower seed milk nutritionally as well as in flavor. Results Propionibacterium freudenreichii NCC 1177 showed highest vitamin B12 production in sunflower seed milk out of a range of food-grade propionibacteria. Its growth and B12 production capacity, however, were limited by a lack of accessible carbon sources and stimulants of B12 biosynthesis in the plant milk. This was overcome by co-cultivation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NCC 156, which supplied lactate, amino acids, and vitamin B7 for growth of NCC 1177 plus vitamins B2 and B3, potentially supporting vitamin B12 production by the Propionibacterium. After several rounds of optimization, co-fermentation of ultra-high-temperature pre-treated sunflower seed milk by the two microbes, enabled the production of 17 µg (100 g)⁻¹ vitamin B12 within four days without any further supplementation. The fermented milk further revealed significantly enriched levels of l-lysine, the most limiting essential amino acid, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, improved protein quality and flavor, and largely eliminated indigestible sugars. Conclusion The fermented sunflower seed milk, obtained by using two food-grade microbes without further supplementation, displays an attractive, clean-label product with a high level of vitamin B12 and multiple co-benefits. The secret of the successfully upgraded plant milk lies in the multifunctional cooperation of the two microbes, which were combined, based on their genetic potential and metabolic signatures found in mono-culture fermentations. This design by knowledge approach appears valuable for future development of plant-based milk products.
... The calculated AAS shows the high value of protein in Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris. With an AAS of 98 for beef, 121 for eggs, and 127 for milk [27], both microalgae powders are able to compete with animal-based protein. The inconsistencies in the Nfactor usage in previous studies have substantially impacted the calculations of the protein content and, therefore, hinder the comparability of the available data on the protein content in microalgae. ...
Article
Full-text available
The nutrient composition of 15 commercially available microalgae powders of Arthrospira platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and vulgaris, Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis, Tetraselmis chuii, and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was analyzed. The Dunaliella salina powders were characterized by a high content of carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n6-PUFAs), heavy metals, and α-tocopherol, whereas the protein amounts, essential amino acids (EAAs), omega-3-PUFAs (n3-PUFAs), vitamins, and minerals were low. In the powder of Haematococcus pluvialis, ten times higher amounts of carotenoids compared to all other analyzed powders were determined, yet it was low in vitamins D and E, protein, and EAAs, and the n6/n3-PUFAs ratio was comparably high. Vitamin B12, quantified as cobalamin, was below 0.02 mg/100 g dry weight (d.w.) in all studied powders. Based on our analysis, microalgae such as Aphanizomenon and Chlorella may contribute to an adequate intake of critical nutrients such as protein with a high content of EAAs, dietary fibers, n3-PUFAs, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Zn, as well as vitamin D and E. Yet, the nutritional value of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was slightly decreased by high contents of SFAs. The present data show that microalgae are rich in valuable nutrients, but the macro- and micronutrient profiles differ strongly between and within species.
... New emerging researches have shown that good quality protein is used for body regulation, composition and bone health, gastrointestinal functional and bacterial flora, glucose homeostasis, cell signalling and satiety etc (Millward et al., 2008). The protein quality of plantsources depends upon the amino acid composition, ratios of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acid, susceptibility to hydrolysis during digestion, source, the effects of processing and cooking method employed (Schaafsma, 2000). Proteins are not consumed in isolation but in a complex food matrix. ...
Article
Full-text available
Daily amino acid consumption in tune with recommended allowance for proper utilization and functioning of the body is imperative. Amino acids (both essential and non-essential) are crucial in the diet to support maximum bioavailability. Many researches have been initiated to elucidate the reason for the need and health benefits of high protein diet especially from plant protein sources. Though, antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid etc from plant protein sources inhibits the bioavailability of dietary protein but incorporation of proper cooking methods reduces/destroys such factors. Metabolic syndrome such as obesity, Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia etc. have been reported to be a major public health concern. The glycemic response as well as the progression of the disease depends upon the source, nature, quantity as well as quality of the macronutrients. GoodPlant quality protein diets have shown to delay the progression as well as the relapse propensity of the diseases. Many evidences have been amassed on the negative impacts of agricultural production and animal rearing on environmental integrity as well as animal welfare. The global impact of rearing, storage and slaughtering of animals are of much extreme concerns.
... Past studies have compared net protein utilization values using the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), a similar dichotomy. For example, on a scale of 100, plant sources range from 53-67, while animal sources range from 73-94 (Schaafsma, 2000). Nonetheless, one study noted that 48 untrained men and women were randomized over 12 weeks to either 19 g of whey protein isolate or 26 g of soy protein isolate, both containing a protein dose of 2 g of leucine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Purpose: In recent years, the aging population has gradually increased, and the aging process is accompanied by health-associated problems, such as loss of muscle mass and weakness. Therefore, it is important to explore alternative strategies for improving the health status and physical fitness of the aged population. In this study, we investigated the effect of soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training on changes in the muscle mass, muscle strength, and functional activity performance of aging mice. Methods: Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were divided into four groups ( n = 8 per group): sedentary control (SC), isolated soy protein (ISP) supplementation, resistance training (RT), and a combination of ISP and RT (ISP + RT). The mice in designated groups received oral ISP supplementation (0.123 g/kg/day), RT (5 days/week for a period of 4 weeks), or a combination of both ISP plus RT for 4 weeks. Afterward, we assessed muscle strength, endurance, and anaerobic endurance performance and analyzed blood biochemical and pathological tissue sections to investigate whether there were adverse effects or not in mice. Results: ISP supplementation effectively improved the muscle mass, muscle endurance, and endurance performance of aging female mice. The RT group not only showed similar results with ISP but also increased muscle strength and glycogen content. Nevertheless, the combination of ISP supplementation and RT had greater beneficial effects on muscle strength, physical performance, and glycogen levels ( p < 0.05). In addition, the combination of ISP supplementation and RT had significantly increased type II muscle percentage and cross-sectional area ( p < 0.05). Conclusion: Although ISP or RT alone improved muscle mass and performance, the combination of ISP with RT showed greater beneficial effects in aging mice. Our findings suggest that regular exercise along with protein supplementation could be an effective strategy to improve overall health and physical fitness among the elderly.
... TCPMs may exert their quality-improving influence on cereal protein by enhancing protein digestibility, increasing AAs yield, and decreasing ANF contents (Oghbaei & Prakash, 2016). Protein quality is currently being evaluated using the newly recommended digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), thus replacing the protein digestibility-corrected amino acids score (PDCAAS) system which has been in use since the turn of the 21 st century Ghosh, 2016;Joye, 2019;Leser, 2013;Schaafsma, 2000). The DIAAS method is based on a comparism between the level of all digestible EAAs in the protein content (per gram) of the test food material and the level of those digestible EAAs in a reference protein such as egg albumin or milk proteins. ...
... Amino acids are precursors for the synthesis of many nitrogenous substances with various biological significance (Wu, 2009(Wu, , 2010. They are the building blocks of protein and are high in biological values that have several functions such as antimicrobial, growth factors, enzymes, some bioactive, peptides cytokinines, nucleotides as well as acting as hormones, growth factors, antibodies, enzymes, and immune stimulants (Schaafsma, 2000;Haug et al., 2007). Milk products are good alternate sources of essential and non-essential amino acid as a way of improving protein nutrition (Haug et al., 2007;Barłowska et al., 2011) Cow milk is the universally and most acceptable commercial milk. ...
Article
Full-text available
Milk from the indigenous breeds in Nigeria is the most consumed by the populace. The certainty of the quality of the milk produced from this traditional pastoralists in Nigeria are unknown to most consumers. This work aimed at investigating the differences caused by breeds on the amino acid constituents of the milk of four breeds of cattle (Red Bororo, Adamawa Gudali, White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali) in Mubi. A total of eighty (80) milk samples (20 each per breed) were collected and analyzed for amino acids profile. The result indicated a significant(P<0.05) effect of breed on means of Lysine, Methionine, Isoleucine, phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid while Threonine, Leucine, Histidine, Arginine, Serine, Cysteine, Alamine, Glycine and Proline were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the breed. White Fulani recorded the highest in Glutamic acid, Red Bororo recorded the highest in Isoleucine), Valine, Tryptophan while Adamawa Gudali had the highest in Phenylalanine. Principal component (PC) 1 and 2 in each of the breeds accounted for over 90% percent cumulative variance suggesting that most of the amino acids in the milk of cows studied are varied within PC1 and PC2. There is no significant (p>0.05; r =-0.10-0.22) correlation between lysine with threonine, phenylalanine and serin and glutamic acid; valine with aspartic acid; threonine with valine and glutamic acid but a perfect correlation (p<0.001: r = 1.00) exist between tryptophan with isoleucine; histidine with glycine and valine with cysteine. It is therefore concluded that milk from Red Bororo had a better immune property than the other counterparts. The component 1 and 2 should be maximized in choosing the lantern variables that codes for amino acids profile in Nigerian cattle.
... A greater proportion of dietary fibre in plant protein food matrices is also expected to reduce protein digestibility [20]. Protein quality can be summarised using the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) [21]. See Fig. 1 for an overview of PDCAAS for different protein sources. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The evidence base for the role of dietary protein in maintaining good muscle health in older age is strong; however, the importance of protein source remains unclear. Plant proteins are generally of lower quality, with a less favourable amino acid profile and reduced bioavailability; therefore, it is possible that their therapeutic effects may be less than that of higher quality animal proteins. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of plant and animal protein interventions on muscle health outcomes. Methods A robust search strategy was developed to include terms relating to dietary protein with a focus on protein source, for example dairy, meat and soy. These were linked to terms related to muscle health outcomes, for example mass, strength, performance and sarcopenia. Five databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and Web of Science. Studies included will be randomised controlled trials with an adult population (≥ 18) living in the community or residential homes for older adults, and only English language articles will be included. Two independent reviewers will assess eligibility of individual studies. The internal validity of included studies will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Results will be synthesised in narrative format. Where applicable, standardised mean differences (SMD) (95% confidence interval [CI]) will be combined using a random-effects meta-analysis, and tests of homogeneity of variance will be calculated. Discussion Dietary guidelines recommend a change towards a plant-based diet that is more sustainable for health and for the environment; however, reduction of animal-based foods may impact protein quality in the diet. High-quality protein is important for maintenance of muscle health in older age; therefore, there is a need to understand whether replacement of animal protein with plant protein will make a significant difference in terms of muscle health outcomes. Findings from this review will be informative for sustainable nutritional guidelines, particularly for older adults and for those following vegan or vegetarian diets. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD420201886582
... In contrast to much of the world, which relies on plant proteins, about 2/3 of dietary protein in the US comes from ASF (28 potassium, fiber, and vitamin D continue to be nutrients of concern, especially for women and children (29). These nutrients, plus choline, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, and E, are underconsumed. ...
... However, the most commonly accepted and understood index is the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), rating "high-quality" proteins with a PDCAAS of ≥1.0. Accordingly classified, soy as representative for plant-proteins (PDCAAS of 1.0), alongside dairy proteins (e.g., whey and casein) is recommended for athletes (Moore et al., 2014;Phillips and Van Loon, 2011;Schaafsma, 2000). ...
Chapter
Technology-supported food development is an important aspect of modern societies. At the same time, there is a strong trend towards natural and whole plant-food diets as practicable tools to be implemented in everyday life. In ancient times, gladiators and prominent philosophers already knew that plant-based diets (vegetarian, vegan) lead to peak performance. This chapter presents data on a highly underestimated body of evidence-based scientific information, still mostly neglected by nutrition science, and provides a more basic but dual approach to food bio-engineering and human development. This comprehensive overview of vegetarian and vegan diets ranges from the myths about meat and early studies into the effect of vegetarian diets on sports, through the flood of studies published on the health-threatening effects of foods from animal sources, to current studies showing the benefits of of predominantly plant-based diets on human health and sports performance, but without claim of completeness. What does this chapter add?  This chapter reminds of the fact that vegan diets not only supply all nutrients in adequate amounts (except for vitamin B12), but has enabled recreational as well as professional athletes to achieve top performances in their chosen disciplines. How might this impact daily dietary practice?  The knowledge about the benefits of a vegan diet on mental and physical performance can motivate conventional consumers to change to some kind of vegetarian diet, which would be beneficial, in addition to health, also to the environment, the climate and animal welfare.
... The use of a scoring method known as protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score to rate how viable a protein is uses a maximum score of 1.0. Most plant foods have values of 0.5-0.7 while animal proteins like beef have a value of 0.9 (Schaafsma 2000). Glutamic acid/glutamine is the highest amino acid in meats (16.5%), followed by aspartate, alanine, and arginine. ...
Article
Full-text available
The immune system protects human health from the effects of pathogenic organisms; however, its activity is affected when individuals become infected. These activities require a series of molecules, substrates, and energy sources that are derived from diets. The consumed nutrients from diets help to enhance the immunity of infected individuals as it relates to COVID-19 patients. This study aims to review and highlight requirement and role of macro- and micronutrients of COVID-19 patients in enhancing their immune systems. Series of studies were found to have demonstrated the enhancing potentials of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and selenium) in supporting the immune system’s fight against respiratory infections. Each of these nutrients performs a vital role as an antiviral defense in COVID-19 patients. Appropriate consumption or intake of dietary sources that yield these nutrients will help provide the daily requirement to support the immune system in its fight against pathogenic viruses such as COVID-19.
... PDCAAS = (mg of limiting essential amino acid in 1 g of test protein/mg of same amino acid in 1 g of reference protein) x digestibility of the protein source. [31] The FAO/WHO recommended reference protein is that which constitutes the pre-school child (2-5 years) suggested patterns of amino acid requirements. [32,33] Other protein quality parameters were determined as stated by Anyalogbu et al.: [27] The total amino acid (TAA), the total essential amino acid (TEAA), TEAA as a percentage of TAA (%TEAA), the total neutral amino acid (TNAA), the total acidic amino acid (TAAA), the total basic amino acid (TBAA), the total sulphur amino acid (TSAA), percentage cysteine in TSAA (%Cys/TSAA), the total aromatic amino acid (TArAA), Leu/Ile ratio, etc. were estimated from the amino acid profile. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fermentation, an age-long process, is used to transform and preserve food materials via the growth and metabolic actions of microorganisms. The organisms could be autochthonous or ones with specific properties deliberately added depending on the desired effect. In this work, milled brown soybean seeds were subjected to solid-state fermentation using organisms known to have probiotic functions: Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium animalis and Saccharomyces boulardii. The effect on the proximate composition, energy value, and amino acids concentration were evaluated. Results: Protein and fibre gave the highest and least proximate values respectively. Fermentation increased ash and carbohydrate contents yielding peak values at 24 h (2.91±0.60 g/100g sample) and 72 h (13.68±1.04 g/100g sample) respectively, with increment in carbohydrate been statistically significant (p<0.05) at all fermentation time. Fibre on the other hand was steadily reduced and the reduction becomes significant (p<0.05) after 24 h fermentation. Protein was decreased by 24 hr fermentation and then increased yielding peak value (47.08±0.99 g/100g sample) at 48 hr. Peak values were obtained for fat (27.94±2.72 g/100g sample) and energy content (470.25±25.56kcal 100g-1 sample) at 24 hr fermentation. The values of amino acids assayed were generally increased by fermentation producing peak values at 24 hr. Beyond 24 hr the amino acids were diversely affected. Also except for %TNEAA, %TAAA, %Cys in TSAA, Leu/Ile ratio, and % Leu-Ile all the protein quality parameters calculated were mainly increased by fermentation exhibiting peak values at 24 hr fermentation. Conclusion: Fermentation of brown soybean using the consortium of probiotic organisms for 24 hr improved its proximate and amino acid contents and energy value making it more valuable in human and animal nutrition.
... A similar dichotomy is observed for net protein utilization values, whereby plant sources range from 53-67 while animal sources range from 73-94 on a 100-point scale. One of the most commonly used quality comparators is that of Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scores (PDCAAS) [21]. When using this approach, a score of 100 suggests that after considering its fecal digestibility, a given protein source can fully deliver all of the essential amino acids required by the body. ...
Article
Full-text available
Adequate dietary protein is important for many aspects of health with current evidence suggesting that exercising individuals need greater amounts of protein. When assessing protein quality, animal sources of protein routinely rank amongst the highest in quality, largely due to the higher levels of essential amino acids they possess in addition to exhibiting more favorable levels of digestibility and absorption patterns of the amino acids. In recent years, the inclusion of plant protein sources in the diet has grown and evidence continues to accumulate on the comparison of various plant protein sources and animal protein sources in their ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS), heighten exercise training adaptations, and facilitate recovery from exercise. Without question, the most robust changes in MPS come from efficacious doses of a whey protein isolate, but several studies have highlighted the successful ability of different plant sources to significantly elevate resting rates of MPS. In terms of facilitating prolonged adaptations to exercise training, multiple studies have indicated that a dose of plant protein that offers enough essential amino acids, especially leucine, consumed over 8–12 weeks can stimulate similar adaptations as seen with animal protein sources. More research is needed to see if longer supplementation periods maintain equivalence between the protein sources. Several practices exist whereby the anabolic potential of a plant protein source can be improved and generally, more research is needed to best understand which practice (if any) offers notable advantages. In conclusion, as one considers the favorable health implications of increasing plant intake as well as environmental sustainability, the interest in consuming more plant proteins will continue to be present. The evidence base for plant proteins in exercising individuals has seen impressive growth with many of these findings now indicating that consumption of a plant protein source in an efficacious dose (typically larger than an animal protein) can instigate similar and favorable changes in amino acid update, MPS rates, and exercise training adaptations such as strength and body composition as well as recovery.
... Towards this end, several assessments of protein quality have been put forward and various scales devised. Scales such as the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), adopted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) [29] and the digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) [30] have been reviewed extensively elsewhere [30]. However, protein quality also needs to be balanced with effects on human health, at least in certain groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate, for the first time, the acute effects on glycaemic indices, gut hormones, and subjective appetite ratings of two high-quality, plant-derived protein isolates (potato and rice), in comparison to a whey protein isolate in a single-blind, triple-crossover design study with nine male participants (30.8 ± 9.3 yrs). Following a 12 h overnight fast, participants consumed an equal volume of the three isocaloric protein shakes on different days, with at least a one-week washout period. Glycaemic indices and gut hormones were measured at baseline, then at 30, 60, 120, 180 min at each visit. Subjective palatability and appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) over the 3 h, at each visit. This data showed significant differences in insulin secretion with an increase in whey (+141.8 ± 35.1 pmol/L; p = 0.011) and rice (−64.4 ± 20.9 pmol/L; p = 0.046) at 30 min compared to potato protein. A significantly larger total incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was observed with whey versus potato and rice with p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in average appetite perception between the different proteins. In conclusion, this study suggests that both plant-derived proteins had a lower insulinaemic response and improved glucose maintenance compared to whey protein.
Article
As the second most abundant protein in milk, whey contains many bioactive proteins, which play important role in the health benefits and defence system of consumers. Whey proteins usually undergo different heating treatments during dairy processing. Although heat treatment kills pathogens and bacteria to guarantee the safety of dairy products, it also causes changes in the structure and bioactivity of whey proteins. This review first introduces a few abundant whey proteins as well as their biological functions, then describes the changes in the physicochemical properties, Maillard reaction, oxidation, cross-linking and aggregation of whey proteins. Last but not least, we also discuss heat induced the changes in digestibility, allergenicity, and other bioactivity of whey proteins. In summary, the heat induced denaturation of whey proteins may not only influence the nutritional value, but may also change the properties of dairy products, the immunological reaction and bioactivity.
Chapter
Full-text available
Bal arıları meyve, sebze ve tohum oluşumu için çok önemli hayvanlardır. Arılar, çiçekli bitkilerin erkek yapılarındaki polenleri dişi kısımlarına aktararak bitkilerde meyve ve tohum oluşumunu sağlar. Ayrıca bal yapmaları nedeniyle de tarih boyunca bu böceklere çok önem verilmiştir. Biz insanlar her zaman bal arısına hayran olmuşuzdur. Afrika, Avrupa ve Asya’daki en eski atalarımız, yüz binlerce yıl boyunca, bu arının bal depolama ve balmumu yapma konusundaki şaşırtıcı endüstrisine, çok değerli iki maddeye kesinlikle hayran kaldılar. Daha yakın zamanlarda, son 10.000 yılda, karmaşık arıcılık zanaatını icat ettik ve bal arıları üzerine bilimsel çalışmalarımıza başladık. Örneğin, bu arının «çiçek değişmezliği» uygulamasını ilk kez tanımlayan antik filozof Aristotales’ti: Bir işçi arı, yiyecek toplamanın verimliliğini artırmak için yiyecek arama gezisi boyunca genellikle bir tür çiçeğe yapışır. Bal arısının doğal dünyasında nasıl yaşadığını bilmek, geniş bir bilimsel araştırma yelpazesi gerekmektedir. Bunun nedeni, Apis mellifera’nın biyolojideki, özellikle davranışla ilgili temel soruları araştırmak için model sistemlerden biri haline gelmesidir. Bu arıları ister hayvan bilişindeki, ister davranışsal genetikteki veya sosyal davranışlardaki bazı gizemleri çözmek için çalışıyor olun, birinin deneysel araştırmalarını tasarlamadan önce doğal biyolojilerine aşina olmak kritik derecede önemlidir.
Chapter
Dietary proteins are the source of indispensable, dispensable and functional amino acids essential for the synthesis of body proteins and the regulation of physiological processes. They also are beneficial in alleviating lifestyle and/or age-related health problems (e.g. loss of muscle mass and strength, obesity/sarcopenic obesity, dyslipidaemia, bone mineral loss and type-2 diabetes) because of their roles in the promotion of muscle protein synthesis, satiation, optimisation of growth factors, inhibition of inflammatory substances and regulation of major pathways of metabolism, though protein-quantity and quality are major determinants of nutritional and disease-preventing effects. The intake of high quality proteins in adequate amounts together with healthy lifestyle can contribute to healthy aging through maintenance of muscle mass and/or enhanced ability of recovering from diseases, while proteins from legumes/pulses and milk (e.g. whey proteins) may benefit elderly people by reducing the risk of coronary artery diseases, obesity, bone density loss, type-2 diabetes and associated morbidities/mortalities. This chapter discusses health benefits of increased intake of dietary proteins in elderly people and provides an overview of protein quality and methods for evaluating the same. The chapter also outlines functions of dietary proteins and compares animal and plant proteins for their quality and health benefitting effects.
Chapter
Groundnut or peanut is one of the major oilseeds and food crops cultivated globally. This oilseed can be directly consumed as a foodstuff, is a rich source of oil, protein and carbohydrates and other nutrition like tocopherol, niacin and folic acid; mineral components like Cu, Mn, K, Ca and P; dietary fibres, flavonoids, phytosterols like resveratrol, beta-sitosterol; and phenolic acids. The cultivated groundnut Arachis hypogea is a segmental amphidiploid (4x = 40), and cytogenetic and molecular evidences suggest that the origin of cultivated groundnut was from a hybridization of two diploid wild species Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaensis (BB). Eighty-three species of Arachis have been described and most of species in the genus Arachis are diploid with x = 10 (2n = 20), while a few aneuploid (2n = 2x = 18) and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species are also reported, and new taxa continue to be discovered. Higher yield has been the most frequently targeted trait in the breeding programmes, and the enhanced yield attained in the Indian cultivars has been attributed to the improvement in seed size, seed weight, and number of pods per plant. The other trait which have been in focus is tolerance/resistance to diseases and drought, which have been the major production constraints. Improving quality of the produce also is now being taken up in addition to enhancement of yield. Early leaf spot (ELS; caused by Cercospora arachidicola), late leaf spot (LLS; caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata) and rust (caused by Puccinia arachidic) are the most prevalent foliar fungal diseases in groundnut. Among the viral diseases reported in groundnut from India, peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV), tobacco streak virus (TSV), peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), and Indian peanut clump virus (IPCV) are the economically important. Among nematodes, peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) and the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus brachyrus) are prominent. The breeding programmes across the groundnut growing countries mainly focus on these.
Article
This study evaluated the effects of three drying techniques, tray drying, roasting and microwave vacuum drying, on the physical properties, secondary structures, in vitro protein digestibility and X-ray tomographic structure of crickets (Acheta domesticus) and mulberry silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori L.). The protein contents of dried crickets and silkworm pupae were 49-54% and 51-53% (dry basis), respectively. Roasting produced a significantly higher browning index than the other two methods for crickets and silkworm pupae. The microwave vacuum-dried crickets exhibited the lowest hardness, with hardness values of approximately half those of the tray-dried and roasted crickets. Tray-drying and microwave vacuum drying silkworm pupae produced similar hardness values, which were lower than that of roasted silkworm pupae. The energy consumption of the tray dryer was the lowest, followed by the roaster and microwave vacuum dryer. No significant changes in the secondary protein structure of dried silkworm pupae were observed. A significant decrease in α-helix and β-turn and increase in β-sheet was observed in roasted crickets. Cricket and silkworm pupae powders produced from all drying techniques could be easily digested (90-95% digestibility). This work presents valuable knowledge for understanding the effects of different drying techniques on the properties of dried edible insects, aiming to support the production of alternative and sustainable protein sources for the growing population to improve food security.
Article
The recent Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University expert consultations on protein requirements and quality have emphasized the need for the new Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS), as a measure of protein quality. This requires human measurements of the true ileal digestibility of individual indispensable amino acids (IAA) until the end of the small intestine. Digestibility is measured using standard oro-ileal balance methods, which can only be achieved by an invasive naso-ileal intubation in healthy participants or fistulation at the terminal ileum. Significant efforts have been made in last two decades to develop non-invasive or minimally invasive methods to measure IAA digestibility in humans. The application of intrinsically labeled (with stable isotopes like 13C, 15N and 2H) dietary proteins have helped in circumventing the invasive oro-ileal balance techniques and allowed for the differentiation between endo and exogenous protein digestibility. The non-invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, which is routinely employed to measure IAA requirements, has been modified to estimate metabolic availability (a sum of digestibility and utilization) of IAA in foods, but provide estimate for a single IAA at a time and burdensome for participants. The recently developed minimally invasive dual isotope tracer method measures small intestinal digestibility of multiple amino acids at once and is suitable for use in vulnerable groups and disease conditions. However, it remains to be validated against standard oro-ileal balance techniques. This review critically evaluates and compares the currently available stable isotope-based protein quality evaluation methods with a focus on the digestibility and metabolic availability measurements in humans. In the view of building reliable DIAAS database of various protein sources and subsequently supporting protein content claims in food labeling, a re-evaluation and harmonization of the available methods are necessary.
Chapter
With the rising prevalence of obesity, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been steadily increasing globally over the last three decades. T2DM is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels associated with insulin resistance. Elevated blood glucose is associated with the formation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other advanced glycation end products which may cause oxidative stress. Hyperglycemia leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species resulting in high levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Evidence suggests that dietary interventions can improve diabetes outcomes. Soya (Glycine max L.) has been an important legume food crop for many millennia. The seed contains 30%–50% protein and 14%–24% unsaturated oil with considerable amount (>50%) of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this chapter, we review some of the evidence linking soya intake, in particular soya protein and isoflavones, to glycaemic markers of T2DM from epidemiological and intervention trials, highlighting the importance of study design to the interpretation of results. We discuss potential mechanisms of action and the links to inflammation. We review strategies to integrate soya into functional foods for T2DM.
Article
Background: Non-Dairy (ND) food consumption is rapidly increasing in the UK and for many consumers plant-based diets are presumed to be healthier than standard diets. ND alternatives have different nutritional compositions, and their consumption could present challenges on a public-health level. Aim: To compare the price and nutritional composition of dairy and ND milks and cheeses in UK supermarkets. Methods: Macro and micronutrient data was recorded from Alpro's website and the 6 leading UK grocers for their own-label ND milks and cheeses. For missing micronutrient values the McCance & Widdowson's dataset was used. 99 total products were extracted: 57 ND milks, 7 dairy milks, 10 dairy cheeses and 25 ND cheeses. Dairy milk and cheese were used as control against which all ND products were compared. Results: Soya and coconut milks had lower values of carbohydrates, sugars, calcium, iodine, and potassium ( p < 0.01) than dairy. Almond milk had lower values of carbohydrates ( p = 0.01), sugars, calcium, iodine, and potassium ( p < 0.01) compared to dairy milk. Protein was significantly ( p < 0.01) lower for all ND except soya. Dairy cheeses had higher values for energy, protein, iodine, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and calcium ( p < 0.01) than ND. Median prices were similar between dairy and ND milks, whereas ND cheeses were significantly more expensive compared to dairy ( p < 0.01). Conclusions: ND alternatives fall short in several key nutrients compared to dairy. Fortification, accurate labelling and nutrition education are needed to help consumers make healthy and informed choices.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the importance of animal protein and why there is a need to replace animal protein sources with vegetable proteins. It provides an overview of the main key plants (Legumes, cereals, nuts and mushrooms) used primarily as a source of protein. The chapter includes a description of nutritional and health effects along with functional and technologically important properties of vegetable proteins and also the allergy issues of various vegetable proteins. In addition, it discusses the use of protein isolates in different forms in food. Finally, the meal plan was examined, explaining the age wise requirement of protein isolates, in different meal times of the day.
Chapter
Protein is very important for various structural as well as physiological functions in human body and its deficiency for longer time may result in mild to severe disease conditions leading to serious complications. Protein quantity and quality both are equally important for consumers. The quantity required by a consumer depends on age, gender and physical activity. There are two main sources of edible protein i.e., animal and plants. Proteins from both sources vary in composition, presence of essential amino acids, bioavailability and other quality parameters. In general, animal-based proteins have all essential amino acids and have good bioavailability in comparison to plant-based proteins, which are deficient in one or more essential amino acids. Both food sources have their own merits and demerits as protein is not available alone but, in a package, containing other macro and micronutrients including bioactive compounds and functional ingredients. So, the source of protein should be chosen wisely keeping in mind age, gender, physical activity, body requirement and presence of non-communicable diseases. In the present chapter, major plant and animal protein sources have been discussed in detail with relevance to overall composition, protein quality, presence of unique bioactive compounds, impact of protein sources on human health as well as environmental impact during food production.
Article
Full-text available
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and affects about 25% of the population globally. Obesity and diabetes are the main causes of the disease characterized by excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver. There is currently no direct pharmacological treatments for NAFLD. Dietary intervention and lifestyle modification are the key strategies in the prevention and treatment of the disease. Soy consumption is associated with many health benefits such as decreased incidence of coronary heart disease, type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and obesity. The hypolipidemic functions of soy components have been shown in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Dietary soy proteins and associated isoflavones suppressed the formation and accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver and improved NAFLD-associated metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying the effects of soy components are mainly through modulation of transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2, and expressions of their target genes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis as well as lipid droplet-promoting protein, fat-specific protein-27. Inclusion of appropriate amounts of soy protein and isoflavones in the diets might be a useful approach to decrease the prevalence of NAFLD and mitigate disease burden.
Article
Full-text available
A systematic use of biofertilizers can improve both the quality of a farming system and the parameters of milk. Some issues related to biofertilization experiments on six farms in the Po Valley (NW Italy) involved in the production of milk from dairy cattle fed maize silage or grazed on hay produced from permanent meadows are reported in this paper. Biofertilized maize was found to lower the live stem pH by about 2.3%, and NIR spectroscopy foreshadowing major changes in the composition. Overall, the plant silage was improved in quantity (+10%) but also in quality, as shown by the delayed maturity stage of the leaves (crop maturity index -4%), the lower indigestible NDF content (-7%), and the higher digestible carbohydrates and protein in the whole plants. Such favorable feeding conditions, together with the improved palatability of the feed ration, boosted the nutrient values of the protein (+4.6%) and fat contents (+5.7%) in the milk. Moreover, the functional properties of the milk were ameliorated, as testified by the higher levels of vitamin A (+27%) and vitamin E (+25%) and the reduced levels of saturated fatty acids (-6%), especially myristic (-18%) and stearic (-32%) acids, while the unsaturated acids increased by 15%. As far as economy aspects are concerned, the biofertilization of maize for silage has led to consistent rewards pertaining to the marginal price of the milk, which in turn has led to a value chain increase of about 9%, because of the fields cultivation, but mainly of the cow transformation in milk quality issues. On another farm, intensive maize was substituted with permanent biofertilized meadows, over a greening path, and a + 17% value chain increase was obtained that already derived mainly from the best price for milk quality parameters. Such an evolutionary leap toward a new vision of sustainable agriculture for the environment and for animals, in which a better quality of products, animal welfare and company budget are combined with soil biofertilization, can be considered a bonanza.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference between ileal and faecal assays for determining amino acid and N digestibilities in adult human subjects. Comparison of true ileal amino acid and N digestibilities was also made between adult human subjects and growing pigs to establish the usefulness of the pig as a model animal. Five subjects with established ileostomies and six subjects with intact large bowels consumed a constant diet consisting of meat, vegetables, fruit, bread and dairy products for 7 d with collection of ileostomy contents or faeces respectively over the last 4 d. The study was repeated using 25 kg body weight ileostomized and intact pigs. Apparent amino acid and N digestibility coefficients were determined. For human subjects the faecal digestibility values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the ileal values for Arg, Asp, Gly, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr and Trp. The faecal digestibility of Met was significantly lower than the ileal value. Determination of DNA, diaminopimelic acid (DAPA) and the digestibilities of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose in human subjects indicated that some microbial colonization had occurred at the terminal ileum after formation of an ileostomy; however, this was not as extensive as in the large intestine. True ileum amino acid and N digestibilities were calculated after correcting for the endogenous contribution of amino acids at the terminal ileum determined using a protein-free diet. There were no significant differences between adult human subjects and pigs for true ileal dietary amino acid digestibility except for Thr, Phe, Cys and Met. There were no significant differences between adult humans and pigs for the ileal digestibility of dry matter and the faecal digestibility of gross energy.
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments were conducted to determine apparent ileal DM and crude-protein (CP) digestibilities in rations fed to pigs. An evaluation was made of Cr2O3 and HCl-insoluble ash as digestive markers. In addition, the effects of body weight (BW) on apparent ileal DM and CP (N x 6.25) digestibilities were studied. In Expt 1, thirteen barrows averaging 35 kg BW were fitted with post-valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas to determine the apparent ileal DM and CP digestibilities of a wheat gluten-bran ration (B2) and a soyabean-meal ration (E1). Immediately after morning feeding ileal digesta samples were collected on an hourly basis for a total of 12 h. Subsequently. N and marker contents were determined in the samples. The postprandial patterns of N and Cr passage were more similar than those of N and HCl-insoluble ash. Therefore Cr2O3 is more suitable as a marker than HCl-insoluble ash. The apparent ileal CP digestibility coefficient of ration B2 derived using Cr2O3 as a marker was significantly (P < 0.05) higher by 0.018 compared with the value obtained using HCl-insoluble ash. The corresponding values for ration E2 obtained using Cr2O3 and HCl-insoluble ash were both 0.825. In Expt 2, apparent ileal DM and CP digestibilities were determined in eighteen rations using twelve barrows also fitted with PVTC cannulas (BW from 40 to 100 kg). The protein sources for these rations were from different groups of feedstuffs. In four and three of the rations apparent ileal DM and CP digestibilities respectively were significantly different (P < 0.05) when assessed using the two markers. The digestibility coefficients were not systematically higher or lower for either marker. Absolute differences were < 0.049 on average. Significant effects of live weight on apparent ileal CP digestibilities were found.
Nutritional Quality of Proteins
European Dairy Association (1997) Nutritional Quality of Proteins. European Dairy Association, Brussels, Belgium.
Energy and Protein Requirements
FAO/WHO/Ú NU Expert Consultation (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. Technical Report Series 724. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition. W-Gmbh Volkswirtschaftlicher Verlag, Mü nchen
  • E Renner
Renner, E. (1983) Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition. W-Gmbh Volkswirtschaftlicher Verlag, Mü nchen, pp. 90 -130.
Use of amino acid composition data to predict protein nutritive value for children with specific reference to new estimates of their essential amino acid requirements
  • B Torun
  • O Pineda
  • F E Viteri
  • G Arroyave
Torun, B., Pineda, O., Viteri, F. E. & Arroyave, G. (1981) Use of amino acid composition data to predict protein nutritive value for children with specific reference to new estimates of their essential amino acid requirements. In: Protein Quality in Humans (Bodwell, C. E., Adkins, J. S. & Hopkins, D. T., eds.), pp. 374 -393. AVI Publishing Company, Westport, CT.